Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.383
Filtrar
1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(10): 1007-1015, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766327

RESUMO

Background: Recent information on regulation of the pharmaceutical sector in Iraq is scarce. Aims: This report summarizes the regulations governing pharmaceutical products in Iraq, assesses the challenges faced and makes recommendations to tackle these issues. Methods: The Iraq pharmaceutical country profile 2020, prepared by the Iraqi Ministry of Health in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2020, was the main source of information. Results: Despite all the efforts by the Ministry of Health to provide adequate and safe medicines, the Iraqi pharmaceutical sector has several challenges, including inadequate budget allocated to the ministry, shortages in essential medicines, underutilization of electronic technologies in the management of regulation-related work, a large number of substandard and falsified medications in the private sector and a stagnant national pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion: The Ministry of Health needs more financial support from the federal government to fund its activities and technical support from international health organizations to provide training and resources.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Iraque , Setor Privado
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-01. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0033).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55093

RESUMO

El Fondo Estratégico para Suministros de Salud Pública de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (Fondo Estratégico) ayuda a asegurar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos esenciales para las enfermedades no transmisibles, incluidos los medicamentos para cuidados paliativos, a un precio competitivo para todos los países. El Fondo Estratégico es un mecanismo integrado de adquisiciones mancomunado, y los productos adquiridos cumplen las normas internacionales de seguridad, eficacia y calidad. En este folleto se presenta información sobre los medicamentos y formulaciones disponibles para las enfermedades no transmisibles mediante el Fondo Estratégico, agrupados por categorías: enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y cuidados paliativos. Incluye ejemplos de los descuentos logrados por el Fondo Estratégico para los medicamentos esenciales, con el objetivo de procurar precios competitivos para América Latina y el Caribe.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Cuidados Paliativos , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Doenças Respiratórias , Medicina , Medicamentos Essenciais , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-01. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0033).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55092

RESUMO

The Pan American Health Organization’s Revolving Fund for Strategic Public Health Supplies (Strategic Fund) helps ensure the availability of essential medicines for noncommunicable diseases, including palliative care medicines, at a competitive price for all countries. The Strategic Fund is an integrated pooled procurement mechanism, and the products purchased through the Strategic Fund meet international standards in safety, efficacy, and quality. This brochure presents information on the medications and their formulations available through the Strategic Fund for noncommunicable diseases, summarized by category: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and palliative care. The brochure includes examples of price reductions achieved by the Strategic Fund for key essential medicines, ensuring competitive prices for these for Latin America and the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Medicina , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias , Doenças Respiratórias , Medicamentos Essenciais
5.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 14 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1344724

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se detalla la información sobre los medicamentos y formulaciones disponibles para las enfermedades no transmisibles mediante el Fondo Estratégico, agrupados por categorías: enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y cuidados paliativos. Incluye ejemplos de los descuentos logrados por el Fondo Estratégico para los medicamentos esenciales, con el objetivo de procurar precios competitivos para América Latina y el Caribe


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Medicamentos Essenciais , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Fundo Estratégico
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e045805, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate use of medicine is a global challenge with greater impact on developing countries. Assessment of drug use pattern is used to identify gaps in medicine utilisation to implement strategies for promoting rational drug use. This study aimed to assess drug use pattern using the WHO drug use indicators in selected general hospitals in Tigray region, Ethiopia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using WHO drug use indicators in two public hospitals located in Tigray. SETTING: Prescriptions recorded from 1 January 2017 to 1 June 2019 were randomly selected, and participants who visited the public hospitals from 1 March 2019 to 30 August 2019 and hospital pharmacies were interviewed. PARTICIPANTS: 100 patients who visited both outpatient clinics and hospital pharmacy departments of the public hospitals. RESULTS: The average number of medicines per prescription was 1.69 (±0.81). Prescriptions containing antibiotics and injectables were 58.2% and 15.9%, respectively. The percentages of medicines prescribed with a generic name from essential medicines list of Ethiopia were 97.5% (974) and 88.1% (970) in Mekelle Hospital and Quiha Hospital, respectively. The patients spent an average of 6.6(±3.5) min with their general practitioners, while only 22.8 (±21.7) s with their pharmacists. Of the patients interviewed, 56.9% knew their dosing regimen and 32.7% of them had their medication labelled. CONCLUSION: The finding of the present study revealed deviation of drug use pattern from the WHO optimal levels suggesting the hospitals had limitations in appropriate utilisation of medicines. Understanding the factors attributed to the observed gaps and implementing corrective measures are required to conform with the recommended standards of appropriate drug utilisation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Hospitais Gerais , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Etiópia , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1800, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics at community pharmacies is an important driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, a better understanding of dispensing practices is crucial to inform national, regional, and global responses to AMR. This requires careful examination of the interactions between vendors and clients, sensitive to the context in which these interactions take place. METHODS: In 2019, we conducted a qualitative study to examine antibiotic dispensing practices and associated drivers in Indonesia, where self-medication with antibiotics purchased at community pharmacies and drug stores is widespread. Data collection involved 59 in-depth interviews with staff at pharmacies and drug stores (n = 31) and their clients (n = 28), conducted in an urban (Bekasi) and a semi-rural location (Tabalong) to capture different markets and different contexts of access to medicines. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: A common dispensing pattern was the direct request of antibiotics by clients, who walked into pharmacies or drug stores and asked for antibiotics without prescription, either by their generic/brand name or by showing an empty package or sample. A less common pattern was recommendation to use antibiotics by the vendor after the patient presented with symptoms. Drivers of inappropriate antibiotic dispensing included poor knowledge of antibiotics and AMR, financial incentives to maximise medicine sales in an increasingly competitive market, the unintended effects of health policy reforms to make antibiotics and other essential medicines freely available to all, and weak regulatory enforcement. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics in community pharmacies and drug stores is the outcome of complex interactions between vendors and clients, shaped by wider and changing socio-economic processes. In Indonesia, as in many other LMICs with large and informal private sectors, concerted action should be taken to engage such providers in plans to reduce AMR. This would help avert unintended effects of market competition and adverse policy outcomes, as observed in this study.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Farmácias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indonésia , Automedicação
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(9): 2281-2282, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580533

RESUMO

Medication is essential for diabetes care, and this is reflected in the Essential Medicines lists prepared by the World Health Organization and various countries. The need for essential diagnostics, and essential devices, however, has not been addressed adequately. In this communication, we call for creating a list of the essential diagnostics and devices that are required in primary and secondary/ tertiary diabetes care. We hope that this will encourage policymakers and clinicians to work together, to ensure that these are made available, accessible, and affordable for all patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Medicamentos Essenciais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 653-660, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475602

RESUMO

Poor control of cardiovascular disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, but often essential anticoagulant medicines for preventing strokes and embolisms are not widely available. In 2019, direct oral anticoagulants were added to the World Health Organization's WHO Model list of essential medicines. The aims of this paper are to summarize the benefits of direct oral anticoagulants for patients with cardiovascular disease and to discuss ways of increasing their usage internationally. Although the cost of direct oral anticoagulants has provoked debate, the affordability of introducing these drugs into clinical practice could be increased by: price negotiation; pooled procurement; competitive tendering; the use of patent pools; and expanded use of generics. In 2017, only 14 of 137 countries that had adopted national essential medicines lists included a direct oral anticoagulant on their lists. This number could increase rapidly if problems with availability and affordability can be tackled. Once the types of patient likely to benefit from direct oral anticoagulants have been clearly defined in clinical practice guidelines, coverage can be more accurately determined and associated costs can be better managed. Government action is required to ensure that direct oral anticoagulants are covered by national budgets because the absence of reimbursement remains an impediment to achieving universal coverage. Tackling cardiovascular disease with the aid of direct oral anticoagulants is an essential component of efforts to achieve the World Health Organization's target of reducing premature deaths due to noncommunicable disease by 25% by 2025.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos Genéricos/provisão & distribuição , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1367-1377, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) identifies priority medicines that are most important to public health. Over time, the EML has included an increasing number of cancer medicines. We aimed to investigate whether the cancer medicines in the EML are aligned with the priority medicines of frontline oncologists worldwide, and the extent to which these medicines are accessible in routine clinical practice. METHODS: This international, cross-sectional survey was developed by investigators from a range of clinical practice settings across low-income to high-income countries, including members of the WHO Essential Medicines Cancer Working Group. A 28-question electronic survey was developed and disseminated to a global network of oncologists in 89 countries and regions by use of a hierarchical snowball method; each primary contact distributed the survey through their national and regional oncology associations or personal networks. The survey was open from Oct 15 to Dec 7, 2020. Fully qualified physicians who prescribe systemic anticancer therapy to adults were eligible to participate in the survey. The primary question asked respondents to select the ten cancer medicines that would provide the greatest public health benefit to their country; subsequent questions explored availability and cost of cancer medicines. Descriptive statistics were used to compare access to medicines between low-income and lower-middle-income countries, upper-middle-income countries, and high-income countries. FINDINGS: 87 country-level contacts and two regional networks were invited to participate in the survey; 46 (52%) accepted the invitation and distributed the survey. 1697 respondents opened the survey link; 423 were excluded as they did not answer the primary study question and 326 were excluded because of ineligibility. 948 eligible oncologists from 82 countries completed the survey (165 [17%] in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 165 [17%] in upper-middle-income countries, and 618 [65%] in high-income countries). The most commonly selected medicines were doxorubicin (by 499 [53%] of 948 respondents), cisplatin (by 470 [50%]), paclitaxel (by 423 [45%]), pembrolizumab (by 414 [44%]), trastuzumab (by 402 [42%]), carboplatin (by 390 [41%]), and 5-fluorouracil (by 386 [41%]). Of the 20 most frequently selected high-priority cancer medicines, 19 (95%) are currently on the WHO EML; 12 (60%) were cytotoxic agents and 13 (65%) were granted US Food and Drug Administration regulatory approval before 2000. The proportion of respondents indicating universal availability of each top 20 medication was 9-54% in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 13-90% in upper-middle-income countries, and 68-94% in high-income countries. The risk of catastrophic expenditure (spending >40% of total consumption net of spending on food) was more common in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, with 13-68% of respondents indicating a substantial risk of catastrophic expenditures for each of the top 20 medications in lower-middle-income countries versus 2-41% of respondents in upper-middle-income countries and 0-9% in high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate major barriers in access to core cancer medicines worldwide. These findings challenge the feasibility of adding additional expensive cancer medicines to the EML. There is an urgent need for global and country-level policy action to ensure patients with cancer globally have access to high priority medicines. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Oncologistas , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/economia , Estudos Transversais , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 745-748, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To establish appropriate health care services in developing countries, rationalization of drug use holds utmost importance. Drug use patterns can be found out using Core Indicators of the World Health Organisation in collaboration with the International Network of Rational Use of Drugs. With the help of the indicators, this study aimed to find out the way the drugs were prescribed in the Medicine out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2019 to March 2020 in a tertiary care hospital. The ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Committee of the Dhulikhel hospital (reference number 198/19). Convenient sampling was done. After taking consent from the patient, data was collected from prescriptions written on the patient's card. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 25. Descriptive statistics were applied and the results were expressed as frequency and percentage, mean and standard deviation. RESULTS: A total of 559 prescriptions were analysed, of which a total of 1427 medicines were found to be prescribed with an average number of medicines per the prescription of 2.55±1.388. Drugs prescribed by generic name were 820 (57.5%), antibiotics were 138 (9.7%) and injections were 8 (0.6%). Drugs prescribed from the Essential Drug List of Nepal was 939 (65.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that despite some results being up to the mark, there is a requisite for the proper regulation of prescribing and dispensing drugs in order to promote rationalisation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e051465, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines for children (cEMs) in Hanam province, Vietnam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: One city and five districts of Hanam province. PARTICIPANTS: 66 public health facilities and 66 private drugstores. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The standardised methodology of the WHO and Health Action International was used to investigate 30 paediatric essential medicines. For each medicine, data were collected for two products: the lowest-priced medicine (LPM) and the highest-priced medicine (HPM). The availability of medicine was computed as the percentage of facilities in which this medicine was found on the day of data collection. Median prices of individual medicines were reported in local currency. Affordability was calculated as the number of days' wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common diseases. Data were analysed using R software V.4.1.0. RESULTS: The mean availability of LPMs in the private sector (33.2%, SD=38.0%) was higher than that in the public sector (24.9%, SD=39.4%) (p<0.05). The mean availability of HPMs was extremely low in both sectors (11.3% and 5.8%, respectively). The mean availability of cEMs in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas (36.5% and 31.6%, respectively, p<0.05). In the public sector, the prices of LPMs were nearly equal to the international reference prices (IRPs). In the private sector, LPMs were generally sold at 4.06 times their IRPs. However, in both sectors, the affordability of LPMs was reasonable for most conditions as standard treatments only cost a day's wage or less. CONCLUSION: The low availability was the main reason hindering access to cEMs in Hanam, especially in the countryside. A national study on cEMs should be conducted, and some practical policies should be promulgated to enhance access to cEMs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Vietnã
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045262, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Essential medicines lists have been created and used globally in countries that range from low-income to high-income status. The aim of this paper is to compare the essential medicines list of high-income countries with each other, the WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines and the lists of countries of other income statuses. DESIGN: High-income countries were defined by World Bank classification. High-income essential medicines lists were assessed for medicine inclusion and were compared with the subset of high-income countries, the WHO's Model List and 137 national essential medicines lists. Medicine lists were obtained from the Global Essential Medicines database. Countries were subdivided by income status, and the groups' most common medicines were compared. Select medicines and medicine classes were assessed for inclusion among high-income country lists. RESULTS: The 21 high-income countries identified were most like each other when compared with other lists. They were more like upper middle-income countries and least like low-income countries. There was significant variability in the number of medicines on each list. Less than half (48%) of high-income countries included a newer diabetes medicines in their list. Most countries (71%) included naloxone while every country including at least one opioid medicine. More than half of the lists (52%) included a medicine that has been globally withdrawn or banned. CONCLUSION: Essential medicines lists of high-income countries are similar to each other, but significant variations in essential medicine list composition and specifically the number of medications included were noted. Effective medicines were left off several countries' lists, and globally recalled medicines were included on over half the lists. Comparing the essential medicines lists of countries within the same income status category can provide a useful subset of lists for policymakers and essential medicine list creators to use when creating or maintaining their lists.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Renda , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): 1429-1440, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines classified antibiotics into Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) categories for the treatment of 31 priority bacterial infections as a tool to facilitate antibiotic stewardship and optimal use. We compared the listing of antibiotics on national essential medicines lists (NEMLs) to those in the 2019 WHO Model List and the AWaRe classification database to determine the degree to which NEMLs are in alignment with the AWaRe classification framework recommended by WHO. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained up-to-date (data after 2017) NEMLs from our Global Essential Medicines (GEM) database, WHO online resources, and individual countries' websites. From the 2019 WHO Model List we extracted, as a reference standard, a list of 37 antibiotics (44 unique antibiotics after accounting for combination drugs or therapeutically equivalent drugs as specified by WHO) that were considered essential in treating 31 of the most common and severe clinical infectious syndromes (priority infections). From the WHO AWaRe Classification Database, which contains commonly used antibiotics globally, we extracted a list of 122 AWaRe antibiotics listed by at least one country in the GEM database. We then assessed individual countries' NEMLs for listing of the 44 essential and 122 commonly used antibiotics, overall and according to AWaRe classification group. We also evaluated and summarised the listing of both first-choice and second-choice treatments for the 31 priority infections. A total coverage score was calculated for each country by assigning a treatment score of 0-3 for each priority infection on the basis of whether first-choice and second-choice treatments, according to the 2019 WHO Model List, were included in the country's NEML. Coverage scores were then compared against the score of the 2019 WHO Model List and across World Bank income groups and WHO regions. FINDINGS: As of July 7, 2020, we had up-to-date NEMLs for 138 countries. Of the 44 unique essential antibiotics, 24 were Access, 15 were Watch, and five were Reserve. The median number of total essential antibiotics listed across the 138 NEMLs was 26 (IQR 21-32). 102 (74%) countries listed at least 22 (50%) of the 44 essential antibiotics. The median number of total AWaRe antibiotics listed by the 138 countries was 35 (IQR 29-46), of Access antibiotics was 18 (16-21), of Watch antibiotics was 16 (11-22), and of Reserve antibiotics was one (0-2). 56 (41%) countries did not list any essential Reserve antibiotics. 131 (95%) countries had coverage scores of at least 60, equivalent to at least 75% of the score of the 2019 WHO Model List, which was 80. Nine (7%) countries listed fewer than 12 of 24 essential Access antibiotics, and seven (5%) did not list sufficient first-choice and second-choice treatments for priority infections (ie, they had coverage scores lower than 60). Of the 31 priority infections, acute neonatal meningitis and high-risk febrile neutropenia did not have enough listed treatments, with 82 (59%) countries listing no treatment for acute neonatal meningitis and 84 (61%) countries listing only a first-choice treatment, only a second-choice treatment, or no treatment for high-risk febrile neutropenia. Coverage scores differed between countries on the basis of World Bank income groups (p=0·025). INTERPRETATION: Our findings highlight potential changes to the antibiotics included in NEMLs that would increase adherence to international guidance aimed at effectively treating infectious diseases while addressing antimicrobial resistance. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Ontario Strategy for Patient Oriented Research Support Unit.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Medicamentos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242249

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to essential medicines (EMs) is a basic human right. Non-availability and shortages of EMs are reported for Pakistan but there is insufficient data to define the nature and magnitude of this problem. The current study is designed to systematically analyze the medicines included in the National Essential Medicines List (NEML) for their availability through comprehensive document analysis. METHODS: An expanded list of medicinal items was developed using the NEML of Pakistan (2018) to enlist individual medicines with their specifications. Registration status of the medicines was searched using three publicly accessible information sources; Pharmaguide 25th Edition, 2018-19, the on-line Drug Information System, and the Mobile Application Pharmapedia followed by a later 3-step validation of the data. The unregistered EMs were then further categorized into three subgroups in accordance with their possible remedial strategies. FINDINGS: The 19 studied categories comprised 690 EMs and it was found that 179 (26%) of these EMs don not have a registration status. However, it was also identified that the availability of 47 (26.2%) out of 179 unregistered EMs can be enssured by strengthening compounding services, and prioritizing registration of age-appropriate formulations. Availability of another 39 (21.7%) such medicines can be ensured by revising the NEML or the product registrations for the slight differences in their different specifications. The categories showing high proportion of unregistered medicines included anti-Parkinson's medicines (100%), antidotes and other substances used in poisoning (60%), diuretics (47%), anticonvulsants/antiepileptics (42%), hormones and other endocrine medicines and contraceptives (38%), medicines for mental and behavioral disorders (30%), anti-infectives (27%), medicines for pain and palliative care (26%), medicines for neonatal care (25%), medicines for diseases of joint (25%), gastrointestinal medicines (24%) and cardiovascular medicines (15%). CONCLUSION: The study shows the absence of registration status of a significant number of EMs in Pakistan. This could be major barrier in their access. Strategies are needed to strengthen the processes of their registration on priority basis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Essenciais/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Paquistão
20.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210700. 17 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1282404

RESUMO

El documento contiene las disposiciones que permitan la participación efectiva de los ciudadanos e instituciones en general respecto del proyecto en mención.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Participação da Comunidade , Medicamentos Essenciais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...