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2.
N Z Med J ; 134(1540): 83-88, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482392

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques have developed remarkably since first described. CPR is now both a default treatment and a public expectation. However, anticipated outcomes are not matched by reality. The differences between in- and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests are often not recognised and almost never taught. 'Do Not Resuscitate' orders developed to provide the ability to opt-out of this treatment. Nevertheless, CPR is still inappropriately used in settings where reversibility and likelihood of benefit are not meaningfully considered or discussed with the patient. Further, treatment escalation is a continuum, so resuscitation orders present a false dichotomy of 'do' or 'do not' resuscitate. Asking patients about their goals, and only offering treatments aligned with those goals, allows consideration of the burden of treatment and the likelihood of success. Shared decision models improve communication and patient autonomy. Tools are available to help clinicians with the difficult conversation and document the outcomes. Now, in both our training and practice, it is time to move beyond the stark and often irrelevant choice between CPR and 'Not for Resuscitation'.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Deterioração Clínica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Futilidade Médica , Nova Zelândia , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444562

RESUMO

In clinical trials, futility rules are widely used to monitor the study while it is in progress, with the aim of ensuring early termination if the experimental treatment is unlikely to provide the desired level of efficacy. In this paper, we focus on Bayesian strategies to perform interim analyses in single-arm trials based on a binary response variable. Designs that exploit both posterior and predictive probabilities are described and a slight modification of the futility rules is introduced when a fixed historical response rate is used, in order to add uncertainty in the efficacy probability of the standard treatment through the use of prior distributions. The stopping boundaries of the designs are compared under the same trial settings and simulation studies are performed to evaluate the operating characteristics when analogous procedures are used to calibrate the probability cut-offs of the different decision rules.


Assuntos
Futilidade Médica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Probabilidade
5.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211028577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218711

RESUMO

Critical care is a costly and finite resource that provides the ability to manage patients with life-threatening illnesses in the most advanced forms available. However, not every condition benefits from critical care. There are unrecoverable health states in which it should not be used to perpetuate. Such situations are considered futile. The determination of medical futility remains controversial. In this study we describe the length of stay (LOS), cost, and long-term outcomes of 12 cases considered futile and that have been or were considered for adjudication by Ontario's Consent and Capacity Board (CBB). A chart review was undertaken to identify patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), whose care was deemed futile and cases were considered for, or brought before the CCB. Costs for each of these admissions were determined using the case-costing system of The Ottawa Hospital Data Warehouse. All 12 patients identified had a LOS of greater than 4 months (range: 122-704 days) and a median age 83.5 years. Seven patients died in hospital, while 5 were transferred to long term or acute care facilities. All patients ultimately died without returning to independent living situations. The total cost of care for these 12 patients was $7 897 557.85 (mean: $658 129.82). There is a significant economic cost of providing resource-intensive critical care to patients in which these treatments are considered futile. Clinicians should carefully consider the allocation of finite critical care resources in order to utilize them in a way that most benefits patients.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Futilidade Médica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ontário
6.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 24(3): 378-380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269274

RESUMO

Central venous access is useful for monitoring central venous pressure, inserting pulmonary artery catheter and administering vasoactive drugs in hemodynamically unstable patients. Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion through internal jugular vein may cause major vessel injury, inadvertent arterial catheterization, brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve injury, pneumothorax, and haemothorax. We describe unusual presentation of hemothorax following CVC placement in a patient undergoing vestibular schwannoma excision. The patients' trachea intubated after several attempts during which thiopentone up to 600 mg administered. Thereafter, under ultrasound guidance, an 18G introducer needle placed in the right internal jugular vein but guide-wire did not advance. Meanwhile, the patient became hemodynamically unstable and a CVC placed in right subclavian vein and norepinephrine infused at 0.05 µg/kg/min; simultaneously, 1000 ml normal saline administered through CVC. The hemodynamic instability attributed to thiopentone administered during endotracheal intubation. The surgical procedure cancelled, and the patient shifted to critical care unit (CCU). Mechanical ventilation continued. In CCU, hemodynamic parameters further deteriorated and 0.1 µg/kg/min epinephrine started. Bedside lung ultrasound showed a large collection in pleural space on the right side. Chest radiograph showed a homogenous opacity obliterating costophrenic angle on the right side. A possibility of hemothorax considered, chest tube inserted and 1000 ml sanguineous fluid drained. Blood sample drawn through CVC showed air from proximal and middle lumen but distal lumen drained blood. Another CVC placed in the femoral vein and subclavian vein CVC removed. The vasoactive drug infusion transferred to CVC in femoral vein and 2 units pRBCs transfused. Hemodynamic parameters gradually stabilized and the patient recovered completely.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Futilidade Médica , Veia Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(8): 1137-1143, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256540

RESUMO

Recent reports based on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) showed a wide range of prevalence of inflammatory heart diseases in COVID-19 convalescent athletes ranging from 0.4 up to 15%. These observations had an important impact in the field of sport cardiology opening an intense debate around the best possible screening strategy before the return-to-play. The diagnostic yield of CMR for detecting acute inflammatory disease is undebatable. However, the opportunity to use it in the screening protocol after COVID-19 has been questioned. Current evidence does not seem to support the routine use of CMR and the prescription of CMR should be based upon clinical indication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atletas , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Futilidade Médica , Volta ao Esporte , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(13): 9116-9125, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224045

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early recurrence (ER) is a significant challenge for patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases (CRPM) following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS HIPEC). Preoperative risk stratification for ER would improve preoperative decision making. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study examining patients who underwent CRS HIPEC for CRPM from 2000 to 2018. Optimal definition of ER was determined via minimum p-value approach based on differentiation of post-recurrence survival. Risk factors for ER were assessed in a derivation cohort by uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A predictive score for ER was generated using preoperative variables and validated in an independent cohort. RESULTS: 384 patients were analyzed, 316 (82%) had documented recurrence. Optimal length of post-operative RFS to distinguish ER (n = 144, 46%) vs. late recurrence (LR) (n = 172, 63%) was 8 mos (p<0.01). ER patients had shorter median OS post-CRS-HIPEC (13.6 vs. 39.4 mos, p<0.01). Preoperative BMI (OR 1.88), liver lesions (OR 1.89), progression on chemotherapy (OR 2.14), positive lymph nodes (OR 2.47) and PCI score (16-20: OR 1.7; >20: OR 4.37) were significant predictors of ER (all p<0.05). Using this model, patients were assigned risk scores from 0 to 9. Intermediate (scores 4-6) and high-risk patients (score 7-9) had observed rates of ER of 56% and 79% and overall 2-year survival rates of 27% and 0% respectively. The model showed fair discrimination (AUC 0.72) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow GOF p = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: ER predicts markedly worse OS following surgery. Preoperative factors can accurately stratify risk for ER and identify patients in whom CRS-HIPEC for CPRM is futile.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hipertermia Induzida , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Humanos , Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica , Futilidade Médica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 72-76, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate interfacility transfers are a key component of highly functioning trauma systems but transfer of unsalvageable patients can overburden the resources of higher-level centers. We sought to identify the occurrence and associated reasons for futile transfers within our trauma system. METHODS: Using prospectively collected data from our system database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify patients who underwent interfacility transfer to our American College of Surgeons level I center. Adult patients from June 2017 to June 2019 who died, had comfort measures implemented, were discharged, or went to hospice care within 48 hours of admission without significant operation, procedure, or radiologic intervention were examined. Futility was defined as resulting in death or hospice discharge within 48 hours of transfer without major operative, endoscopic, or radiologic intervention. RESULTS: A total of 1,241 patients transferred to our facility during the study period. Four hundred seven patients had a length of stay less than or equal to 48 hours. Eighteen (1.5%) met the criteria for futility. The most common reason for transfer in the futile population was traumatic brain injury (56%) and need for neurosurgical capabilities (62%). Futile patients had a median age and Injury Severity Score of 75 and 21. The main transportation method was ground 9 (50%) with 8 (44.4%) being transported by helicopter and 1 (5.6%) being transported by both. Combining transport costs with hospital charges, each futile transfer was estimated to cost US $56,396 (interquartile range, 41,889-106,393) with a total cost exceeding US $1.7 million. With an estimated 33,000 interfacility transfers annually for trauma in the United States, the cost of futile transfers to the American trauma system would exceed 27 million dollars each year. CONCLUSION: Futile transfers represent a small but costly portion transfer volume. Identification of patients whose conditions preclude the benefit of transfer due to futility and development of appropriate support for referral will significantly improve appropriate allocation of health care resources. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic; Care management, level IV.


Assuntos
Custos Hospitalares/normas , Futilidade Médica , Transferência de Pacientes/economia , Centros de Traumatologia/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
12.
Stat Med ; 40(21): 4629-4639, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101217

RESUMO

We propose a Bayesian hierarchical monitoring design for single-arm phase II clinical trials of cancer treatments that incorporates the information on the duration of response (DOR) into the monitoring rules. To screen a new treatment by evaluating its preliminary therapeutic effect, futility monitoring rules are commonly used in phase II clinical trials to make "go/no-go" decisions timely and efficiently. These futility monitoring rules are usually focused on a single outcome (eg, response rate), although a single outcome may not adequately determine the efficacy of the experimental treatment. For example, targeted agents with a long response duration but a similar response rate may be worth further evaluation in cancer research. To address this issue, we propose Bayesian hierarchical futility monitoring rules to consider both the response rate and duration. The first level of monitoring evaluates whether the response rate provides evidence that the experimental treatment is worthy of further evaluation. If the evidence from the response rate does not support continuing the trial, the second level monitoring rule, which is based on the DOR, will be triggered. If both stopping rules are satisfied, the trial will be stopped for futility. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed monitoring rules and compared them to those of standard method. We illustrated the proposed design with a single-arm phase II cancer clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of combined treatment of nivolumab and azacitidine in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia. The proposed design avoids an aggressive early termination for futility when the experimental treatment substantially prolongs the DOR but fails to improve the response rate.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Futilidade Médica
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105871, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is a proven therapy for acute large vessel occlusion strokes, futile recanalization in the elderly is common and costly. Strategies to minimize futile recanalization may reduce unnecessary thrombectomy transfers and procedures. We evaluated whether a simple and rapid visual assessment of brain atrophy and leukoaraiosis on a plain head CT correlates with futile stroke recanalization in the elderly. METHODS: Consecutive stroke patients admitted for thrombectomy, older than 65 years of age, all with TICI 2b/3 recanalization rates were retrospectively studied from multiple comprehensive stroke centers. Brain atrophy and leukoaraiosis were visually analyzed from pre-intervention plain head CTs using a simplified scheme based on validated scales. Baseline demographics were collected and the primary outcome measure was 90-day modified Rankin score (mRS). Cochran-Armitage trend test was applied in analyzing the association of the severity of brain atrophy and leukoaraiosis with 90-day mRS. RESULTS: Between 2017 and 2019, 175 patients > 65 years who underwent thrombectomy with TICI 2b/3 recanalization from two comprehensive stroke centers were evaluated. The median age was 77 years. IV-tPA was given in 59% of patients, average initial NIHSS was 19, average baseline mRS was 0.77 and median time to recanalization was 300 minutes. Age and severity of atrophy/leukoaraiosis was categorized into three groups of increasing severity and associated with 90 day mRS 0-3 rates of 62%, 49% and 41% (p=0.037) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A simplified, visual assessment of the degree of brain atrophy and leukoaraiosis measured on plain head CT correlates with futile recanalization in patients age >65 years. Although additional validation is needed, these findings suggest that brain atrophy and leukoaraiosis may have value as a surrogate marker of prestroke functional status. In doing so, simplified visual plain head CT grading scales may minimize elderly futile recanalization.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Leucoaraiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Futilidade Médica , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Trombectomia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Leucoaraiose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 152: 26-40, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: EORTC-1506-STBSG was a prospective, multicentric, randomised, open-label phase 2 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of second-line nintedanib versus ifosfamide in patients with advanced, inoperable metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS). The primary end-point was progression-free survival. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients with a variety of STS subtypes were randomised 1:1 to nintedanib (200 mg b.i.d. p.o. until disease progression) or ifosfamide (3 g/m2 i.v. days 1-3, every 21 days for ≤6 cycles). A Korn design was applied aiming to detect an improvement in median progression-free survival (mPFS) from 3 to 4.5 months (HR = 0.667). An interim look was incorporated to stop the trial for futility if <19 of the first 36 patients treated with nintedanib were progression-free at week 12. RESULTS: At the interim analysis, among the first 36 eligible and evaluable patients randomised for nintedanib, only 13 (36%) were progression-free at week 12. The trial was closed for further accrual as per protocol. In total, 80 patients were randomised (40 per treatment group). The mPFS was 2.5 months (95% CI: 1.5-3.4) for nintedanib and 4.4 months (95% CI: 2.9-6.7) on ifosfamide (adjusted HR = 1.56 [80% CI: 1.14-2.13], p = 0.070). The median overall survival was 13.7 months (95% CI: 9.4-23.4) on nintedanib and 24.1 months (95% CI: 10.9-NE) on ifosfamide (adjusted HR = 1.65 [95%CI:0.89-3.06], p = 0.111). The clinical benefit rate for nintedanib and ifosfamide was 50% versus 62.5% (p = 0.368), respectively. Common treatment-related adverse events (all grades) were diarrhoea (35.9% of patients), fatigue (25.6%) and nausea (20.5%) for nintedanib; and fatigue (52.6%), nausea (44.7%) and vomiting, anorexia and alopecia (28.9% each) for ifosfamide. CONCLUSION: The trial was stopped for futility. The activity of nintedanib did not warrant further exploration in non-selected, advanced STSs.


Assuntos
Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Futilidade Médica , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/efeitos adversos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia
15.
Neurology ; 96(18): e2313-e2322, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether treatment with the generic drug domperidone can reduce the progression of disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), we conducted a phase 2 futility trial following the Simon 2-stage design. METHODS: We enrolled patients in an open-label, Simon 2-stage, single-center, phase 2, single-arm futility trial at the Calgary Multiple Sclerosis Clinic if they met the following criteria: age of 18 to 60 years, SPMS, screening Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 4.0 to 6.5, and screening timed 25-ft walk (T25FW) of ≥9 seconds. Patients received domperidone 10 mg 4 times daily for 1 year. The primary outcome was worsening of disability, defined as worsening of the T25FW performance by ≥20% at 12 months compared to baseline. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02308137). RESULTS: Between February 13, 2015, and January 3, 2020, 110 patients were screened, 81 received treatment, and 64 completed follow-up, of whom 62 were analyzed. The study did not meet its primary endpoint: 22 of 62 (35%) patients experienced significant worsening of disability, which is close to the expected proportion of 40% and above the predefined futility threshold. Patients with higher prolactin levels during the study had a significantly lower risk of disability progression, which may warrant further investigation. Domperidone treatment was reasonably well tolerated, but adverse events occurred in 84% and serious adverse events in 15% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Domperidone treatment could not reject futility in reducing disability progression in SPMS. The Simon 2-stage trial model may be a useful model for phase 2 studies in progressive MS. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02308137. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that in individuals with SPMS participating in a futility trial, domperidone treatment could not reject futility in reducing disability progression at 12 months.


Assuntos
Domperidona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Futilidade Médica , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/epidemiologia
17.
Biom J ; 63(6): 1159-1184, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942894

RESUMO

Basket trials have become a virulent topic in medical and statistical research during the last decade. The core idea of them is to treat patients, who express the same genetic predisposition-either personally or their disease-with the same treatment irrespective of the location of the disease. The location of the disease defines each basket and the pathway of the treatment uses the common genetic predisposition among the baskets. This opens the opportunity to share information among baskets, which can consequently increase the information of the basket-wise response with respect to the investigated treatment. This further allows dynamic decisions regarding futility and efficacy of individual baskets during the ongoing trial. Several statistical designs have been proposed on how a basket trial can be conducted and this has left an unclear situation with many options. The different designs propose different mathematical and statistical techniques, different decision rules, and also different trial purposes. This paper presents a broad overview of existing designs, categorizes them, and elaborates their similarities and differences. A uniform and consistent notation facilitates the first contact, introduction, and understanding of the statistical methodologies and techniques used in basket trials. Finally, this paper presents a modular approach for the construction of basket trials in applied medical science and forms a base for further research of basket trial designs and their techniques.


Assuntos
Futilidade Médica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
18.
J Surg Res ; 265: 139-146, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on what dose of norepinephrine corresponds with futility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the maximum infusion and cumulative doses of norepinephrine associated with survival for patients in medical and surgical intensive care units (MICU and SICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 661 critically ill patients admitted to a large academic medical center who received norepinephrine. Univariate, multivariate, and area under the curve analyses with optimal cut offs for maximum infusion rate and cumulative dosage were determined by Youden Index. RESULTS: The population was 54.9% male, 75.8% white, and 58.7 ± 16.1 y old with 384 (69.8%) admitted to the MICU and 166 (30.2%) admitted to the SICU, including 38 trauma patients. Inflection points in mortality were seen at 18 mcg/min and 17.6 mg. The inflection point was higher in MICU patients at 21 mcg/min and lower in SICU patients at 11 mcg/min. MICU patients also had a higher maximum cumulative dosage of 30.7 mg, compared to 2.7 mg in SICU patients. In trauma patients, norepinephrine infusions up to 5 mcg/min were associated with a 41.7% mortality rate. CONCLUSION: A maximum rate of 18 mcg/min and cumulative dose of 17.6 mg were the inflection points for mortality risk in ICU patients, with SICU patients tolerating lower doses. In trauma patients, even low doses of norepinephrine were associated with higher mortality. These data suggest that MICU, SICU, and trauma patients differ in need for, response to, and outcome from escalating norepinephrine doses.


Assuntos
Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal/terapia , Futilidade Médica , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Transfusion ; 61(7): 2082-2089, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Massive transfusions are associated with a high mortality rate, but there is little evidence indicating when such efforts are futile. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables that could be used as futility indicators in massively transfused patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 138 adult surgical patients at our institution receiving a massive transfusion (2016-2019). Peak lactate and nadir pH within 24 h of massive transfusion initiation, along with other clinical variables, were assessed as predictors of the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The overall rate of in-hospital mortality among our patient population was 52.9% (n = 73). Increasing lactate and decreasing pH were associated with greater mortality among massively transfused patients. Mortality rates were ~2-fold higher for patients in the highest lactate category (≥10.0 mmol/L: 25 of 37; 67.6%) compared to the lowest category (0.0-4.9 mmol/L: 17 of 48; 35.4%) (p = .005), and ~2.5-fold higher for patients in the lowest pH category (<7.00: 8 of 9; 88.9%) compared to the highest category (≥7.40: 8 of 23; 34.7%) (p = .016). Increasing age was also associated with higher mortality (≥65 years: 24 of 33; 72.7%) when compared to younger patients (18-64 years: 49 of 105; 46.7%) (p = .010). CONCLUSIONS: Peak lactate ≥10.0 mmol/L, nadir pH <7.00, and age ≥65 years were significantly associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality among massively transfused patients. Incorporating these clinical parameters into a futility index for massive transfusions will be useful in situations where blood products are scarce and/or mortality may be unavoidable.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactatos/sangue , Futilidade Médica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Departamentos Hospitalares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Surg Res ; 264: 149-157, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care in trauma patients is still evolving. The goal was to compare characteristics, outcomes, triggers and timing for palliative care consultations (PCC) in geriatric (≥65 y.o.) and non-geriatric trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study included 432 patients from two level 1 trauma centers who received PCC between December 2012 and January 2019. Non-geriatric (n = 61) and geriatric (n = 371) groups were compared for: mechanism of injury (MOI), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) orders, futile interventions (FI), duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV), ICU admissions, ICU and hospital lengths of stay (ICULOS; HLOS), timing to PCC, and mortality. Further propensity matching (PM) analysis compared 59 non-geriatric to 59 Geriatric patients matched by ISS, GCS, and DNR. RESULTS: Geriatric patients were older (85.2 versus 49.7), with falls as predominant MOI. Non-geriatric patients comprised 14.1% of all patients with PCC and were more severely injured than Geriatrics: with statistically higher ISS (24.1 versus 18.5), lower RTS (5.4 versus 7.0), GCS (7.1 versus 11.5), with predominant MOI being traffic accidents, all P < 0.01. Non-Geriatrics had more ICU admissions (96.7% versus 88.1%), longer ICULOS (10.2 versus 4.7 days), DMV (11.1 versus 4.1 days), less DNR (57.4% versus 73.9%), higher in-hospital mortality (12.5% versus 2.6%), but double the time admission-PCC (11.3 versus 4.3 days) compared to Geriatrics, all P < 0.04. In PM comparison, despite same injury severity, Non-geriatrics had triple the time to PCC, five times the HLOS of geriatrics, and more FI (25.4% versus 3.4%), all P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: PCC remains underutilized in non-geriatric trauma patients. Despite higher injury severity, non-geriatrics received more aggressive treatment, and had three times longer time to PCC, resulting in higher rate of FI than in Geriatrics.


Assuntos
Futilidade Médica , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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