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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(9-10): 6009-6033, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35128978

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to examine the association of family polyvictimization in childhood with the victimization or perpetration of spousal abuse and the perpetration of child abuse in adulthood. While associations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent perpetration or victimization in adulthood are well documented, their association with polyvictimization in childhood (i.e., experiencing multiple types of victimization) has received less attention. This research aims to empirically investigate 1) whether early experiences of family polyvictimization are predictive of subsequent experience or spousal abuse or perpetration of child abuse and 2) whether there are gender differences in those associations. Through conducting Chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis with South Korea's National Domestic Violence Survey 2019, the study found significant empirical evidence that polyvictimization is predictive of perpetration or experience of spousal abuse and perpetration of child abuse. Particularly, adults who experienced polyvictimization in childhood were more likely to perpetrate child abuse regardless of the type of abuse (p < .001). Polyvictimization in childhood was also significantly associated with perpetration and victimization of spousal abuse (p < .001). In regard to gender differences, this study found that males were more likely to be polyvictimized by family in childhood (15.11%) than females (10.23%), and polyvictimization was found to increase the likelihood of females being revictimized in adulthood. More attention should be paid to victimization by multiple types of violence within the family and its influence on intergenerational transmission of violence.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência
3.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(7-8): NP5367-NP5393, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066329

RESUMO

There has been increased interest in the subjective experiences of participants of community partner abuse intervention programs (PAIPs). In the context of high attrition rates, qualitative research is needed to understand the factors associated with sustained engagement and dropout. Using a community nonmandated PAIP, the current study is a rare investigation of the experiences of both completers and noncompleters. We explored the differences between completers' and noncompleters' perceptions of the treatment process, the reasons for sustained program engagement, and the perceived outcomes of treatment. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 14 participants: nine completers and five noncompleters. The majority of participants were referred by children's social care and were unemployed at the time of interview. The interviews were conducted by research staff independent from the treatment-providing organization. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) Treatment as Challenging Yet Enlightening, (b) the Importance of a Well-timed and Safe Therapeutic Environment, and (c) Improved Emotional Self-Management Due to Treatment. Results highlighted how structured individualized sessions, underpinned by a strong therapeutic alliance with facilitators, helped participants increase their interpersonal problem-solving and communication skills. The study reinforced the importance of developing a therapeutic alliance and providing structured individualized treatment characterized by flexibility and accessibility. Noncompletion was perceived as related to known risk factors and treatment readiness. Therefore, it may be beneficial to employ screening measures to monitor these factors. Future research should use larger, more diverse samples to further investigate subjective experiences of PAIP completers and, particularly, noncompleters to enhance the limited literature in this area.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Criança , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia
4.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(1-2): NP851-NP877, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401142

RESUMO

Because of the high rates and deleterious consequences of sexual assault (SA) and partner abuse (PA) on college campuses, there is a proliferation of programming to both prevent and respond to these issues. Most research to date, however, presents outcome evaluation data on these programs and neglects to present process evaluation data which are critical for program refinement and dissemination. The purpose of this study was to present process evaluation data (i.e., acceptability and feasibility) specific to a program that endeavored to increase positive and decrease negative social reactions from disclosure recipients to individuals disclosing SA and PA. Participants were 303 students who completed the program and participated in postintervention surveys and a subset of students (n = 18) who completed exit interviews. Results documented that the program was both feasible and acceptable, as evidenced by high satisfaction ratings. Important suggestions were also provided for how to improve the program, such as reducing repetition and making scenarios more realistic. Finally, participants who reported higher program engagement and more program usage generally reported more intentions to provide positive social reactions, less intentions to provide negative social reactions, and less actual negative social reactions. This information is useful not only for adapting the current program discussed herein but also for program developers and preventionists wishing to create similar programming to effectively prevent and improve response to SA and PA.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Revelação , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
5.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(1): 69-77, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women deprives women of their rights to enjoy equality, security, dignity, self-worth and fundamental freedoms and devalues them; is one of the most significant social facts that force women to exist at a lower social level than men and constitute a significant obstacle to the formation of healthy societies. This study was conducted to determine the status of exposure to spousal violence of 15 years and older married women living in the city center. METHODS: Family health centers in Elazig Province were visited and 792 married women were selected from the related records by systematic sampling. As a data collection tool, a questionnaire form was used. The questionnaire consists of two parts. In the first part, participants were asked about demographic characteristics such as age, gender, education level, and profession, while in the second part, questions were asked to determine the extent of exposure to violence. Questionnaires were filled out using interview technique by making home visits. RESULTS: It has been found that the low level of education of the wife and her spouse, perception of the economic situation of the family as being bad, and the fact that the woman does not work in an income-generating business can be an important factor in exposing to both physical violence and economic violence by her husband. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: Rate of exposure to spousal violence is high in married women living in the city center of Elazig Province. Education and services should be provided for solving the problem at individual, familial, and social levels.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Violência
6.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 402, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women is a major, complex, multidimensional and widespread public health concern worldwide. The current qualitative study was conducted to understand the experience of violence among HIV negative married women in heterosexual serodiscordant relationships. METHODS: A qualitative description (QD) was conducted from October 2018 to January 2020 in Mashhad, Iran. The participants were 15 HIV negative women, who married and lived with HIV positive men, through purposive sampling method. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Data analyzed using conventional content analysis adopted by Graneheim and Lundman. RESULTS: The main overarching theme emerged entitled: life loaded with threat and vulnerability. This theme consisted of four categories of self-directed violence, intimate partner violence, cultural violence and structural violence. The violence began soon after awareness of husband's infection with acts such as suicide attempts and a sense of abhorrence for living with an infected person, and continued with confrontation with various types of violence in the family and society, which put women in constant threat and vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided an insight into different aspects of violence in Iranian women in HIV serodiscordant relationships. Considering the role of men in the occurrence of violence, policymakers must create and execute family-centered interventions to address attitudes and behaviors that lead to marital conflicts and spousal abuse in order to prevent violence. Health care professionals should also be trained to screen women for violence and refer those who require care to specialists to reduce vulnerability.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Casamento
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 82, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: domestic abuse against women is very common globally and has far-reaching consequences on the society. Therefore, it is essential to deeply study the seriousness of this public health issue among our pregnant women. The objectives were to determine the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of domestic abuse among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria. METHODS: a cross-sectional study of 400 consenting pregnant women at the antenatal clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku-Ozalla, Nigeria. Each woman completed a modified abuse assessment screen structured questionnaire. Data analysis was descriptive and inferential with Chi-square and multivariate binary logistic regression using SPSS version 21. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: a total of 172 out of 400 respondents (43.0%) had ever experienced domestic abuse in their pregnancies. One hundred and ten (37.2%; 110/296) of the multigravid women were abused in previous pregnancies while 137 (34.3%; 137/400) of all respondents were being abused in the current pregnancy. For all pregnancies, the most common type of abuse experienced by the respondents was verbal abuse (85.5%; 147/172), while the commonest perpetrators of abuse were the respondents´ spouses for both the index pregnancy (82.5%; 113/137) and previous pregnancies (84.5%; 93/110). The most common women perceived cause of abuse was financial constraints (68.6%; 118/172). Age less than 25 years (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.01-3.76, p=0.048), not having tertiary education (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.17 - 3.25, p=0.01), having at least a male child (AOR=3.3, 95% CI=1.71 - 6.40, p=<0.001), and maternal unemployed status (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.27 - 3.19, p=0.003) were the identified predictors among women abused in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: the prevalence of domestic abuse was high among pregnant women in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria. The predominant women perceived cause of domestic abuse was financial constraints while age less than 25 years, not having tertiary education, having at least a male child, and maternal unemployed status were the predictors in abused women. Domestic abuse poses a great threat to women´s reproductive health, and so, its screening should be incorporated into antenatal care in our environment.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive coercion and abuse is a major public health issue, with significant effects on the health and well-being of women. Reproductive coercion and abuse includes any form of behaviour that intentionally controls another person's reproductive choices. The aim of this qualitative evidence synthesis is to explore women's experiences of reproductive coercion and abuse globally, to broaden understanding of the different ways reproductive coercion and abuse is perpetrated, perceived and experienced across settings and socio-cultural contexts. METHOD: We searched Medline, CINAHL and Embase for eligible studies from inception to 25th February 2021. Primary studies with a qualitative study design that focused on the experiences and perceptions of women who have encountered reproductive coercion and abuse were eligible for inclusion. Titles and abstracts, and full texts were screened by independent reviewers. We extracted data from included studies using a form designed for this synthesis and assessed methodological limitations using CASP. We used Thomas and Harden's thematic analysis approach to analyse and synthesise the evidence, and the GRADE-CERQual approach to assess confidence in review findings. RESULTS: We included 33 studies from twelve countries in South Asia, the Asia Pacific, North America, South America, Africa and Europe. Most studies used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to discuss women's experiences of reproductive coercion and abuse. Reproductive coercion and abuse manifested in a range of behaviours including control of pregnancy outcome, pregnancy pressure or contraceptive sabotage. There were a range of reasons cited for reproductive coercion and abuse, including control of women, rigid gender roles, social inequalities and family pressure. Women's different responses to reproductive coercion and abuse included using covert contraception and feelings of distress, anger and trauma. Across contexts, perpetration and experiences of reproductive coercion and abuse were influenced by different factors including son preferences and social exclusion. CONCLUSIONS: We reflect on the importance of socio-cultural factors in understanding the phenomenon of reproductive coercion and abuse and how it affects women, as well as how the mechanisms of power and control at both individual and societal levels work to perpetuate the incidence of reproductive coercion and abuse against women.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Coerção , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 382, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, one in three women experienced domestic violence. Alike the scenario observed in India, and a very few studies talk about violence and its consequences on women's health. Hence, the purpose of this study is to access the level of various types of spousal violence in India and to understand the association between physical, sexual and emotional violence against ever-married women by their husbands. The study further examines the consequences of spousal violence on women's health in terms of adverse pregnancy outcomes and reproductive health in India. METHODS: The study uses secondary data from National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4, 2015-16). The analysis was based on a sample of ever-married women aged 15-49 years. Bivariate descriptive analysis and multiple regression analyses have been carried out to understand the association between spousal violence and its consequences on women's health. RESULTS: The study finds that the physical, sexual and emotional violence experienced by ever-married women in India are 29.8%, 13.8% and 7.0%, respectively. Further, the physical and sexual violence experienced by women have a significant association with an unwanted pregnancy, abortion, miscarriages and ever had termination of pregnancies. The regression analysis shows that violence by sexual partners among battered women increased the likelihood of unwanted pregnancy. Similarly, abortion and ever had a termination of pregnancies are also adversely affected by partner violence. Further, the risk of sexually transmitted infection increases 77% by sexual violence and 44% by emotional violence among battered women. Also, Sexual violence substantially increases the risk of prolonged labour during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that one in three women experiencing violence by their husband and also it is evident that various forms of spousal violence adversely affect pregnancies outcomes and reproductive health among battered women compared to not battered.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco
10.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 4870994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhea remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Women empowerment reduces child mortality, and wife beating attitude is one of the indicators of women empowerment. There is a dearth of evidence about wife beating attitudes and childhood diarrhea in SSA. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the association between attitude towards wife beating and diarrhea among under-five children. METHODS: We used Demographic and Health Surveys from 25 countries in SSA that were conducted between 2010 and 2020. Using Stata version 14 software, we carried out the analysis on 153,864 children under five. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied, and the results were presented using adjusted odd ratios (aOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The pooled results show that 71.4% of married women disagreed with wife beating. About 20.5% of under-five children of married women had diarrhea. Childhood diarrhea varied from highest prevalence in Chad (27.9%) to the lowest prevalence in Sierra-Leone (8.5%). The study showed lower odds of diarrhea among children of married women who disagreed with wife beating (aOR = 0.66 95% CI; 0.54-0.80) compared to children of married women who agreed with wife beating. Moreover, the study results show that women's age (35-39 years-aOR = 0.48, 95% CI; 0.31-0.74, 40-44 years-aOR = 0.57, 95% CI; 0.35-0.93, 45-49 years-aOR = 0.35, 95% CI; 0.16-0.79) was negatively associated with childhood diarrhea, while husband's education (primary school-aOR = 1.36, 95% CI; 1.05-1.77), parity (ever born 3-4 children-aOR = 1.36, 95% CI; 1.09-1.70, and 5+ children-aOR = 1.56, 95% CI; 1.14-2.12), and religion (Muslim-aOR = 3.56, 95% CI; 1.44-8.83) were positively associated with diarrhea among under-five children. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows association between women attitude towards wife beating and childhood diarrhea. Therefore, empowering women, especially young women by increasing awareness about domestic violence, their rights, and empowering them through education and economic advancement need to be considered in order to reduce childhood diarrhea. Moreover, fertility control or birth spacing and working closely with religious leaders are important factors to consider in reducing childhood diarrhea.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diarreia/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Diarreia Infantil/psicologia , Empoderamento , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In April 2020, the United Nations predicted that the COVID-19 pandemic will have a 'calamitous' impact on the lives of women. This was based on concerns about an upsurge in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) arising from increased opportunities for relational conflict due to forced co-existence and therefore additional time spent with abusive partners. AIM: Research has shown an increase in IPV during times of crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated unprecedented circumstances and stress, and opportunities to do research to understand whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacted on IPV experiences were limited. Thus, the present study aimed to understand women's experiences of being in and leaving an abusive relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Individual, telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 women living in domestic violence shelters within three Provinces during South Africa's lockdown period. RESULTS: Findings reveal that the public health measures implemented by the South African Government to curb the spread of the virus, may have placed vulnerable groups at increased risk of violence. Specifically, lockdown likely magnified the risk for escalation of abuse in families already experiencing IPV prior to COVID-19. The study highlights an IPV and COVID-19 relationship, showing that the gender insensitive pandemic control measures, such as stay at home orders and travel restrictions, likely placed women at risk of increased abuse. Given the recurrency of COVID-19 epidemic waves, attention must be given to gender disparities or many South African women may experience worse outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study reminds us that being ordered to stay at home is not always the safest option for women and thus, in a country with one of the highest levels of GBV, it becomes imperative to ensure that IPV safeguards are integrated into COVID-19 measures. It also becomes evident that COVID-19 requires enhanced ways of responding by paying attention to gender disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Adulto , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/tendências , Adulto Jovem
12.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9980268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557058

RESUMO

Evidence from demographic and health surveys in various countries and Ethiopia too showed that more women are generally believed to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) than men do. An attitude that justifies IPV is one of the factors affecting victimization and perpetration from IPV. However, women's justification about the violence and factors affecting the justification are not well documented, particularly by addressing household factors such as household food conditions. Therefore, the present study aims to fill this gap among married women of childbearing age so that evidence can be drawn for holistic interventions. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 696 currently married women of childbearing age (15-49) by using a multistage cluster sampling technique to obtain the women from 11 kebeles (the smallest administrative unit in the government structure of Ethiopia) of Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was performed using IBM SPSS version 20. The odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval was used to show the degree of association between the outcome variable and explanatory variables. Nearly two-thirds (59.5%) of the study women justified wife-beating in at least one of the five conditions. A higher odds of justification of wife-beating was observed among women whose marriage was arranged by any other person than the couples themselves, from food-insecure households, with a family size of 5 and above, in the age group of 30-39 years, and whose partner was in the age range of 31-39 years. In contrast, lower odds of justification of wife-beating was observed among women having an age difference of 10 or more years with their partner and those in a household wealth index of middle and higher category. Despite great efforts in realizing gender equality in the country, a higher proportion of women were having the attitude that justifies wife-beating in the five conditions specified to them. Interventions targeting the improvement of women's attitude towards wife-beating should target against the traditional norms of arranged marriage, improve household food conditions, and decrease family size.


Assuntos
Casamento , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1733, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with harmful consequences. In Australia, there is no national standard screening tool and screening practice is variable across states. The objectives of this study were to assess in the antenatal healthcare setting: i) the validity of a new IPV brief screening tool and ii) women's preference for screening response format, screening frequency and comfort level. METHODS: One thousand sixty-seven antenatal patients in a major metropolitan Victorian hospital in Australia completed a paper-based, self-administered survey. The survey included four screening items about whether they were Afraid/Controlled/Threatened/Slapped or physically hurt (ACTS) by a partner or ex-partner in the last 12 months; and the Composite Abuse Scale (reference standard). The ACTS screen was presented firstly with a binary yes/no response format and then with a five-point ordinal frequency format from 'never' (0) to 'very frequently' (4). The main outcome measures were test statistics of the four-item ACTS screening tool (sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and area under the curve) against the reference standard and women's screening preferences. RESULTS: Twelve-month IPV prevalence varied depending on the ACTS response format with 8% (83) positive on ACTS yes/no format, 12.8% (133) positive on ACTS ordinal frequency format and 10.5% (108) on the reference Composite Abuse Scale. Overall, the ACTS screening tool demonstrated clinical utility for the ordinal frequency format (AUC, 0.80; 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.85) and the binary yes/no format (AUC, 0.74, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.79). The frequency scale (66%) had greater sensitivity than the yes/no scale (51%). The positive and negative predictive values were 56 and 96% for the frequency scale and 68 and 95% for the yes/no scale. Specificity was high regardless of screening question response options. Half (53%) of the women categorised as abused preferred the yes/no scale. Around half of the women (48%, 472) thought health care providers should ask pregnant women about IPV at every visit. CONCLUSIONS: The four-item ACTS tool (using the frequency scale and a cut-off of one on any item) is recommended for written self-administered screening of women to identify those experiencing IPV to enable first-line response and follow-up.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473746

RESUMO

This paper examines the scope and characteristics of male-to-female intimate partner violence in southern rural Chiapas, Mexico, and its association with depression and anxiety symptoms, highlighting the role of partner controlling behaviors. Participants were selected by random sampling. One-hundred and forty-one women >15 years participated in the study. Data was obtained through an adapted version of the National Survey of the Dynamics of Household Relationships (ENDIREH) intimate partner violence scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression symptoms and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety symptoms. Quantitative results indicated a 66.4% lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual IPV among ever-partnered women 15 years or older (95% CI: 57.5-74.5%). Forty percent (95% CI: 32.0-49.7%) of them reported having experienced physical and/or sexual violence with high partner control (HC-IPV), and 25.8% (95% CI: 18.5-34.3%) reported having experienced physical and/or sexual violence with low or moderate partner control (MC-IPV). Lifetime experience of HC-IPV was significantly associated with moderate-severe depression symptoms (RR = 5.8) and suicidality (RR = 2.08). While partner alcohol abuse was associated with a 3.06 times higher risk of lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV, 30.9% of women mentioned that their partners were never drunk when violence occurred. Interestingly, high partner alcohol abuse was more frequent among women who reported HC-IPV compared to MC-IPV. Implications for global mental health practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , População Rural , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046164, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identify the proportion of patients attending fracture clinics who had suffered intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past year. DESIGN: Powered cross-sectional study using validated participant self-reported questionnaires. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult trauma patients (no gender/age exclusions) attending one of three Scottish adult fracture clinics over 16-month period (from October 2016 to January 2018). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of participants answering 'yes' to the Woman Abuse Screening Tool question: 'In your current relationship over the past twelve months, has your partner ever abused you physically/emotionally/sexually?' RESULTS: Of 336 respondents, 46% (156/336 known) were women with 65% aged over 40 (212/328 known). The overall prevalence of IPV within the preceding 12 months was 12% 39/336) for both male and female patients. The lifetime prevalence of IPV among respondents was 20% (68/336). 38% of patients who had experienced IPV within the past 12 months had been physically abused (11/29). None of the patients were being seen for an injury caused by abuse. Two-thirds of respondents thought that staff should ask routinely about IPV (55%, 217/336), but only 5% had previously been asked about abuse (18/336). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study worldwide investigating the prevalence of IPV in fracture clinics for both male and female patients. 12-month prevalence of IPV in fracture clinic patients is significant and not affected by gender in this study. Patients appear willing to disclose abuse within this setting and are supportive of staff asking about abuse. This presents an opportunity to identify those at risk within this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Ortopedia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(5): 1064-1069, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care professionals strongly underestimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), and a few of them think that they screen and refer victims appropriately for assistance. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally validate a French version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). METHODS: A multicenter case-control study was performed in the forensic medicine unit of the University Hospital and two offices of the women's rights association in France. Abused and non-abused women self-completed the WAST and a questionnaire assessing their level of comfort in responding to the WAST during the study and during a hypothetical consultation with a physician in primary care. We analyzed the psychometric properties and screening performance of the WAST. RESULTS: Respondent acceptability was very good, with response rates exceeding 95%. The WAST had a good internal consistency (Cronbach α coefficient = 0.95). Its screening performance with a cut-off score of 5 was excellent: area under the ROC curve was 0.99, sensitivity 97.7%, specificity 97.1%, positive predictive value 97.2% and negative predictive value 97.7%. The levels of comfort were significantly lower among abused compared with non-abused women. Both groups of women were more comfortable answering the WAST during the study than in a hypothetical consultation. CONCLUSION: The French version of the WAST was found to be a well-accepted and valid screening tool for routine use in IPV. It may help health care professionals to detect women experiencing abuse early and to refer them more quickly to specific assistance.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França , Humanos , Pesquisa
17.
CJEM ; 23(6): 762-766, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-fatal strangulation is a dangerous mechanism of injury among survivors of intimate partner violence and sexual assault, with inadequate evidence to guide investigation in the emergency department (ED). The primary objective is to identify the proportion of intimate partner violence and sexual assault where non-fatal strangulation occurs, and to describe the sequelae of injuries. METHODS: Health records review of patients treated at the Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP) and/or Trauma Program at a tertiary level hospital between January 2015 and December 2018. Eligible patients were greater than 16 years old, seen by the SAPACP or trauma team for intimate partner violence and sexual assault, and had a non-fatal strangulation injury. Data were abstracted from the standardized assessment completed by the SAPACP nurse. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: We identified 209 eligible cases of non-fatal strangulation, among 1791 patient presentations to the SAPACP. Median patient age was 27 years, and 97.6% were female. Computed tomography (CT) of the head was obtained in 22.5%, and CT angiography (CTA) of the head and neck in 6.2% of cases. Eleven significant injuries were identified. Two cases of vascular abnormalities: internal carotid artery indentation with possible intramural hematoma and possible internal carotid artery dissection. Other injuries included delayed bilateral subdural hematomas, a depressed skull fracture, and six nasal fractures. CONCLUSION: We found over 10% prevalence of non-fatal strangulation in survivors of intimate partner violence and sexual assault. There was a low rate of clinically important injury on the index ED visit secondary to non-fatal strangulation. Severe injury was primarily secondary to concomitant trauma, and utilization of CTA in this cohort was low. Increased awareness is needed among ED physicians regarding the need to consider CTA head and neck.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: La strangulation non mortelle est un mécanisme dangereux de blessures chez les survivants de violence conjugale et d'agression sexuelle, avec des preuves insuffisantes pour guider l'enquête aux services d'urgence (SU). L'objectif principal est d'identifier la proportion de violence conjugale et d'agression sexuelle où survient un étranglement non mortel, et de décrire les séquelles des blessures. MéTHODES: Examen des dossiers médicaux des patients traités au programme de soins pour les agressions sexuelles et les abus de partenaires (SAPACP) et/ou au programme de traumatologie d'un hôpital de niveau tertiaire entre janvier 2015 et décembre 2018. Les patients éligibles avaient plus de 16 ans, étaient vus par le SAPACP ou l'équipe de traumatologie pour des violences entre partenaires intimes et des agressions sexuelles, et présentaient une blessure non mortelle par strangulation. Les données ont été extraites de l'évaluation standardisée réalisée par l'infirmière du SAPACP. Des statistiques descriptives ont été utilisées. RéSULTATS: Nous avons identifié 209 cas éligibles de strangulation non fatale, parmi les 1791 présentations de patients au SAPACP. L'âge médian des patients était de 27 ans, et 97,6 % étaient des femmes. La tomodensitométrie (TDM) de la tête était réalisée dans 22,5 % des cas, et l'angiographie TDM de la tête et du cou dans 6,2 % des cas. Onze blessures significatives ont été identifiées. Deux cas d'anomalies vasculaires : indentation de l'artère carotide interne avec possible hématome intramural et possible dissection de l'artère carotide interne. Les autres blessures comprenaient des hématomes sous-duraux bilatéraux retardés, une fracture du crâne déprimée et six fractures nasales. CONCLUSION: Nous avons constaté une prévalence de plus de 10 % de strangulation non mortelle chez les survivants de violence conjugale et d'agression sexuelle. Il y avait un faible taux de blessures cliniquement importantes lors de la visite aux urgences de référence, secondaires à une strangulation non fatale. Les lésions graves étaient principalement secondaires à des traumatismes concomitants, et le recours à l'angiographie dans cette cohorte était faible. Il est nécessaire de sensibiliser davantage les médecins des urgences à la nécessité d'envisager une angioplastie de la tête et du cou.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Adolescente , Adulto , Asfixia/diagnóstico , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Asfixia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 535, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic violence is a common problem that is related to many serious short-term and long-term health hazards around the world. METHODS: During obtaining the medical history from the participants, the questions used to assess the abuse were derived from the widely used Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Potential risk factors including a variety of socio-demographic and reproductive health-relation indicators were assessed. The influence of violence on the pregnancy outcome was determined by the continuous follow-up till giving birth. RESULTS: 513 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of violence among them was 50.8%. The prevalence of physical, sexual, verbal, and emotional abuse was 30.2, 20, 41.7, and 45.4% respectively. Exposure to violence during pregnancy had significant effects on the women and their pregnancy outcome in the form of development of vaginal infection (P-value =0.036), vaginal bleeding (P-value = 0.008), preterm labour (P-value = 0.003), premature rupture of membrane (P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Violence against pregnant women in Minia Governorate, Egypt is common especially emotional violence and it has many adverse effects on the women and their pregnancy outcome. One of the most important risk factors is the fear of the husband which makes violence a continuous vicious circle.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Exposição à Violência , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324550

RESUMO

Interpersonal violence (IPV) is highly prevalent in the United States and is a major public health problem. The emergence and/or worsening of chronic pain are known sequelae of IPV; however, not all those who experience IPV develop chronic pain. To mitigate its development, it is critical to identify the factors that are associated with increased risk of pain after IPV. This proof-of-concept study used machine-learning strategies to predict pain severity and interference in 47 young women, ages 18 to 30, who experienced an incident of IPV (i.e., physical and/or sexual assault) within three months of their baseline assessment. Young women are more likely than men to experience IPV and to subsequently develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain. Women completed a comprehensive assessment of theory-driven cognitive and neurobiological predictors of pain severity and pain-related interference (e.g., pain, coping, disability, psychiatric diagnosis/symptoms, PTSD/trauma, executive function, neuroendocrine, and physiological stress response). Gradient boosting machine models were used to predict symptoms of pain severity and pain-related interference across time (Baseline, 1-,3-,6- follow-up assessments). Models showed excellent predictive performance for pain severity and adequate predictive performance for pain-related interference. This proof-of-concept study suggests that machine-learning approaches are a useful tool for identifying predictors of pain development in survivors of recent IPV. Baseline measures of pain, family life impairment, neuropsychological function, and trauma history were of greatest importance in predicting pain and pain-related interference across a 6-month follow-up period. Present findings support the use of machine-learning techniques in larger studies of post-IPV pain development and highlight theory-driven predictors that could inform the development of targeted early intervention programs. However, these results should be replicated in a larger dataset with lower levels of missing data.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Dor , Sobreviventes , Violência , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Mulheres Maltratadas , Feminino , Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254005, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Though there are several interventions evaluated over the past 25 years, significant knowledge gaps continue to exist regarding the effective prevention of sexual violence. This study explored the socio-economic and context-specific distinctive characteristics of husbands and wives on sexual autonomy and unwanted sexual experiences of currently married women in India. METHODOLOGY: We have utilized the recent round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4, 2015-16) data for this exploration. The NFHS-4 survey had adopted a stratified two-stage sample design to reach out to the survey households. A total of 63,696 couples are included in the analysis comprising of women of 15-49 years age and men of 15-54 years age. Multivariate techniques have been applied to understand the adjusted effects of socio-economic and demographic variables on control over their sexuality and sexual violence. RESULTS: Uneducated women married to uneducated men experienced more sexual violence and had less control over their sexuality than the other categories. The adjusted multivariate logistic model shows that educated husbands were significantly more likely to exercise control over their educated wives' sexuality (AOR = 0.88; CI:0.78-0.99). Women having older husbands were significantly less likely to be having no-control over own sexuality (AOR = 0.89; CI:0.83-0.95) and experienced sexual violence (AOR = 0.81; CI:0.70-0.95). Women having comparatively more-educated husbands were significantly less likely to experience sexual violence (AOR = 0.62; CI:0.47-0.81). Muslim women were significantly more likely to have no control overown sexuality. SC/ST women were significantly more likely to experience sexual violence (28%). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the factors associated with control over one's sexuality and preponderance to sexual violence: age, education, spouse working status, wealth status, husband's alcohol consumption, women autonomy, decision-making, and freedom for mobility. This study suggests that empowering women with education, creating awareness regarding reproductive health, and addressing their socio-economic needs to help them achieve autonomy and derive decision-making power.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Escolaridade , Casamento , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Autonomia Pessoal , Religião , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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