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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131016, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507208

RESUMO

A novel dual electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for the rapid and sensitive detection of enrofloxacin (EF) antibiotic in meat. Anti-quinolone antibody was immobilized onto screen-printed dual carbon electrodes via carbodiimide coupling. A new electrochemical probe was synthesized by conjugating difloxacin and aminoferrocene, whose oxidation was measured at + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection principle was based on the competitive binding of this conjugate and free EF on immobilized antibodies. The proposed immunosensor allowed detection of EF at concentrations ranging from 0.005 µg.mL-1 to 0.01 µg.mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.003 µg.mL-1. The immunosensor was stable for at least 1 month at 4 °C and displayed a good specificity for other fluoroquinolones. The new dual electrode design offered an improved accuracy as one electrode was used as negative control. The efficiency of the sensor and the adequacy of the extraction process were finally validated by detecting EF in different meat samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Enrofloxacina , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Carne
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131206, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619635

RESUMO

A DIA-based quantitative proteomic strategy was used to investigate the effects of different cooking procedures (steaming and boiling) on pork meat quality. Results showed that steamed meats had higher redness, cohesion, springiness, but lower lightness, yellowness, shear force, hardness, chewiness and cooking loss than boiled meats. In total of 1608 proteins were identified and 103 proteins exhibited significant difference (fold change > 1.5, P < 0.05). These DAPs mainly involved in protein structure, metabolic enzyme, protein turnover and oxidation stress. ALDOC, PVALB, PPP1R14C, AMPD1, CRYAB and SOD1 were validated as potential indicators of color variations in cooked meat. CFL1, COL1A1, COL3A1, RTN4, NRAP, NT5C3A, and SOD1 might be potential biomarker for texture changes of cooked meats. Moreover, these validated proteins exhibited significant (P < 0.05) correlation with cooking loss and could be serve as candidate predictors for cooking loss changes of meats in different cooking procedures.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Proteômica , Animais , Culinária , Dureza , Carne/análise , Suínos
3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131134, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656920

RESUMO

Widespread use of traditional packaging constitutes a serious ecological problem leading to a shift to biodegradable and compostable materials. The aim of this work is to study the ability of a new biopackaging (BP), based on biodegradable and compostable material, to preserve the quality of organic chicken meat for 14 days in comparison with a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) material. Results showed that the indices of Biogenic Amines (BAs) and the 18 monitored Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have a similar trend in both packaged meats. For example, the total BAs concentration in meat increased from 390 to 961 mg Kg-1 in BP and from 393 to 800 mg Kg-1 in PET, as well as the microbiological counts. The new biopackaging (BP) showed similar properties of non-biodegradable material (PET) to preserve the shelf life of organic chicken meat and it could be used instead of plastic materials to promote a circular economy.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Animais , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/análise
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109461, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742144

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus from retail raw red meat samples and evaluate their enterotoxin gene and antibiotic resistance profiles. A total of 452 retail raw meat samples, including beef (n = 200), sheep (n = 125), and lamb (n = 127) randomly purchased from various supermarkets and butchers in Ankara between July 2019 and November 2020, were tested for the prevalence of S. aureus. The S. aureus strain was identified using morphological and molecular (16S rRNA and nuc gene) methods. Moreover, nine Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes were screened using polymerase chain reaction. Antibiotic resistance of S. aureus was determined using the phenotypic disc diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus among screened samples was 21.23%. Additionally, 65.62% of S. aureus strains contained SE gene regions. The predominant SEs in the S. aureus strains were sea (50.79%), followed by sed (25.39%) and seb (23.80%). However, sec, see, seg, seh, sei, and sej genes were never detected. A substantial proportion (40-100%) of the isolates were found resistant to kanamycin, telithromycin, penicillin G, streptomycin, erythromycin, cloxacillin, ampicillin, pristinamycin, nalidixic acid, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 96.87% of the S. aureus strains. These results show a low prevalence of S. aureus in raw red meat samples in Turkey. However, a high rate of SEA raises serious health concerns. Due to the high levels of MDR observed in this study, there is a need to strictly control antibiotic use in animals in Turkey.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ovinos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Turquia
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109446, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742146

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens is one of the most important foodborne pathogens in developed countries. It causes severe food poisoning outbreaks worldwide, along with mortality and economic losses. Recently, bacteriophages have been investigated as an alternative tool to control pathogenic bacteria in the food industry. In this study, 19 Clostridium perfringens and 6 Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages were isolated from chicken meat. According to host range and stability tests, bacteriophage CPQ1 showed high thermostability and the broadest host range. The electron micrograph image of this bacteriophage suggested that it belongs to the Picovirinae subfamily of the Podoviridae family. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genomic DNA indicated the absence of any antibiotic resistance, toxin, or virulence genes. In broth, CPQ1 showed strong lytic activity with a low MOI of 1, decreasing the OD600 of Clostridium perfringens cell suspension from 0.2 to 0.02 at 37 °C in 2 h. In pasteurized milk and chicken meat, CPQ1 with an MOI of 10 also caused a significant decrease in viable counts of Clostridium perfringens compared to the bacteriophageless control at both 24 °C and 37 °C. This is the first report on the application of bacteriophage to control Clostridium perfringens in foods.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Clostridium perfringens , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Galinhas , Carne , Leite
6.
Food Chem ; 371: 131103, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537608

RESUMO

Hydroxyl radical system combined with GC-IMS and metabolomics were used to assess the effect of oxidation on the formation of volatile flavor emitted from yak meat. The formation of volatile compounds, including heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 2,3-glutaraldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, etc. were promoted by oxidation. Among them, 2,3-pentanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, etc. maybe contributed most to the overall aroma of yak meat, while octanal, nonanal and benzaldehyde maybe related to the formation of off-odor or acidification. Meanwhile, the content of metabolites such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, etc. fatty acids and 3-dehydromangiferic acid, tyrosine were increased or decreased with the time of oxidation. More importantly, the formation of most flavor components in yak meat during the course of oxidation were related to stearidonic acid, acetylleucine, dehydroshikimate, 6-phosphate-glucose etc. differential metabolic components. Moreover, starch and sucrose metabolism (prediction), and amino acid metabolism (enrichment) etc. pathways maybe related with the process of oxidation.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Bovinos , Aromatizantes/análise , Carne , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
7.
Food Chem ; 371: 131112, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537609

RESUMO

Egg yolk contains abundant meat precursors, but its odor is quite different from meat aroma. In this study, the lipids in egg yolk were partly removed by acetone or totally removed by chloroform/methanol, and lutein was removed simultaneously by the solvents. Then, the samples were heated, and the volatiles and aroma profiles were analyzed. The results showed that chicken meat aroma and meat aroma were imitated successfully through the removal of neutral lipids and lutein (acetone-treated) and total lipids and lutein (chloroform/methanol-treated) egg yolk samples, respectively. Finally, additional lutein and tert-butylhydroquinone were employed for validating the inhibiting effects of lutein on lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction, and the results demonstrated that it was lutein rather than lipids or their degradation products that determined the flavor formation. These findings push forward the mechanisms for the formation of meat flavor and provide insights for future manufacturing of meat aroma.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Odorantes , Luteína , Carne/análise , Paladar
8.
Food Chem ; 371: 131075, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543926

RESUMO

The adulteration of meat products has been reported worldwide, and detection of specific peptides through mass spectrometry (MS) is a reliable method for meat species identification. However, the practical application of this method is limited by complicated steps and long reaction time of the traditional sample preparation. Therefore, this paper introduced a convenient and time-saving sample preparation by optimizing the steps of reduction, alkylation, digestion, and purification. With the rapid sample preparation, 35 species-specific peptides for seven species (pig, cattle, sheep, deer, chicken, duck, and turkey) were screened using high-resolution MS, and a rapid LC-MS/MS method was established. The method only takes 3 h from sample receipt to results. The meat species of 20 processed meat products were detected, and three samples were found potentially adulterated. The method is proved to have high sensitivity, specificity, practicability with respect to rapid identification of meat species in meat products.


Assuntos
Cervos , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Food Chem ; 371: 131111, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543928

RESUMO

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is widely used as a traditional spice in the cooking of goat meat (mutton) due to its distinctive flavor and the ability to weaken the "goaty flavor". To investigate the aroma characteristics of stewed mutton with thyme (SMT), four SMT samples prepared using different cooking utensils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Totally, 26 aroma-active compounds (AACs) were determined by GC-MS/O and further quantified. Among these, 20 AACs exhibited odor activity values (OAV) greater than 1. However, no significant differences existed among the four SMTs, which indicated that different utensils had little effect on the aroma profile of SMTs. Aroma recombination and omission experiments results showed that nonanal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal had the greatest contribution to the aroma profile of SMTs. These three compounds, together with dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl-butanal, octanal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-nonenal, methanethiol, hexanal, (E)-2-undecenal, and 1-octen-3-ol, were confirmed as the key aroma compounds in SMTs.


Assuntos
Thymus (Planta) , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Cabras , Carne , Odorantes , Olfatometria
10.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 60-69, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a Utah meat-processing facility and surrounding community. DESIGN/SETTING: During March-June 2020, 502 workers at a Utah meat-processing facility (facility A) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using merged data from the state disease surveillance system and facility A, we analyzed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and worker demographics, work section, and geospatial data on worker residence. We analyzed worker survey responses to questions regarding COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors at work and home. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Facility A workers (n = 1373) with specimen collection dates and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results; (2) residential addresses of all persons (workers and nonworkers) with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (n = 1036), living within the 3 counties included in the health department catchment area; and (3) facility A workers (n = 64) who agreed to participate in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases over time, COVID-19 attack rates, worker characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 test results, geospatially clustered cases, space-time proximity of cases among workers and nonworkers; frequency of quantitative responses, crude prevalence ratios, and counts and frequency of coded responses to open-ended questions from the COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in race (P = .01), linguistic group (P < .001), and work section (P < .001) were found between workers with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Geographically, only 6% of cases were within statistically significant spatiotemporal case clusters. Workers reported using handwashing (57%) and social distancing (21%) as mitigation strategies outside work but reported apprehension with taking COVID-19-associated sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks among workers in congregate settings requires a multifaceted public health response that is tailored to the workforce. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Tailored, multifaceted mitigation strategies are crucial for reducing COVID-19-associated health disparities among disproportionately affected populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Carne , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah/epidemiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132378, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592212

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are considered emerging persistent organic pollutants, which are chemically, thermally, and biologically stable, or degrade to persistent end products. Dietary intake is considered as one of the main human exposure pathways of these chemicals and, having entered the human body, PFASs are not metabolised and accumulate in tissues, while their toxicological properties may cause various health problems. Several studies on the occurrence of PFASs in various food types have been conducted, including the assessment of dietary exposure. The most important sources were fish, meat, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables recently showed relatively high levels of PFASs, and have become a more significant source of PFASs than meat. In 2020, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published an opinion, setting the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 4.4 ng kg-1 b.w. for the sum of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexanesulphonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS). The emphasis in this paper is on the systematization of available information on the distribution of PFASs and their levels in different food, with a special interest in data from the Europe. The current legislation and estimated dietary intakes by the general population are described. While the available information on tolerably daily intakes estimated in a number of European countries often exceeds the newly established EFSA TWI, a critical evaluation of performance characteristics of the reviewed analytical methodologies revealed the insufficient sensitivity of quantification procedures for accurate risk assessment according to the guidelines proposed by EFSA.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Exposição Dietética , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ovos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Carne
12.
Food Chem ; 372: 131245, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624777

RESUMO

The detection of meat fraud and mislabeling in processed meat products is a raising concern for consumers. The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate the potential of protein-based laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method to be used for the identification of beef, chicken, and pork in fermented sausage and salami products. In this respect, bulk protein and protein fractions rich in sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein of sausage and salami products were obtained and subjected to LIBS analysis. LIBS spectrum was evaluated with chemometric methods to classify meat species and determine adulteration ratio by using principal component analysis and partial least square analysis, respectively. Limit of detection values for chicken and pork adulteration in beef sausage were found as 3.68 and 3.83% for myofibrillar fraction, while those values in beef salami were found as 3.80 and 3.47% for sarcoplasmic fraction, respectively.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Lasers , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise Espectral
13.
Food Chem ; 372: 131228, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624782

RESUMO

Meat is considered a highly perishable food, and the interest in developing tools to monitor meat quality products has increased these years. A novel gelatin-ZnO-anthocyanin ternary nanocomposite film is proposed as a sensitive layer to meat quality monitoring in the present work. The incorporation of anthocyanin (ATH) on gelatin-ZnO (G-ZnO) film induced a sensitivity improvement of films towards ammonia vapor according to impedance measurements. G-ZnO-ATH film presented a good response (38.69 %) to the presence of ammonia vapor at 300 ppm. Also, good selectivity for ammonia was observed in the films. G-ZnO-ATH, applied to minced meat's quality monitoring at different storage conditions, showed a good performance, with a significant (p < 0.05) non-linear Spearman correlation between the response and the total volatile basic nitrogen released during meat spoilage for both storage conditions. The results suggest new perspectives in the developed film as a promising nanocomposite material for meat quality monitoring.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Óxido de Zinco , Antocianinas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Gelatina , Carne
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 348-353, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580353

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of zinc in the diet in the form of nano zinc oxide (nano ZnO) on the performance of broilers. A total of 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design into 6 treatments with 8 replicates of 5 chicks each. Treatments comprised of T1- basal diet (BD) without ZnO supplementation, T2- 2.5 ppm ZnO, T3- 5 ppm ZnO, T4- 10 ppm ZnO, T5- 20 ppm ZnO, and T6- 40 ppm inorganic ZnO. The results revealed that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain, feed intake, and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to control and other treatment groups at 42 days of age. All dietary treatments failed to exert any significant (P > 0.05) effect on various carcass parameters (dressing percentage, abdominal fat, giblet yields), serum protein and cholesterol concentrations, and meat quality parameters (water holding capacity and pH) of broiler chicken at 42 days of age. Finally, it could be concluded that supplementation of nano ZnO at 2.5 ppm improved the performance of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óxido de Zinco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
15.
Food Chem ; 371: 131139, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583172

RESUMO

Meat flavor is composed of a complex mixture of volatile compounds developed as a result of heat driven multi-directional reactions. Typical reactions include Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, as well as nitrogenous compounds degradation. Such complex flavor is characterized by a rich variety of volatile species, and to strongly influence consumer's preference. The objective of this review is to holistically dissect the flavor characteristic for cooked meat products with special emphasis on grilling and the factors that affect their production to ensure best quality and or safety levels. The review also highlights different analytical techniques used for the detection of flavor compounds in grilled meat. This comprehensive literature research critically analyze grilled flavor derived from heat mediated reactions, with a special emphasis on key flavors or hazard chemicals and their production mechanism. The various influencing factors i.e., grilling temperature, meat, food components, animal ante-mortem factors and food additives are summarized.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Paladar , Animais , Culinária , Aromatizantes , Reação de Maillard , Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise
16.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
17.
Food Chem ; 372: 131336, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818744

RESUMO

Over the years, food adulteration has become an important global problem, threatening public health safety and the healthy development of food industry. This study established a liquid chromatography-tandem mass (LC-MS/MS) method for accurate identification and quantitative analysis of fox meat products. High-resolution mass was used for data collection, and Proteome Discoverer was used for data analysis to screen fox-specific peptides. Multivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the data obtained from the label-free analysis of different contents of simulated samples. Samples with different contents were distinguished without interfering with each other, suggesting the feasibility of quantitative analysis of fox meat content. The linear correlation coefficient and recovery rate were calculated to determine the fox peptides that can be used for accurate quantification. The established LC-MS/MS method can be used for the accurate identification and quantification of actual samples. In addition, this method can provide technical support for law enforcement departments.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Raposas , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Food Chem ; 372: 131347, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818749

RESUMO

The subcellular distribution of calpain-1 and -2 and the proteolytical activity of myofibril-bound calpains in pork were investigated during 12 days cold storage. The content of sarcoplasmic calpain-1 decreased during storage while myofibril-bound calpain-1 content first increased (P < 0.05) to 17% of that of 12 h-sarcoplasmic calpain-1 on day 6 followed by a gradual decrease with subsequent storage, suggesting that calpain-1 gradually translocated from sarcoplasm to myofibrils during the initial 6 days of postmortem storage. Intact desmin decreased (P < 0.05) after incubation of myofibrils with 0.05 mM Ca2+, and this was more pronounced with 5 mM Ca2+ (P < 0.05). Ca2+ titration curves of day 6 myofibrils showed two distinct proteolytic activities becoming activated in the range 0.03 to 0.06 mM and 0.4 to 0.8 mM Ca2+, respectively. The results suggest that both calpain-1 and calpain-2 binds to myofibrils during storage and subsequently degrade structural proteins including desmin.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Calpaína/genética , Calpaína/metabolismo , Desmina/genética , Desmina/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Proteólise , Suínos
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 113-120, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, 'grass-fed' beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, as well as the duration of grazing, on selected sensory characteristics of beef within a heifer production system was examined. RESULTS: In general, fat from grass-fed cattle was more yellow than fat from similar cattle fed concentrates, whereas muscle from grass-fed cattle was darker than muscle from cattle fed concentrates. At the same carcass weight, muscle from grass-fed cattle had a lower fat concentration than cattle fed concentrates. In the most extreme situation examined, whereby early-maturing heifers were fed concentrates ad libitum from weaning or grazed grass/conserved grass throughout life, until slaughtered at a similar carcass weight (260 kg) and differed in age by 5 months, beef was rated similarly for tenderness and a range of flavours by a trained sensory panel. CONCLUSION: Within the range of beef heifer production systems examined, the sensory characteristics of grass-fed beef do not differ greatly from concentrate-fed beef. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Matadouros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cor , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
20.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108668, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509318
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