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1.
Anticancer Res ; 42(12): 5673-5684, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with tumor specificity are being increasingly investigated. Phase I trials are the first step of testing for safety of novel CAR-T therapy to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Several dose escalation methods have been developed over time including rule-based, model-based, and model-assisted designs. The goal of this project is to overview the phase I designs used in current CAR-T trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2021. The search was limited to human studies in the English language using the keywords "CAR-T phase I", "clinical trials", and "full text". RESULTS: One hundred nine papers with at least partial phase I components were included for analysis. 31.2% of the trials used the traditional 3+3 or a variation of said design, and 60.6% did not mention the dose escalation design. The majority of the manuscripts (59.6%) did not report cohort size while 19.3% did not specify the timing of evaluation. Although most of the studies were registered with CT.gov, only 33.9% had any results submitted or posted to CT.gov These trends persisted even in manuscripts published in journals with high impact factors. CONCLUSION: Standardizing the publication criteria and providing basic elements of phase I clinical trials are critical to ensure high quality of manuscripts. With the quick development and high costs of CAR-T cell therapy, adoption of advanced designs such as model-based and model-assisted should increase to improve efficiency of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1024755, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341335

RESUMO

Background: CT053PTSA is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets MET, AXL, VEGFR2, FLT3 and MERTK. Here, we present preclinical data about CT053PTSA, and we conducted the first-in-human (FIH) study to evaluate the use of CT053PTSA in adult patients with pretreated advanced solid tumors. Methods: The selectivity and antitumor activity of CT053PTSA were assessed in cell lines in vitro through kinase and cellular screening panels and in cell line-derived tumor xenograft (CDX) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in vivo. The FIH, phase I, single-center, single-arm, dose escalation (3 + 3 design) study was conducted, patients received at least one dose of CT053PTSA (15 mg QD, 30 mg QD, 60 mg QD, 100 mg QD, and 150 mg QD). The primary objectives were to assess safety and tolerability, to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and the recommended dose of CT053PTSA for further study. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics, antitumor activity. Results: CT053 (free-base form of CT053PTSA) inhibited MET, AXL, VEGFR2, FLT3 and MERTK phosphorylation and suppressed tumor cell angiogenesis by blocking VEGF and HGF, respectively, in vitro. Moreover, cell lines with high MET expression exhibited strong sensitivity to CT053, and CT053 blocked the MET and AXL signaling pathways. In an in vivo study, CT053 significantly inhibited tumor growth in CDX and PDX models. Twenty eligible patients were enrolled in the FIH phase I trial. The most common treatment-related adverse events were transaminase elevation (65%), leukopenia (45%) and neutropenia (35%). DLTs occurred in 3 patients, 1/6 in the 100 mg group and 2/4 in the 150 mg group, so the MTD was set to 100 mg. CT053PTSA was rapidly absorbed after the oral administration of a single dose, and the Cmax and AUC increased proportionally as the dose increased. A total of 17 patients in this trial underwent tumor imaging evaluation, and 29.4% had stable disease. Conclusions: CT053PTSA has potent antitumor and antiangiogenic activity in preclinical models. In this FIH phase I trial, CT053PTSA was well tolerated and had a satisfactory safety profile. Further trials evaluating the clinical activity of CT053PTSA are ongoing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Adulto , Humanos , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Administração Oral
3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(10)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OX40 is a costimulatory receptor upregulated on antigen-activated T cells and constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs). INCAGN01949, a fully human immunoglobulin G1κ anti-OX40 agonist monoclonal antibody, was designed to promote tumor-specific immunity by effector T-cell activation and Fcγ receptor-mediated Treg depletion. This first-in-human study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of INCAGN01949. METHODS: Phase I/II, open-label, non-randomized, dose-escalation and dose-expansion study conducted in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. Patients received INCAGN01949 monotherapy (7-1400 mg) in 14-day cycles while deriving benefit. Safety measures, clinical activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects were assessed and summarized with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients were enrolled; most common tumor types were colorectal (17.2%), ovarian (8.0%), and non-small cell lung (6.9%) cancers. Patients received a median three (range 1-9) prior therapies, including immunotherapy in 24 patients (27.6%). Maximum tolerated dose was not reached; one patient (1.1%) receiving 350 mg dose reported dose-limiting toxicity of grade 3 colitis. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 45 patients (51.7%), with fatigue (16 (18.4%)), rash (6 (6.9%)), and diarrhea (6 (6.9%)) being most frequent. One patient (1.1%) with metastatic gallbladder cancer achieved a partial response (duration of 6.3 months), and 23 patients (26.4%) achieved stable disease (lasting >6 months in one patient). OX40 receptor occupancy was maintained over 90% among all patients receiving doses of ≥200 mg, while no treatment-emergent antidrug antibodies were detected across all dose levels. Pharmacodynamic results demonstrated that treatment with INCAGN01949 did not enhance proliferation or activation of T cells in peripheral blood or reduce circulating Tregs, and analyses of tumor biopsies did not demonstrate any consistent increase in effector T-cell infiltration or function, or decrease in infiltrating Tregs. CONCLUSION: No safety concerns were observed with INCAGN01949 monotherapy in patients with metastatic or advanced solid tumors. However, tumor responses and pharmacodynamic effects on T cells in peripheral blood and post-therapy tumor biopsies were limited. Studies evaluating INCAGN01949 in combination with other therapies are needed to further evaluate the potential of OX40 agonism as a therapeutic approach in patients with advanced solid tumors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02923349.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Receptores OX40
4.
Stat Med ; 41(29): 5753-5766, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259523

RESUMO

The growing interest in new classes of anti-cancer agents, such as molecularly-targeted therapies and immunotherapies with modes of action different from those of cytotoxic chemotherapies, has changed the dose-finding paradigm. In this setting, the observation of late-onset toxicity endpoints may be precluded by treatment and trial discontinuation due to disease progression, defining a competing event to toxicity. Trial designs where dose-finding is modeled in the framework of a survival competing risks model appear particularly well-suited. We aim to provide a phase I/II dose-finding design that allows dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) outcomes to be delayed or unobserved due to competing progression within the possibly long observation window. The proposed design named the Survival-continual reassessment method-12, uses survival models for right-censored DLT and progression endpoints. In this competing risks framework, cause-specific hazards for DLT and progression-free of DLT were considered, with model parameters estimated using Bayesian inference. It aims to identify the optimal dose (OD), by minimizing the cumulative incidence of disease progression, given an acceptable toxicity threshold. In a simulation study, design operating characteristics were evaluated and compared to the TITE-BOIN-ET design and a nonparametric benchmark approach. The performance of the proposed method was consistent with the complexity of scenarios as assessed by the nonparametric benchmark. We found that the proposed design presents satisfying operating characteristics in selecting the OD and safety.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Teorema de Bayes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 258, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current dose-finding designs for phase I clinical trials can correctly select the MTD in a range of 30-80% depending on various conditions based on a sample of 30 subjects. However, there is still an unmet need for efficiency and cost saving. METHODS: We propose a novel dose-finding design based on Bayesian stochastic approximation. The design features utilization of dose level information through local adaptive modelling and free assumption of toxicity probabilities and hyper-parameters. It allows a flexible target toxicity rate and varying cohort size. And we extend it to accommodate historical information via prior effective sample size. We compare the proposed design to some commonly used methods in terms of accuracy and safety by simulation. RESULTS: On average, our design can improve the percentage of correct selection to about 60% when the MTD resides at a early or middle position in the search domain and perform comparably to other competitive methods otherwise. A free online software package is provided to facilitate the application, where a simple decision tree for the design can be pre-printed beforehand. CONCLUSION: The paper proposes a novel dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Applying the design to future cancer trials can greatly improve the efficiency, consequently save cost and shorten the development period.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável
6.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 122: 106931, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174958

RESUMO

In oncology, dose-finding studies are largely performed only in Phase I clinical trials and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), a dose initially developed for systemic chemotherapies, is by default selected for the Phase 3 confirmatory trial. With the advent of anti-cancer therapies such as molecular targeted agents and immunotherapies, a paradigm shift is underway from the use of conventional MTD approaches to improved dose selection strategies for oncology programs. In response to this new challenge, new study designs are needed to optimize dose selection while still bring life-changing new therapies to patients as soon as possible. In this paper, we propose a 2-in-1 adaptive design starting with a Phase 2 trial with randomized evaluation of multiple doses and only select one dose to expand to a Phase 3 trial if efficacy evidence is observed based on an interim evaluation. The lowest dose will be selected if multiple doses show promising efficacy unless the higher dose demonstrates a more compelling treatment effect, and study will be seamlessly expanded to a Phase 3 trial with the selected dose with patients enrolled in the Phase 2 portion also used for the statistical inference in the Phase 3 portion. The overall Type I error can be controlled under a mild assumption. Simulation studies are conducted to confirm the control of Type I error and to demonstrate the desirable operating characteristics of the proposed design.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Oncologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Simulação por Computador , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Teorema de Bayes
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 175: 125-135, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A phase 1a first-in-human study evaluated the safety/tolerability, preliminary antitumour activity and pharmacokinetics of the oral MEK1/2 inhibitor FCN-159 in Chinese patients with advanced, NRAS-mutant melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received a single FCN-159 dose at assigned levels, proceeding to continuous dosing (once daily [QD] for 28-day cycles) if no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred within the next 3 days. Dose escalation was initiated after review of data for the previous dose level. The primary end-point was incidence of DLTs after the first dose. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were enrolled across nine FCN-159 dose groups (0.2-15 mg QD). One DLT occurred: grade 3 folliculitis in the 15-mg group. There was one grade >3 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), death of unknown aetiology (not FCN-159 related). The most common FCN-159-related TEAE was rash (36.4%), and the incidence of grade ≥3 FCN-159-related TEAEs was 15.2%. Antitumour activity at QD doses <6 mg was limited; therefore, efficacy data are presented only for doses ≥6 mg (n = 21). The objective response and clinical benefit rates were 19.0% (four partial responses) and 52.4%, respectively. Median (95% confidence interval) duration of response and progression-free survival were 4.8 months (2.8-not reached) and 3.8 months (1.8-5.6), respectively. FCN-159 exposure increased dose-proportionately; geometric mean terminal half-life was 29.9-56.9 h. CONCLUSIONS: FCN-159 was well tolerated and demonstrated promising antitumour activity at doses ≥6 mg QD in patients with advanced, NRAS-mutant melanoma. The recommended phase 2 dose was 12 mg QD. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03932253. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03932253.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Melanoma , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Melanoma/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas de Membrana , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(30): 3489-3500, 2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095296

RESUMO

This review highlights strategies to integrate dose optimization into premarketing drug development and discusses the underlying statistical principles. Poor dose optimization can have negative consequences for patients, most commonly because of toxicity, including poor quality of life, reduced effectiveness because of inability of patients to stay on current therapy or receive subsequent therapy because of toxicities, and difficulty in developing combination regimens. We reviewed US Food and Drug Administration initial approvals (2019-2021) of small molecules and antibody-drug conjugates for oncologic indications to determine the proportion with a recommended dosage at the maximum tolerated dose or the maximal administered dose, to characterize the use of randomized evaluations of multiple dosages in dose selection, to describe the frequency of dose modifications at the recommended dosage, and to identify case examples that highlight key principles for premarket dose optimization during drug development. Herein, we highlight major principles for dose optimization and review examples of recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals that illustrate how investigation of dose- and exposure-response relationships and use of randomized dose trials can support dose optimization. Although there has been some progress, dose optimization through randomized dose evaluation in oncology trials is not routinely conducted. Dose optimization is essential to ensure that patients receive therapies which maximize efficacy while minimizing toxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Imunoconjugados , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(21): 4634-4641, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CT900 is a novel small molecule thymidylate synthase inhibitor that binds to α-folate receptor (α-FR) and thus is selectively taken up by α-FR-overexpressing tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 3+3 dose escalation design was used. During dose escalation, CT900 doses of 1-6 mg/m2 weekly and 2-12 mg/m2 every 2 weeks (q2Wk) intravenously were evaluated. Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer were enrolled in the expansion cohorts. RESULTS: 109 patients were enrolled: 42 patients in the dose escalation and 67 patients in the expansion cohorts. At the dose/schedule of 12 mg/m2/q2Wk (with and without dexamethasone, n = 40), the most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, cough, anemia, and pneumonitis, which were predominantly grade 1 and grade 2. Levels of CT900 more than 600 nmol/L needed for growth inhibition in preclinical models were achieved for >65 hours at a dose of 12 mg/m2. In the expansion cohorts, the overall response rate (ORR), was 14/64 (21.9%). Thirty-eight response-evaluable patients in the expansion cohorts receiving 12 mg/m2/q2Wk had tumor evaluable for quantification of α-FR. Patients with high or medium expression had an objective response rate of 9/25 (36%) compared with 1/13 (7.7%) in patients with negative/very low or low expression of α-FR. CONCLUSIONS: The dose of 12 mg/m2/q2Wk was declared the recommended phase II dose/schedule. At this dose/schedule, CT900 exhibited an acceptable side effect profile with clinical benefit in patients with high/medium α-FR expression and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ácido Fólico
10.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 31(12): 2310-2322, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031856

RESUMO

In the development of new cancer treatment, an essential step is to determine the maximum tolerated dose in a phase I clinical trial. In general, phase I trial designs can be classified as either model-based or algorithm-based approaches. Model-based phase I designs are typically more efficient by using all observed data, while there is a potential risk of model misspecification that may lead to unreliable dose assignment and incorrect maximum tolerated dose identification. In contrast, most of the algorithm-based designs are less efficient in using cumulative information, because they tend to focus on the observed data in the neighborhood of the current dose level for dose movement. To use the data more efficiently yet without any model assumption, we propose a novel approximate Bayesian computation approach to phase I trial design. Not only is the approximate Bayesian computation design free of any dose-toxicity curve assumption, but it can also aggregate all the available information accrued in the trial for dose assignment. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate its robustness and efficiency compared with other phase I trial designs. We apply the approximate Bayesian computation design to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib trial to demonstrate its satisfactory performance. The proposed design can be a useful addition to the family of phase I clinical trial designs due to its simplicity, efficiency and robustness.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Dose Máxima Tolerável
11.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 134: 105235, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917983

RESUMO

The concept of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) was introduced in the seventies for carcinogenicity testing and was defined as the highest dose inducing clear toxicity, but not mortality by causes other than cancer. As estimation of the MTD in a carcinogenicity study, the highest dose that causes a 10% decrease in body weight compared to control animals over the course of a 90-day study, was formulated as a suitable criterion. This criterion was not seen as indicator of excessive toxicity but as a means to avoid false negative outcomes in a carcinogenicity study, as tumor formation may be reduced when body weight is significantly decreased. The body weight-based MTD criterion, however, turned up in carcinogenicity test guidelines and guidance (e.g., from OECD) as the highest dose that causes a 10% decrease in body weight gain relative to controls. Moreover, the 10% decrease in body weight gain criterion for MTD also ended up in test guidelines and guidances for toxicity endpoints other than carcinogenicity, so outside the context it was intended for. A 10% decrease in body weight gain relative to controls is however not a biologically relevant effect as it corresponds to less than 3% body weight reduction relative to controls in a 90-day study, which is within the normal variation in body weight. It therefore should certainly not be considered as a condition of excessive toxicity. Using the 10% lower weight gain criterion and incorrectly associating it with excessive toxicity has major implications for top dose selection in regulatory safety studies, resulting in tests performed at doses too low to elicit toxicity. This negatively impacts the reliability of studies and their regulatory usability; moreover, it results in a waste of experimental animals, which is ethically highly undesirable. Hence, our plea is to remove this MTD criterion for top dose selection in test guidelines and guidances for toxicity endpoints other than carcinogenicity and to reinstall the original 10% decrease in body weight criterion in test guidelines and guidances for carcinogenicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Aumento de Peso , Animais , Peso Corporal , Testes de Carcinogenicidade/métodos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2200046, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Through Bayesian inference, we propose a method called BayeSize as a reference tool for investigators to assess the sample size and its associated scientific property for phase I clinical trials. METHODS: BayeSize applies the concept of effect size in dose finding, assuming that the maximum tolerated dose can be identified on the basis of an interval surrounding its true value because of statistical uncertainty. Leveraging a decision framework that involves composite hypotheses, BayeSize uses two types of priors, the fitting prior (for model fitting) and sampling prior (for data generation), to conduct sample size calculation under the constraints of statistical power and type I error. RESULTS: Simulation results showed that BayeSize can provide reliable sample size estimation under the constraints of type I/II error rates. CONCLUSION: BayeSize could facilitate phase I trial planning by providing appropriate sample size estimation. Look-up tables and R Shiny app are provided for practical applications.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Tamanho da Amostra
14.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 90(3): 207-216, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965268

RESUMO

There has been increasing attention to dose optimization in the development of targeted oncology therapeutics. The current report has analyzed the dose selection approaches for 116 new molecular entities (NMEs) approved for oncology indications by the US FDA from 2010 to August 2021, with the goal to extract learnings about the ways to select the optimal dose. The analysis showed that: (1) the initial label dose was lower than the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or maximum studied dose (MSD) in Phase 1 for the majority of approved NMEs, and that the MTD approach is no longer the mainstay for dose selection; (2) there was no dose ranging or optimization beyond Phase 1 dose escalation for ~ 80% of the NMEs; (3) integrated dose/exposure-response analyses were commonly used to justify the dose selection; (4) lack of dose optimization led to dose-related PMRs/PMCs in 14% of cases, but 82% of these did not result in change of the initial label dose; and (5) depending on properties of the NME and specific benefit/risk considerations for the target patient population, there could be different dose selection paradigms leading to identification of the appropriate clinical dose. The analysis supports the need to incorporate more robust dose optimization during oncology clinical development, through comparative assessment of benefit/risk of multiple dose levels, over a wide exposure range using therapeutically relevant endpoints and adequate sample size. On the other hand, in certain cases, data from FIP dose escalation may be adequate to support the dose selection.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
15.
ESMO Open ; 7(4): 100530, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is linked to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), with a strong association between LIF expression and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). MSC-1 (AZD0171) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to LIF, promoting antitumor inflammation through TAM modulation and cancer stem cell inhibition, slowing tumor growth. In this phase I, first-in-human, open-label, dose-escalation study, MSC-1 monotherapy was assessed in patients with advanced, unresectable solid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using accelerated-titration dose escalation followed by a 3 + 3 design, MSC-1 doses of 75-1500 mg were administered intravenously every 3 weeks (Q3W) until progression or unmanageable toxicity. Additional patients were enrolled in selected cohorts to further evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics after escalation to the next dose had been approved. The primary objective was characterizing safety and determining the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Evaluating antitumor activity and progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST v1.1, PK and immunogenicity were secondary objectives. Exploratory objectives included pharmacodynamic effects on circulating LIF and TME immune markers. RESULTS: Forty-one patients received treatment. MSC-1 monotherapy was safe and well tolerated at all doses, with no dose-limiting toxicities. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached and the RP2D was determined to be 1500 mg Q3W. Almost half of the patients had treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), with no apparent trends across doses; no patients withdrew due to TRAEs. There were no objective responses; 23.7% had stable disease for ≥2 consecutive tumor assessments. Median PFS was 5.9 weeks; 23.7% had PFS >16 weeks. On-treatment changes in circulating LIF and TME signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling, M1:M2 macrophage populations, and CD8+ T-cell infiltration were consistent with the hypothesized mechanism of action. CONCLUSIONS: MSC-1 was very well tolerated across doses, with prolonged PFS in some patients. Biomarker and preclinical data suggest potential synergy with checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Br J Cancer ; 127(8): 1497-1506, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with poor overall survival (OS). Prior studies suggested incorporation of nab-paclitaxel (A) may improve outcomes in recurrent HNSCC. METHODS: This Phase I study evaluated induction with carboplatin and A followed by concomitant FHX (infusional 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea and twice-daily radiation therapy administered every other week) plus A with cohort dose escalation ranging from 10-100 mg/m2 in recurrent HNSCC. The primary endpoint was maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of A when given in combination with FHX (AFHX). RESULTS: Forty-eight eligible pts started induction; 28 pts started AFHX and were evaluable for toxicity. Two DLTs occurred (both Grade 4 mucositis) at a dose level 20 mg/m2. No further DLTs were observed with subsequent dose escalation. The MTD and recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) of A was 100 mg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: In this Phase I study, the RP2D of A with FHX is 100 mg/m2 (AFHX). The role of re-irradiation with immunotherapy warrants further investigation. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01847326.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Reirradiação , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Hidroxiureia , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Paclitaxel , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia
17.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 90(4): 285-299, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029310

RESUMO

During the last decade, the treatment for many cancer indications has evolved due to intensive clinical research into anti-tumor agents' combination. In most instances, new combination treatments consist of an add-on to the standard of care (SOC), which then demonstrate a substantial gain in efficacy and no detrimental effect in tolerability. In the era of targeted therapies, for which maximum tolerated dose (MTD)-based dosing strategies are no longer applicable, early stage studies exploring new combinations are often conducted in the population of interest, expediting the collection of preliminary safety data, to be promptly expanded to collect preliminary efficacy data. Nevertheless, rule-based dose-finding studies are still a prevailing approach for early stage cancer, especially for chemotherapy (CT)-containing combinations. Pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments play a key role throughout the clinical development of drug combinations, informing potential PK interactions. But most importantly, they allow the development of innovative exposure-response (E-R) models aimed at exploring the contribution of each agent to the overall effect of the combination therapy. This review identifies 81 new drug combinations approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for hemato-oncology during the 2011-2021 period and summarizes the main design features of clinical trials and the role of PK assessments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 90(2): 175-187, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904620

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Irinotecan is a commonly used chemotherapeutic in solid tumor malignancies. Oratecan is an investigational product comprised of encequidar methanesulfonate, a novel minimally absorbed P-glycoprotein pump inhibitor, and irinotecan. This study sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oratecan in patients with advanced malignancies. METHODS: Using a "3 + 3″ dose-escalation design, patients were treated with oratecan on day 1 every 21 days. The irinotecan dose was escalated from 20 to 320 mg/m2. The encequidar methanesulfonate dose was fixed at 15 mg (12.9 mg free base). PK sampling for irinotecan, encequidar and its major metabolites was performed following a single dose of oratecan during cycle 1. Patients were treated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were treated. The MTD was determined to be 280 mg/m2 every 21 days. Irinotecan and SN-38 plasma concentration-time profile showed that irinotecan exposure increased with dose and followed biexponential decay. Nine of 17 patients at oratecan dose levels 200 mg/m2 and above had SN-38 exposures comparable to those with intravenous irinotecan at standard dosing. None of the 35 patients achieved a radiologic response, ten patients had SD for > 8 weeks; the median progression-free survival for all treated patients was 9 weeks (95% CI 8.6-13.9). CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of oratecan was encequidar methanesulfonate 15 mg plus irinotecan 280 mg/m2. Exposure for irinotecan and SN-38 increased with increased dose. Potential antitumor activity was observed at the 280 and 320 mg/m2 dose levels. The safety profile of oratecan was comparable to that of intravenous irinotecan.


Assuntos
Camptotecina , Neoplasias , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Mesilatos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacocinética
19.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 90(3): 217-228, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aurora Kinase A (AKA) inhibition with gemcitabine represents a potentially synergistic cancer treatment strategy via mitotic catastrophe. The feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of alisertib (MLN8237), an oral AKA inhibitor, with gemcitabine was evaluated in this open-label phase I trial with dose escalation and expansion. METHODS: Key inclusion criteria included advanced solid tumor with any number of prior chemotherapy regimens in the dose escalation phase, and advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma with up to two prior chemotherapy regimens. Four dose levels (DLs 1-4) of alisertib (20, 30, 40, or 50 mg) were evaluated in 3 + 3 design with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 in 28-day cycles. RESULTS: In total, 21 subjects were treated in dose escalation and 5 subjects were treated in dose expansion at DL4. Dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 1 of 6 subjects each in DL3 and DL4. All subjects experienced treatment-related adverse events. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 73% of subjects, with neutropenia observed in 54%. Out of 22 subjects evaluable for response, 2 subjects (9%) had partial response and 14 subjects (64%) had stable disease. Median PFS was 4.1 months (95% CI 2.1-4.5). No significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters for gemcitabine or its metabolite dFdU were observed with alisertib co-administration. CONCLUSIONS: This trial established the recommended phase 2 dose of alisertib 50 mg to be combined with gemcitabine. Gemcitabine and alisertib are a feasible strategy with potential for disease control in multiple heavily pre-treated tumors, though gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicity was apparent.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Azepinas , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas
20.
Invest New Drugs ; 40(5): 1001-1010, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802288

RESUMO

Preclinical models suggest anticancer activity of IM156, a novel biguanide mitochondrial protein complex 1 inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). This first-in-human dose-escalation study enrolled patients with refractory advanced solid tumors to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). Eligible patients received oral IM156 every other day (QOD) or daily (QD) and were assessed for safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary signals of efficacy. 22 patients with advanced cancers (gastric, n = 8; colorectal, n = 3; ovarian, n = 3; other, n = 8) received IM156 100 to 1,200 mg either QOD or QD. There were no DLTs. However, 1,200 mg QD was not well tolerated due to nausea; 800 mg QD was determined as the RP2D. The most frequent treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were nausea (n = 15; 68%), diarrhea (n = 10; 46%), emesis (n = 9; 41%), fatigue (n = 4; 18%) and abdominal pain, constipation, and blood lactate increased (n = 2 each; 9%). Grade 3 nausea (n = 3; 14%) was the only grade ≥ 3 TRAE. Plasma exposures increased dose proportionally; mean Day 27 area under the curve (AUC0-24) values were higher following QD administration compared to the respective QOD regimen. Stable disease (SD), observed in 7 (32%) patients (confirmed in 2 [9%]), was the best response. To our knowledge, this is the first phase 1 study of an OXPHOS inhibitor that established a RP2D for further clinical development in cancer. Observed AEs of IM156 were manageable and SD was the best response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Biguanidas/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa
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