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2.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 17, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 1 January 2018 a four-year test scheme concerning use of medicinal cannabis (MC) was enacted. It has recently been extended for four more years by the Danish Parliament permitting all Danish physicians to prescribe MC to their patients. Previous studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs) have varying prescription experience, little knowledge, and mixed attitudes about MC. However, the present evidence is still limited, and no studies exist about Danish GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC. Therefore, our aim was to examine Danish GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC. METHODS: A national online survey-based study addressing Danish GPs was performed from September 2018 to July 2019. We performed separate multivariable logistic regression analyses including GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC as outcome variables. RESULTS: A total of 427 (38.4%) of 1112 GPs completed the questionnaire. Of these, 37 (8.7%) had experience in prescribing MC. The majority had little or no knowledge about MC (80.6%) as well as a negative view on prescription of MC (71.4%) to patients. Factors associated with prescribing MC to patients were: Single-handed practices (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1;1.8) and perception of having quite some knowledge about MC (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 2.2;10.4). Factors associated with having quite some knowledge about MC were: having a positive attitude towards prescribing MC (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 1.9;14.0), being male (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4;1.8), and being at least 60 years of age (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3;6.0). Factors associated with having a positive attitude towards prescribing MC were: having quite some knowledge about MC (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 2.2;12.5) and GPs being male (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1;1.9). CONCLUSION: In this first study on prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes about MC among Danish GPs, conducted one year after the Danish test scheme was enacted, we find a very low proportion of prescribers, little knowledge, and an overall negative attitude towards MC. Among the prescribing GPs, four in ten have little to no knowledge and a negative attitude towards MC. We stress that prescribing patterns, knowledge, and attitudes may change throughout the remaining time of the test scheme.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prescrições , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 243: 109760, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real world patterns of cannabis use for health concerns are highly variable and rarely overseen by a physician. Pragmatic effectiveness studies with electronic daily diaries that capture person-specific patterns of cannabis use and health symptoms may help clarify risks and benefits. METHODS: As part of a larger, randomized trial (NCT03224468), adults (N = 181) seeking cannabis for insomnia, pain, or anxiety or depressive symptoms were randomized to obtain a medical cannabis card immediately (MCC) or a waitlist control (WLC) and completed 12-weeks of daily web-based surveys on cannabis use and sleep, pain, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Completion rates of daily surveys were moderate to high (median completed: 72 out of 90 days). Daily reports of cannabis use were consistent with monthly interview assessments and urinalysis. The MCC group increased cannabis use frequency in the 12 weeks following randomization, while WLC did not. Among the MCC group, self-reported sleep quality was significantly higher on cannabis use days, compared to nonuse days. The MCC group displayed long-term sleep improvements, consistent with increasing cannabis frequency. No improvements were found for pain or depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cannabis use is associated with same day improvements in self-reported sleep quality, but not pain or depressive symptoms, although sleep improvements occurred in the context of increased frequency of cannabis use, raising the risk for cannabis use disorder. Daily web-based assessments of cannabis appear valid and feasible in adults seeking cannabis for health concerns, providing a flexible, complementary method for future real-world effectiveness studies with expanded and objective measures.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal , Qualidade do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 10, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Privately-owned cannabis clinics have sprung up in many jurisdictions where medicinal cannabis has been legalised and provide an alternative pathway for patients who are unable or unwilling to access a prescription for cannabis-based medicinal products from their usual healthcare providers. AIMS: This study aimed to explore physicians' views on cannabis clinics, including their perceptions of the role cannabis clinics play in the wider health system. METHODS: A qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with thirty-one physicians affiliated with private and community clinics in New Zealand (including cannabis clinicians, GPs, and specialist doctors). The interviews were conducted from July to December 2021. Data were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Cannabis clinicians positioned themselves as (1) "service providers", facilitating consumer access to cannabis prescriptions and products, and (2) "educators", providing advice to patients and the wider physician community. While general practitioners and specialists recognised the benefits of specialised cannabis clinics (i.e., knowledge of products and a non-judgmental environment), they questioned the limited evidence of clinical efficacy for cannabis, potential financial conflicts of interests of cannabis clinicians that may blur their clinical judgement, and the risk of compartmentalising patients' healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: Our paper raises a number of challenges with attempting to integrate cannabis clinics into the wider health system.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2249797, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607641

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study uses a survey to estimate use of cannabis and other pain treatments among adults with chronic pain in areas with medical cannabis programs in 36 US states and Washington, DC.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Alucinógenos , Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2254573, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716026

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with chronic pain often receive long-term opioid therapy (LOT), which places them at risk of opioid use disorder and overdose. This presents the need for alternative or companion treatments; however, few studies on the association of medical cannabis (MC) with reducing opioid dosages exist. Objective: To assess changes in opioid dosages among patients receiving MC for longer duration compared with shorter duration. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of New York State Prescription Monitoring Program data from 2017 to 2019 included patients receiving MC for chronic pain while also receiving opioid treatment. Of these, patients receiving LOT prior to receiving MC were selected. Individuals were studied for 8 months after starting MC. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Selected patients were divided into 2 groups based on the duration of receiving MC: the nonexposure group received MC for 30 days or fewer, and the exposure group received MC for more than 30 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was opioid dosage, measured by mean daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME). Analyses were conducted for 3 strata by opioid dosage prior to receiving MC: MME less than 50, MME of 50 to less than 90, and MME of 90 or greater. Results: A total of 8165 patients were included, with 4041 (median [IQR] age, 57 [47-65] years; 2376 [58.8%] female) in the exposure group and 4124 (median [IQR] age, 54 (44-62) years; 2370 [57.5%] female) in the nonexposure group. Median (IQR) baseline MMEs for the exposure vs nonexposure groups were 30.0 (20.0-40.0) vs 30.0 (20.0-40.0) in the lowest stratum, 60.0 (60.0-70.0) vs 60.0 (60.0-90.0) in the middle stratum, and 150.0 (100.0-216.2) vs 135.0 (100.0-218.0) in the highest stratum. During follow-up, significantly greater reductions in opioid dosage were observed among the exposure group. A dose-response association of patients' opioid dosage at baseline was observed with the differences in the monthly MME reductions between exposure and nonexposure groups, with a difference of -1.52 (95% CI, -1.67 to -1.37) MME for the lowest stratum, -3.24 (95% CI, -3.61 to -2.87) MME for the middle stratum, and -9.33 (95% CI, -9.89 to -8.77) MME for the highest stratum. The daily MME for the last month of the follow-up period among patients receiving longer MC was reduced by 48% in the lowest stratum, 47% in the middle stratum, and 51% in the highest stratum compared with the baseline dosages. Among individuals in the nonexposure group, daily MME was reduced by only 4% in the lowest stratum, 9% in the middle stratum, and 14% in the highest stratum. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients receiving LOT, receiving MC for a longer duration was associated with reductions in opioid dosages, which may lower their risk of opioid-related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , New York , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica
7.
Drugs Aging ; 40(1): 59-70, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Veterans often struggle with disabling physical and mental health conditions that tend to worsen as they age. Current medications used to treat these conditions include opioids and benzodiazepines though they can have negative side effects. Looking for alternatives to these medications, many older Veterans use cannabis for medical purposes. We aimed to develop a deeper understanding of older Veterans' cannabis use. METHODS: We used maximum variation sampling to select 32 Veterans who had completed baseline and follow-up surveys to participate in semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: After applying a thematic analysis, results show older Veterans are using medical cannabis as a means of harm reduction as an adjunct or substitute for other medications and substances with limited guidance from their healthcare providers. Veterans also reported that there exists an inconsistency across the Veterans Health Administration system regarding the interpretation and application of cannabis policies. CONCLUSIONS: Drawing from these findings, we explore medical cannabis as a harm reduction technique and discuss how a lack of physician engagement and current Veterans Health Administration policies discourage older Veterans from discussing and potentially benefiting from the use of medical cannabis.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Veteranos , Humanos , Veteranos/psicologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Políticas
8.
Life Sci Alliance ; 6(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623871

RESUMO

Autotaxin is primarily known for the formation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine. LPA is an important signaling phospholipid that can bind to six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). The ATX-LPA signaling axis is a critical component in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we describe a potent inhibition of Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of medicinal cannabis and related cannabinoids, on the catalysis of two isoforms of ATX with nanomolar apparent EC50 values. Furthermore, we decipher the binding interface of ATX to THC, and its derivative 9(R)-Δ6a,10a-THC (6a10aTHC), by X-ray crystallography. Cellular experiments confirm this inhibitory effect, revealing a significant reduction of internalized LPA1 in the presence of THC with simultaneous ATX and lysophosphatidylcholine stimulation. Our results establish a functional interaction of THC with autotaxin-LPA signaling and highlight novel aspects of medicinal cannabis therapy.


Assuntos
Dronabinol , Lisofosfatidilcolinas , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Maconha Medicinal , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Dronabinol/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 180: 52-61, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of medical cannabis has rapidly increased among cancer patients worldwide. Cannabis is often administered concomitantly with cancer medications, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). As the cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed and modulate immune cells, it has been hypothesised that cannabis may attenuate the activity of ICIs. We aimed to assess the effect of cannabis on ICIs' efficiency in patients having non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHOD: The murine model of CT26 tumour-bearing mice treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was used to evaluate the interaction between THC and ICIs in vivo. Correlation between use of medical cannabis and clinical outcome was evaluated in a cohort of 201 consecutive metastatic NSCLC patients treated with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment. RESULTS: Median overall survival (OS) of the mice receiving a control vehicle, THC, anti-PD-1 antibody or their combination was 21, 24, 31 and 54 days, respectively (p < 0.05 for the combination treatment compared to a control vehicle), indicating that THC did not reduce the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. Of 201 NSCLC patients treated with first-line monotherapy pembrolizumab for metastatic disease, 102 (50.7%) patients received licence for cannabis within the first month of treatment. Cannabis-treated patients were younger compared to the cannabis naïve patients (median age 68 versus 74, p = 0.003), with female predominance (62, 60.8% versus 34, 34.3%, p = 0.002) and with more prevailing brain metastasis (15.7% versus 5%, p = 0.013). Similar distribution of histology, smoking status, ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) and programmed death-ligand 1 expression was noted between the groups. Liver metastases were marginally significant (19.6% versus 10.1%, p = 0.058). The most common indication for cannabis was pain (71%) followed by loss of appetite (34.3%). Time to tumour progression was similar for cannabis-naive and cannabis-treated patients (6.1 versus 5.6 months, respectively, 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.38, p = 0.386), while OS was numerically higher in the cannabis-naive group (54.9 versus 23.6 months) but did not reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.51, p = 0.08). In multivariate analyses, we did not identify cannabis use as an independent predictor factor for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Preclinical and clinical data suggest no deleterious effect of cannabis on the activity of pembrolizumab as first-line monotherapy for advanced NSCLC. The differences in OS can most likely be attributed to higher disease burden and more symptomatic disease in the cannabis-treated group. These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Maconha Medicinal , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo
11.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(1): 85-98, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) have shown promising preclinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials have not demonstrated effects on inflammation. This study aims to analyze changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adverse events in IBD patients prescribed CBMPs. METHODS: A case series from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry was performed. Primary outcomes included changes from baseline in the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Single-Item Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), and EQ-5D-5L Index score at 1 and 3 months. Statistical significance was defined using p < 0.050. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients with Crohn's disease (n = 51; 67.11%) and ulcerative colitis (n = 25; 32.89%) were included. The median baseline SIBDQ score improved at 1 and 3 months. EQ-5D-5L index values, GAD-7, and SQS also improved after 3 months (p < 0.050). Sixteen (21.05%) patients reported adverse events with the majority being classified as mild to moderate in severity. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CBMPs for refractory symptoms of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis demonstrated a short-term improvement in IBD-specific and general HRQoL. Prior cannabis consumers reported greater improvement compared to cannabis-naïve individuals.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
12.
Sleep ; 45(2)2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546363

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to explore the effectiveness of medical cannabis for impaired sleep. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and PsychINFO to January 2021 for randomized trials of medical cannabis or cannabinoids for impaired sleep vs. any non-cannabis control. When possible, we pooled effect estimates for all patient-important sleep-related outcomes and used the GRADE approach to appraise the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Thirty-nine trials (5100 patients) were eligible for review, of which 38 evaluated oral cannabinoids and 1 administered inhaled cannabis. The median follow-up was 35 days, and most trials (33 of 39) enrolled patients living with chronic cancer or noncancer chronic pain. Among patients with chronic pain, moderate certainty evidence found that medical cannabis probably results in a small improvement in sleep quality versus placebo (modeled risk difference [RD] for achieving the minimally important difference [MID], 8% [95% CI, 3 to 12]). Moderate to high certainty evidence shows that medical cannabis vs. placebo results in a small improvement in sleep disturbance for chronic non-cancer pain (modeled RD for achieving the MID, 19% [95% CI, 11 to 28]) and a very small improvement in sleep disturbance for chronic cancer pain (weighted mean difference of -0.19 cm [95%CI, -0.36 to -0.03 cm]; interaction p = .03). Moderate to high certainty evidence shows medical cannabis, versus placebo, results in a substantial increase in the risk of dizziness (RD 29% [95%CI, 16 to 50], for trials with ≥3 months follow-up), and a small increase in the risk of somnolence, dry mouth, fatigue, and nausea (RDs ranged from 6% to 10%). CONCLUSION: Medical cannabis and cannabinoids may improve impaired sleep among people living with chronic pain, but the magnitude of benefit is likely small.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Dor Crônica , Maconha Medicinal , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono
13.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 22(11-12): 1009-1018, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current paucity of clinical evidence limits the use of cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigates health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes and adverse events in patients prescribed CBMPs for PTSD. METHODS: A case-series of patients from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry was analyzed. HRQoL was assessed at 1-, 3-, and 6-months using validated patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). Adverse events were analyzed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.050. RESULTS: Of 162 included patients, 88.89% (n = 144) were current/previous cannabis users. Median daily CBMP dosages were 5.00 (IQR: 0.00-70.00) mg of cannabidiol and 145.00 (IQR: 100.00-200.00) mg of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Significant improvements were observed in PTSD symptoms, sleep, and anxiety across all follow-up periods (p < 0.050). There were 220 (135.8%) adverse events reported by 33 patients (20.37%), with the majority graded mild or moderate in severity (n = 190, 117.28%). Insomnia and fatigue had the greatest incidence (n = 20, 12.35%). CONCLUSIONS: Associated improvements in HRQoL were observed in patients who initiated CBMP therapy. Adverse events analysis suggests acceptability and safety up to 6 months. This study may inform randomized placebo-controlled trials, required to confirm causality and determine optimal dosing.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Maconha Medicinal , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ansiedade , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 330, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis (MC) products have been available on prescription in Australia for around six years. General practitioners (GPs) are at the forefront of MC prescribing and recent years have seen substantial increases in prescription numbers. This study examined the current knowledge, experiences, and attitudes of Australian GPs around MC. We also compared our findings to those of an earlier 2017 investigation. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a 42-item on-line questionnaire adapted from our earlier 2017 survey. The current survey was completed by GPs attending an on-line, multi-topic educational seminar. Australian GPs (n = 505) completed the survey between November 2021 and February 2022. Data were synthesised using descriptive statistics. MC 'prescribers' and 'non-prescribers' responses were compared using Pearson's χ2 tests. RESULTS: While most GPs (85.3%) had received patient enquiries about MC during the last three months, only half (52.3%) felt comfortable discussing MC with patients. Around one fifth (21.8%) had prescribed a MC product. GPs strongly supported MC prescribing for palliative care, cancer pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and epilepsy, more so than in our 2017 survey. Prescribing for mental health conditions (e.g., depression, anxiety) and insomnia received less support. Opioids, benzodiazepines, and chemotherapy drugs were rated as more hazardous than MC. GPs correctly endorsed concerns around Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-related driving impairment and drug-seeking behaviour. However, additional concerns endorsed around cannabidiol causing addiction and driving impairment do not agree with current evidence. Consistent with this, many GPs (66.9%) felt they had inadequate knowledge of MC. CONCLUSION: Acceptance of MC as a treatment option has increased among Australian GPs since 2017. However, there is a clear need for improved training and education of GPs around cannabis-based medicines to provide increased numbers of skilled prescribers in the community.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(6): 829-838, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid shifts toward cannabis liberalization in the United States have created immense policy variability that is challenging to measure. We developed composite measures to characterize the restrictiveness of U.S. state cannabis policy environments. METHOD: Nine panelists, consisting of four research team members and five expert policy consultants, nominated distinct cannabis policies pertaining to cannabis prohibition, medicalization, and legalization for recreational use. For each of the 17 nominated policies, panelists developed implementation ratings and rated each policy's relative efficacy for reducing excessive cannabis use by adults, youth use, and impaired driving. Cannabis Policy Scale scores were then calculated for each state-year for all 50 states from 1999 to 2019 by weighting policies by their efficacy and implementation ratings, and then summing over policies. RESULTS: Median Cannabis Policy Scale scores remained stable until 2008, when they started declining (representing policy liberalization), with steeper declines after 2012. In 2019, state Cannabis Policy Scale scores targeting excessive use among the general population ranged from 29.6 to 66.7 for recreational cannabis legalization states, and from 72.4 to 93.4 for medical cannabis legalization states. Cannabis Policy Scale scores using youth-specific and driving-specific efficacy ratings showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS: The Cannabis Policy Scale reflects trends toward liberalization of cannabis policy in many U.S. states. Even within crude policy phenotypes (e.g., medical cannabis programs), Cannabis Policy Scale scores varied considerably between states and over time. The Cannabis Policy Scale is a new measure that can add nuance to cannabis policy research and help assess cannabis policy-outcome relationships.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Política Pública
16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(6): 802-811, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social factors play an important role in young adults' substance use behaviors, but little is known about how egocentric social network factors are related to young adults' cannabis use. Young adults also report medicinal and recreational uses of cannabis, which may alter the strength of these relationships. Therefore, medical cannabis patient status and medicinal/recreational orientation toward cannabis were examined as moderators of these relationships. METHOD: Young adult medical cannabis patients (n = 182) and nonpatient users (n = 157) were surveyed in Los Angeles in 2015-2016 about their cannabis use, orientation (medicinal and/or recreational), and egocentric networks (cannabis use network size, social support network size, descriptive and injunctive norms). Regression models examined associations between network characteristics and past-90-day use and problematic use, and tested interactions between network characteristics and both patient status and cannabis use orientation. RESULTS: Only descriptive norms (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 1.33]) were associated with more frequent use, but not problematic use. Descriptive norms interacted with cannabis use orientation: descriptive norms were positively associated with cannabis use days among medicinally oriented users (aIRR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.02, 1.46]). However, this relationship was stronger for recreationally oriented users (aIRR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31, 2.01]). No interactions were found predicting problematic use. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptive cannabis use norms among one's personal network members are an important variable predicting young adults' cannabis use, but not problematic use. Perceived descriptive norms may be a stronger motivator to use for recreational users than medicinal users.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Rede Social
17.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(6): 893-900, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship, in adults 50 years and older, between self-reported past-month marijuana use and difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions (SDCRMD) because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). METHOD: We relied on a sample of 294,000 adults (53.4% female), 50 years and older, from 21 U.S. states and two territories over 4 years (2016-2019). We conducted descriptive analyses to examine the prevalence of past-month marijuana use and SDCRMD and used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between marijuana use and SDCRMD, controlling for demographic and health-related variables. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of SDCRMD was 11.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) [10.6%, 11.5%], and the prevalence of self-reported past-month marijuana use was 7.1%, 95% CI [6.7%, 7.5%]. Of those reporting past-month marijuana use, 19.9%, 95% CI [17.8%, 22.1%] reported SDCRMD. Past-month marijuana users were 1.5, 95% CI [1.1, 2.1] times more likely to report SDCRMD than nonusers. Prevalence of past-month marijuana use was higher in states with legalization of both medical and recreational marijuana; however, prevalence of SDCRMD was not. CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong, positive, and statistically significant relationship between past-month marijuana use and SDCRMD. This finding serves as an important first step in identifying the relationship between older adults' self-reported marijuana use and their difficulty concentrating, remembering, and decision-making because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; however, additional research is needed.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Maconha Medicinal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555842

RESUMO

Dysmenorrhoea effects up to 90% of women of reproductive age, with medical management options including over-the-counter analgesia or hormonal contraception. There has been a recent surge in medicinal cannabis research and its analgesic properties. This paper aims to critically investigate the current research of medicinal cannabis for pain relief and to discuss its potential application to treat dysmenorrhoea. Relevant keywords, including medicinal cannabis, pain, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, dysmenorrhoea, and clinical trial, have been searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library (Wiley) databases and a clinical trial website (clinicaltrials.gov). To identify the relevant studies for this paper, 84 papers were reviewed and 20 were discarded as irrelevant. This review critically evaluated cannabis-based medicines and their mechanism and properties in relation to pain relief. It also tabulated all clinical trials carried out investigating medicinal cannabis for pain relief and highlighted the side effects. In addition, the safety and toxicology of medicinal cannabis and barriers to use are highlighted. Two-thirds of the clinical trials summarised confirmed positive analgesic outcomes, with major side effects reported as nausea, drowsiness, and dry mouth. In conclusion, medicinal cannabis has promising applications in the management of dysmenorrhoea. The global medical cannabis market size was valued at USD 11.0 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.06% from 2022 to 2030. This will encourage academic as well as the pharmaceutical and medical device industries to study the application of medical cannabis in unmet clinical disorders.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Feminino , Humanos , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico
19.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 22(11-12): 995-1008, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although pre-clinical experiments associate cannabinoids with reduced depressive symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical evidence. This study aims to analyze the health-related quality of life changes and safety outcomes in patients prescribed cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) for depression. METHODS: A series of uncontrolled cases from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry were analyzed. The primary outcomes were changes from baseline in the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), and EQ-5D-5 L at 1, 3, and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included adverse events incidence. RESULTS: 129 patients were identified for inclusion. Median PHQ-9 at baseline was 16.0 (IQR: 9.0-21.0). There were reductions in PHQ-9 at 1-month (median: 8.0; IQR: 4.0-14.0; p < 0.001), 3-months (7.0; 2.3-12.8; p < 0.001), and 6-months (7.0; 2.0-9.5; p < 0.001). Improvements were also observed in GAD-7, SQS, and EQ-5D-5L Index Value at 1, 3, and 6 months (p < 0.050). 153 (118.6%) adverse events were recorded by 14.0% (n = 18) of participants, 87% (n = 133) of which were mild or moderate. CONCLUSION: CBMP treatment was associated with reductions in depression severity at 1, 3, and 6 months. Limitations of the study design mean that a causal relationship cannot be proven. This analysis provides insights for further study within clinical trial settings.


Depression is a highly prevalent mental health condition with approximately one in five people affected by at least one episode of depression in their lifetime. Two cardinal symptoms of depression are low mood and loss of interest. Since depression is such a debilitating condition, improving quality of life is an important part of treatment.Antidepressant medications are currently an important part of treating depression, but the variability in their effectiveness means that there is a need for alternative treatments. Medicinal cannabis, which contains certain chemicals from the cannabis plant, has received growing interest as a potential novel treatment for depression. Due to the lack of clinical studies on the use of medicinal cannabis to treat depression, this study aims to assess the effects of medicinal cannabis on quality of life in patients suffering from depression.The study included 129 patients treated with medicinal cannabis for depression at Sapphire Medical Clinics. The results showed that medicinal cannabis was associated with improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as health-related quality of life, and sleep quality after 1, 3, and 6 months of treatment. Although there were numerous adverse events in a small number of patients, most of these were mild or moderate. A major limitation is that this study cannot determine the extent to which medicinal cannabis is directly responsible for the improvements in depression symptoms that were observed. Future studies should focus on conducting clinical trials which can better evaluate the true treatment effects of medicinal cannabis for depression.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido
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