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1.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 21(8): 912-913, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946970

RESUMO

Topical calcineurin inhibitors are a family of drugs that have been touted for having high efficacy without the risks of cutaneous atrophy and systemic absorption seen with topical corticosteroids. They may play an important role in the elderly population, where preexisting cutaneous atrophy increases susceptibility to these adverse effects.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Fármacos Dermatológicos , Administração Tópica , Idoso , Atrofia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicare , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
2.
Ann Fam Med ; 20(20 Suppl 1)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947517

RESUMO

Context: There were 50,000 U.S. opioid overdose deaths in 2019. Millions suffer from opioid addiction. Identifying protective factors for low community opioid mortality may have important implications for addressing the opioid epidemic. This study was funded through the Virginia (VA) Department of Medical Assistance Services (DMAS) through a SUPPORT Act Grant. Objective: To identify "Bright Spot" communities in Virginia with protective factors associated with reduced opioid mortality and morbidity. Study Design: Ecologic study. Dataset: Virginia All Payer Claims Database (APCD), Virginia Department of Health (VDH) statewide medical examiner registry, and American Community Survey (ACS). Time Period: 2016-2019; 2019 data cited here. Population Studied: APCD includes VA residents with medical claims through commercial, Medicaid, and Medicare coverage. VDH data includes fatal drug overdoses. ACS surveys all VA residents. Outcome Measures: Primary outcome: fatal opioid overdoses. Secondary outcomes: emergency room visits for overdoses and opioid-related diagnoses, outpatient diagnoses for opioid-related disorder, prescription rate for opioids, and prescription rate for buprenorphine. Results: Opioid mortality was associated with higher rates of community poverty (r=.38, p<.0001) and disability (r=.52, r<.0001). Opioid mortality was associated with inequality, with higher Gini index associated with higher opioid mortality (r=.23, p<.0001). A higher percentage of black residents was associated with increased fatal opioid overdoses (r=.37, p<.0001) and ED visits for overdoses (r=.30, p<.0001). A higher percentage of white residents correlated with increased outpatient visits for opioid use disorder (r=.24, p<.0001) and higher rates of buprenorphine (r=.34, p<.0001) and opioid prescriptions (r=.31, p <.0001). Conclusions: These findings suggest significant racial disparities in opioid outcomes. Communities with a higher percentage of black residents are more likely to have higher opioid mortality and a lower rate of outpatient treatment. This association may be affected by the time period used in the analysis (2015-2019), as nationally there has been an increasing rate of synthetic opioid deaths in Black communities. These measures have been incorporated into a multivariate analysis to identify Bright Spot communities, which will be discussed during the presentation.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Atenção à Saúde , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicare , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos
3.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(8): e1234-e1246, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The relationship between out-of-pocket spending and cost-related medication nonadherence among older rural- and urban-dwelling cancer survivors is not well understood. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, Medicare claims, and the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey linked data resource linked data (2007-2015) to investigate the relationship between cancer survivors' cost responsibility in the year before and after report of delaying or not filling a prescription medication because of cost in the past 6 months (cost-related medication nonadherence). Secondary exposures and outcomes included Medicare spending and utilization. Generalized linear models assessed bidirectional relationships between cost-related medication nonadherence, spending, and utilization. Effects of residence were assessed via interaction terms. RESULTS: Of 6,591 older cancer survivors, 13% reported cost-related medication nonadherence. Survivors were a median 8 years (interquartile range, 4.5-12.5 years) from their cancer diagnosis, 15% were dually Medicare/Medicaid-eligible, and prostate (40%) and breast (32%) cancer survivors were most prevalent. With every $500 USD increase in patient cost responsibility, risk of cost-related medication nonadherence increased by 3% (risk ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04). After report of cost-related medication nonadherence, patient cost responsibility was 22% higher (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.32) compared with those not reporting nonadherence, amounting to $523 USD (95% CI, $430 USD to $630 USD). Medicare spending and utilization were also higher before and after report of cost-related nonadherence versus none. For survivors residing in rural (18%) and urban (82%) areas, residence did not modify adherence or cost outcomes. CONCLUSION: A bidirectional relationship exists between patient cost responsibility and cost-related medication nonadherence. Interventions reducing urban- and rural-dwelling survivor health care costs and cost-related adherence barriers are needed.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Idoso , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicare payment has been examined in a variety of medical and surgical specialties. This study examines Medicare payment in the subspecialty of orthopaedic oncology. METHODS: The Physician Fee Schedule Look-up Tool was used to obtain payment information from 2000 to 2020 for procedures related to orthopaedic oncology billed to Medicare. RESULTS: For the 38 included orthopaedic oncology procedures, inflation-adjusted Medicare payment decreased an average of 13.6% overall from 2000 to 2020. After adjusting for inflation, the payment for procedures related to spine and pelvis increased by 7.6%, procedures relating to limb salvage increased by 14.6%, procedures associated with the surgical management of complications decreased by 26.9%, and procedures relating to metastatic disease management decreased by 34.8%. CONCLUSION: Medicare payment has declined by 13.6% from 2000 to 2020. This variation in Medicare payment represents a difference in valuation of these procedures by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and could be used to direct healthcare policy.


Assuntos
Medicare , Ortopedia , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Tabela de Remuneração de Serviços , Oncologia , Estados Unidos
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225516, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930284

RESUMO

Importance: In 2021, Medicare launched the End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment Choices (ETC) model, which randomly assigned approximately 30% of dialysis facilities to new financial incentives to increase use of transplantation and home dialysis; these financial bonuses and penalties are calculated by comparing living-donor transplantation, transplant wait-listing, and home dialysis use in ETC-assigned facilities vs benchmarks from non-ETC-assigned (ie, control) facilities. Because model participation is randomly assigned, evaluators may attribute any downstream differences in outcomes to facility performance rather than any imbalance in baseline characteristics. Objective: To identify preintervention imbalances in dialysis facility characteristics that should be recognized in any ETC model evaluations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study compared ETC-assigned and control dialysis facility characteristics in the United States from 2017 to 2018. A total of 6062 facilities were included. Data were analyzed from February 2021 to May 2022. Exposures: Assignment to the ETC model. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dialysis facilities' preintervention transplantations and home dialysis use, facility characteristics (notably, profit and chain status), patient demographic characteristics, and community socioeconomic characteristics. Results: Among 316 927 patients, with 6 178 855 attributed patient-months, the mean (SD) age in January 2017 was 59 (11) years, and 132 462 (42%) were female. Patients in ETC-assigned facilities had 9% (0.2 [95% CI, 0.1-0.2] percentage points) lower prevalence of living donor transplantation, 12% (3.2 [95% CI, 3.0-3.3] percentage points) lower prevalence of transplantation wait-listing, and 4% (0.4 [95% CI, 0.3-0.4] percentage points) lower prevalence of peritoneal dialysis use compared with control facilities. ETC-assigned facilities were 14% (5.1 [95% CI, 0.9-9.4] percentage points) more likely than control facilities to be owned by the second largest dialysis organization. Relative to control facilities, ETC-assigned facilities also treated 34% (6.6 [95% CI, 6.5-6.7] percentage point) fewer patients with Hispanic ethnicity and were located in communities with median household incomes that were 4% ($2500; 95% CI, $500-$4500) lower on average. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, dialysis facilities in ETC-assigned regions had lower preintervention prevalence of transplantation wait-listing, living donor transplantation, and peritoneal dialysis use, relative to control facilities. ETC-assigned and control facilities also differed with respect to other facility, patient, and community characteristics. Evaluators should account for these preintervention imbalances to minimize bias in their inferences about the model's association with postintervention outcomes.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instituições Privadas de Saúde , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(8): 786-791, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition or its risk affects up to 70% of cancer patients. Compared to adequately nourished oncology patients, those with malnutrition experience more complications and have poorer prognoses, thus higher needs for healthcare. We compared utilization of emergency department (ED) services and costs for Medicare-covered cancer patients with or without a malnutrition diagnosis. METHODS: We used the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Standard Analytic File to identify fee-for-service beneficiaries who had a cancer diagnosis, and had one or more outpatient claims in 2018. We totaled individual claims and costs for ED visits per beneficiary, then calculated mean per-person claims and costs for malnourished vs non-malnourished patients. RESULTS: Using data from over 2.8 million claims of patients with cancer diagnoses, the prevalence of diagnosed malnutrition was 2.5%. The most common cancer types were genitourinary, hematologic/blood, and breast. Cancer patients with a malnutrition diagnosis, compared to those without, had a significantly higher annual total number of outpatient claims (21.4 vs. 11.5, P<.0001), including a 2.5-fold higher rate of ED visits (1.43 vs. 0.56, p<.0001). As result, such patients incurred more than 2-fold higher mean ED claim costs than did their adequately nourished counterparts ($10,724 vs. $4,935, P<.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that malnutrition in cancer patients imposes a high outpatient burden on resource utilization and costs of care in terms of ED use. We propose that nutritional interventions can be used to improve health outcomes for people with cancer and to improve economic outcomes for patients and providers.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Desnutrição , Neoplasias , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Medicare/economia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1021, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately use some hospitals, hospital-based racial and ethnic composition relative to geographic region and its association with quality indicators has not been systematically analyzed. METHODS: We used four race and ethnicity categories: non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB), Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander/Alaskan Native/American Indian (API/AIAN), as well as a combined non-NHW category, from the 2010 (latest year publicly available) Medicare Institutional Provider & Beneficiary Summary public use file for 84 hospitals in the New York City region. We assessed the relative distribution of race and ethnicity across hospitals grouped at different geographic levels (region, county, hospital referral region [HRR], or hospital service areas [HSA]) using the dissimilarity index. Hospital characteristics included quality star ratings, essential professional services and diagnostic/treatment equipment, bed size, total expenses, and patients with dual Medicare and Medicaid enrollment. We assessed Spearman's rank correlation between hospital-based racial and ethnic composition and quality/structural measures. RESULTS: Dissimilarity Index decreases from region (range 30.3-40.1%) to county (range 13.7-23.5%), HRR (range 10.5-27.5%), and HSA (range 12.0-16.9%) levels. Hospitals with larger non-NHW patients tended to have lower hospital ratings and higher proportions of dually-enrolled patients. They were also more likely to be safety net hospitals and non-federal governmental hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: In the NYC metropolitan region, there is considerable hospital-based racial and ethnic segregation of Medicare patients among non-NHW populations, extending previous research limited to NHB. Availability of data on racial and ethnic composition of hospitals should be made publicly available for researchers and consumers.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Medicare , Idoso , Hispânico ou Latino , Hospitais , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0267505, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial and ethnic differences in mortality among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after adjusting for baseline characteristics and comorbidities. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study at 13 acute care facilities in the New York City metropolitan area included sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 27, 2020. Last day of follow up was July 31, 2020. Patient demographic information, including race/ethnicity and comorbidities, were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 10 869 patients were included in the study (median age, 65 years [interquartile range (IQR) 54-77; range, 18-107 years]; 40.5% female). In adjusted time-to-event analysis, increased age, male sex, insurance type (Medicare and Self-Pay), unknown smoking status, and a higher score on the Charlson Comorbidity Index were significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Adjusted risk of hospital mortality for Black, Asian, Hispanic, multiracial/other, and unknown race/ethnicity patients were similar to risk for White patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a large diverse cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, patients from racial/ethnic minorities experienced similar mortality risk as White patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Idoso , Etnicidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/etnologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Brancos
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(32): 1011-1017, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over 2 million adults in the United States have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and it contributes to approximately 14,000 deaths a year. Eight to 12 weeks of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment, which can cure ≥95% of cases, is recommended for persons with hepatitis C. METHODS: Data from HealthVerity, an administrative claims and encounters database, were used to construct a cohort of adults aged 18-69 years with HCV infection diagnosed during January 30, 2019-October 31, 2020, who were continuously enrolled in insurance for ≥60 days before and ≥360 days after diagnosis (47,687). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between initiation of DAA treatment and sex, age, race, payor, and Medicaid restriction status; adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of DAA treatment initiation within 360 days of the first positive HCV RNA test result among Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance recipients was 23%, 28%, and 35%, respectively; among those treated, 75%, 77%, and 84%, respectively, initiated treatment within 180 days of diagnosis. Adjusted odds of treatment initiation were lower among those with Medicaid (aOR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.51-0.57) and Medicare (aOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.56-0.68) than among those with private insurance. After adjusting for insurance type, treatment initiation was lowest among adults aged 18-29 and 30-39 years with Medicaid or private insurance, compared with those aged 50-59 years. Among Medicaid recipients, lower odds of treatment initiation were found among persons in states with Medicaid treatment restrictions (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.74-0.81) than among those in states without restrictions, and among persons whose race was coded as Black or African American (Black) (aOR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.88-0.99) or other race (aOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.62-0.88) than those whose race was coded as White. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Few insured persons with diagnosed hepatitis C receive timely DAA treatment, and disparities in treatment exist. Unrestricted access to timely DAA treatment is critical to reducing viral hepatitis-related mortality, disparities, and transmission. Treatment saves lives, prevents transmission, and is cost saving.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicaid , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sinais Vitais
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 987, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of ambulance diversion on potentially diverted patients, particularly racial/ethnic minority patients, is largely unknown. Treating Massachusetts' 2009 ambulance diversion ban as a natural experiment, we examined if the ban was associated with increased concordance in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) patients of different race/ethnicity being transported to the same emergency department (ED). METHODS: We obtained Medicare Fee for Service claims records (2007-2012) for enrollees aged 66 and older. We stratified the country into patient zip codes and identified zip codes with sizable (non-Hispanic) White, (non-Hispanic) Black and Hispanic enrollees. For a stratified random sample of enrollees from all diverse zip codes in Massachusetts and 18 selected comparison states, we identified EMS transports to an ED. In each zip code, we identified the most frequent ED destination of White EMS-transported patients ("reference ED"). Our main outcome was a dichotomous indicator of patient EMS transport to the reference ED, and secondary outcome was transport to an ED serving lower-income patients ("safety-net ED"). Using a difference-in-differences regression specification, we contrasted the pre- to post-ban changes in each outcome in Massachusetts with the corresponding change in the comparison states. RESULTS: Our study cohort of 744,791 enrollees from 3331 zip codes experienced 361,006 EMS transports. At baseline, the proportion transported to the reference ED was higher among White patients in Massachusetts and comparison states (67.2 and 60.9%) than among Black (43.6 and 46.2%) and Hispanic (62.5 and 52.7%) patients. Massachusetts ambulance diversion ban was associated with a decreased proportion transported to the reference ED among White (- 2.7 percentage point; 95% CI, - 4.5 to - 1.0) and Black (- 4.1 percentage point; 95% CI, - 6.2 to - 1.9) patients and no change among Hispanic patients. The ban was associated with an increase in likelihood of transport to a safety-net ED among Hispanic patients (3.0 percentage points, 95% CI, 0.3 to 5.7) and a decreased likelihood among White patients (1.2 percentage points, 95% CI, - 2.3 to - 0.2). CONCLUSION: Massachusetts ambulance diversion ban was associated with a reduction in the proportion of White and Black EMS patients being transported to the most frequent ED destination for White patients, highlighting the role of non-proximity factors in EMS transport destination.


Assuntos
Desvio de Ambulâncias , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Etnicidade , Humanos , Massachusetts , Medicare , Grupos Minoritários , Estados Unidos
11.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(8): 52-56, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914080

RESUMO

The current article provides an overview of an interprofessional service-learning course that became virtual in the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Telehealth video technologies were used to build an intergenerational, virtual classroom and increase engagement of older adults with interdisciplinary health professional students. The virtual classroom involved group health education sessions, individualized Medicare wellness visits, and a clinical huddle. The course addressed the public health need for reliable health information during the early days of the pandemic, social connection, and meeting the educational goals for health care students and older adults in a novel virtual setting. Lessons learned for the interdisciplinary team and for engaging older adults included the need for preparation reading, team building exercises, training videos, and telehealth competency checklists. Beyond the pandemic, adoption of virtual methods enables hybrid approaches to interprofessional education and builds competencies for delivery of telehealth and computer-based visits in professional practice settings. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(8), 52-56.].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Idoso , Humanos , Educação Interprofissional , Relações Interprofissionais , Medicare , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
12.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(8): 10-16, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914083

RESUMO

The current study examined the policy and market context existing in the seven states where the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Initiative to Reduce Avoidable Hospitalizations among Nursing Facility Residents took place. Stakeholder organizations with knowledge of the skilled nursing facility environment but who were not directly involved with the CMS Initiative were interviewed to assess the impact of policies and programs affecting transfers to the hospital from long-term care facilities. Focused interviews were used to identify areas of quality improvement as well as market forces that contributed to hospitalization rates. Interviews were qualitatively coded and emerging patterns and themes were identified. Market pressures were similar across states. Few policies were found that may have affected the Initiative, but most states had regional coalitions focused on improving some aspect of care. When asked what else could be done to reduce hospitalizations among nursing facility residents, participants across the stakeholder organizations suggested greater presence of physicians and nurse practitioners in nursing facilities, better training around behavioral health issues for frontline staff, and more advance care planning and education for families regarding end of life. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(8), 10-16.].


Assuntos
Medicare , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(8): 1182-1190, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914206

RESUMO

Serious mental illness (SMI) is a major source of suffering among Medicare beneficiaries. To date, limited evidence exists evaluating whether Medicare accountable care organizations (ACOs) are associated with decreased spending among people with SMI. Using national Medicare data from the period 2009-17, we performed difference-in-differences analyses evaluating changes in spending and use associated with enrollment in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) among beneficiaries with SMI. After five years, participation in MSSP ACOs was associated with small savings for beneficiaries with SMI (-$233 per person per year) in total health care spending, primarily related to savings from chronic medical conditions (excluding mental health; -$227 per person per year) and not from savings related to mental health services (-$6 per person per year). Savings were driven by reductions in acute and postacute care for medical conditions. Further work is needed to ensure that Medicare ACOs invest in strategies to reduce potentially unnecessary care related to mental health disorders and to improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , Transtornos Mentais , Idoso , Redução de Custos , Humanos , Medicare , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925951

RESUMO

Hospitals acquire and maintain long-term operating assets such as land, buildings, and equipment. In this study, we analyzed hospitals' long-term assets acquisitions data extracted from the Medicare Cost Report, a mandatory annual filing for all Medicare-certified hospitals. The first objective of this study is to examine the time trend of land, buildings, and equipment acquisitions of all general acute care hospitals in the U.S. from 2005 to 2019 to understand the relative magnitude and temporal changes for the operating assets. The second objective is to examine the 15-year accumulated acquisitions of land, buildings, and equipment per capita in each state to understand the variations of potential access to hospital operating resources across states. To understand the longitudinal changes in acquisitions of operating assets for each year from 2005 to 2019, we calculated the total acquisition amounts across all hospitals for land, buildings, and equipment, respectively, and adjusted the amounts to 2019 dollars based on the consumer price index (CPI). For each state (including Washington D.C.) and the whole nation, the 15-year accumulated CPI-adjusted acquisition amounts per capita for land, buildings, and equipment were also calculated, respectively. The nationwide acquisitions of those operating assets grew rapidly from 2005 to 2008 followed by a negative overall growth from 2008 to 2014 and since 2015, started increasing steadily again. In 2019, U.S. general acute care hospitals acquired $3.0 billion of land, $44.6 billion of buildings, and $33.9 billion of equipment. Huge geographical variation in per capita cumulative total asset investment were also found with the first place North Dakota having a per capita investment that is almost four times higher than that in the lowest ranked state of Alabama.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Medicare , Alabama , Hospitais , North Dakota , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272740, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930603

RESUMO

Uninsured or underinsured individuals with cancer are likely to experience financial hardship, including forgoing healthcare or non-healthcare needs such as food, housing, or utilities. This study evaluates the association between health insurance coverage and financial hardship among cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional analysis used Patient Advocate Foundation (PAF) survey data from May to July 2020. Cancer survivors who previously received case management or financial aid from PAF self-reported challenges paying for healthcare and non-healthcare needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between insurance coverage and payment challenges were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, which allowed for estimation of adjusted relative risks (aRR). Of 1,437 respondents, 74% had annual household incomes <$48,000. Most respondents were enrolled in Medicare (48%), 22% in employer-sponsored insurance, 13% in Medicaid, 6% in an Affordable Care Act (ACA) plan, and 3% were uninsured. Approximately 31% of respondents reported trouble paying for healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents who were uninsured (aRR 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83-3.64), enrolled in an ACA plan (aRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.28-2.72), employer-sponsored insurance (aRR 1.70, 95% CI 1.23-2.34), or Medicare (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.03) had higher risk of trouble paying for healthcare compared to Medicaid enrollees. Challenges paying for non-healthcare needs were reported by 57% of respondents, with 40% reporting trouble paying for food, 31% housing, 28% transportation, and 20% internet. In adjusted models, Medicare and employer-sponsored insurance enrollees were less likely to have difficulties paying for non-healthcare needs compared to Medicaid beneficiaries. Despite 97% of our cancer survivor sample being insured, 31% and 57% reported trouble paying for healthcare and non-healthcare needs during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Greater attention to both medical and non-medical financial burden is needed given the economic pressures of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estresse Financeiro/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Medicare , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2220155, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788670

RESUMO

Importance: Physicians contribute content to online databases, and other health care professionals use these websites to support their decision-making. Financial conflicts of interest (COI) have the potential to adversely impact evidence-based patient care. Objectives: To quantify the potential COI among content contributors to 2 popular point-of-care medical resources, UpToDate and DynaMed, overall and by gender, and to compare self-reported and industry-mandated disclosures. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study compiled an initial list of contributors for each website using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Leading Causes of Death. The top 50 causes were used to identify relevant articles from each database from November 30 to December 7, 2020. The authors and editors of those articles were investigated. Data were analyzed from January 2021 to March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported contributor disclosure status was compared with financial remuneration as reported in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Open Payments (OP) database from 2013 to 2018. Results: A total of 179 point-of-care database authors and editors were assessed. Combined, they received $77.7 million, with a mean of $583 218 (95% CI, $0-$4 679 651) and median (range) of $29 073 ($10-$17 517 315) each. Most of the compensation ($68.1 million [87.6%]) went to UpToDate contributors. Of 128 UpToDate contributors, 76 (59.4%) reported nothing to disclose, and among these, 44 contributors (57.9%) had a record of receiving a financial payment on OP. Women UpToDate contributors received 2.5% of the total compensation paid from industry. The top 10 UpToDate contributors who received the most financial remuneration earned $56.1 million combined, were all men, and only 1 had a nothing-to-disclose status. Of 51 DynaMed contributors, 42 (82.4%) reported nothing to disclose, and among these, 35 contributors (83.3%) had an OP entry (mean, $79 820; 95% CI, $0-$400 774; median [range], $1403 [$26-$630 424]). Among the top 10 DynaMed contributors, 8 (80.0%) were men. Six of the top 10 DynaMed contributors reported nothing to disclose yet had an OP entry. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that contributors to point-of-care databases were the recipients of nearly $78 million from pharmaceutical companies and medical device manufacturers, and these payments were often not disclosed in association with contributed content. Although these findings do not necessarily suggest ethical lapses among the physicians studied, point-of-care resource websites, like UpToDate and DynaMed, should consider implementing more stringent COI policies and employ an unbiased team to verify self-reported disclosure statuses among content contributors against OP reports.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Revelação , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222214, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838668

RESUMO

Importance: Although there have been significant increases in the number of US residents insured through Medicaid, the ability of patients with Medicaid to access cancer care services is less well known. Objective: To assess facility-level acceptance of Medicaid insurance among patients diagnosed with common cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national cross-sectional secret shopper study was conducted in 2020 in a random sample of Commission on Cancer-accredited facilities in the United States using a simulated cohort of Medicaid-insured adult patients with colorectal, breast, kidney, and melanoma skin cancer. Exposures: Telephone call requesting an appointment for a patient with Medicaid with a new cancer diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Acceptance of Medicaid insurance for cancer care. Descriptive statistics, χ2 tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with Medicaid acceptance for colorectal, breast, kidney, and skin cancer. High access hospitals were defined as those offering care across all 4 cancer types surveyed. Explanatory measures included facility-level factors from the 2016 American Hospital Association Annual Survey and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services General Information database. Results: A nationally representative sample of 334 facilities was created, of which 226 (67.7%) provided high access to patients with Medicaid seeking cancer care. Medicaid acceptance differed by cancer site, with 319 facilities (95.5%) accepting Medicaid insurance for breast cancer care; 302 (90.4%), colorectal; 290 (86.8%), kidney; and 266 (79.6%), skin. Comprehensive community cancer programs (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7; P = .007) were significantly less likely to provide high access to care for patients with Medicaid. Facilities with nongovernment, nonprofit (vs for-profit: OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-10.8; P = .03) and government (vs for-profit: OR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.6-27.2; P = .01) ownership, integrated salary models (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.5; P = .001), and average (vs above-average: OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.4-29.6; P = .02) or below-average (vs above-average: OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 1.5-47.5; P = .02) effectiveness of care were associated with high access to Medicaid. State Medicaid expansion status was not significantly associated with high access. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified access disparities for patients with Medicaid insurance at centers designated for high-quality care. These findings highlight gaps in cancer care for the expanding population of patients receiving Medicaid.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Adulto , Idoso , Institutos de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Medicare , Estados Unidos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2223080, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895063

RESUMO

Importance: While left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) increase survival for patients with advanced heart failure (HF), racial and sex access and outcome inequities remain and are poorly understood. Objectives: To assess risk-adjusted inequities in access and outcomes for both Black and female patients and to examine heterogeneity in treatment decisions among patients for whom clinician discretion has a more prominent role. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of 12 310 Medicare beneficiaries used 100% Medicare Fee-for-Service administrative claims. Included patients had been admitted for heart failure from 2008 to 2014. Data were collected from July 2007 to December 2015 and analyzed from August 23, 2020, to May 15, 2022. Exposures: Beneficiary race and sex. Main Outcomes and Measures: The propensity for LVAD implantation was based on clinical risk factors from the 6 months preceding HF admission using XGBoost and the synthetic minority oversampling technique. Beneficiaries with a 5% or greater probability of receiving an LVAD were included. Logistic regression models were estimated to measure associations of race and sex with LVAD receipt adjusting for clinical characteristics and social determinants of health (eg, distance from LVAD center, Medicare low-income subsidy, neighborhood deprivation). Next, 1-year mortality after LVAD was examined. Results: The analytic sample included 12 310 beneficiaries, of whom 22.9% (n = 2819) were Black and 23.7% (n = 2920) were women. In multivariable models, Black beneficiaries were 3.0% (0.2% to 5.8%) less likely to receive LVAD than White beneficiaries, and women were 7.9% (5.6% to 10.2%) less likely to receive LVAD than men. Individual poverty and worse neighborhood deprivation were associated with reduced use, 2.9% (0.4% to 5.3%) and 6.7% (2.9% to 10.5%), respectively, but these measures did little to explain observed disparities. The racial disparity was concentrated among patients with a low propensity score (propensity score <0.52). One-year survival by race and sex were similar on average, but Black patients with a low propensity score experienced improved survival (7.2% [95% CI, 0.9% to 13.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HF, disparities in LVAD use by race and sex existed and were not explained by clinical characteristics or social determinants of health. The treatment and post-LVAD survival by race were equivalent among the most obvious LVAD candidates. However, there was differential use and outcomes among less clear-cut LVAD candidates, with lower use but improved survival among Black patients. Inequity in LVAD access may have resulted from differences in clinician decision-making because of systemic racism and discrimination, implicit bias, or patient preference.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2022(59): 74-78, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788369

RESUMO

Cancer displays some of the largest health-equity concerns of all diseases. This paper draws attention to how health economics research can assess strategies to reduce or even eliminate health disparities and provides pivotal examples of existing research as well as areas for future contributions. The paper also highlights critical data limitations that currently restrain the impact health economics research could have. We then explore new areas of inquiry where economic research is sparse but could have an important impact on health equity, particularly in topics involving Medicare and Medicaid policies that expand reimbursement and generosity of coverage. Health economics studies are notably absent from policies and practices surrounding clinical trials, representing an opportunity for future research. We urge health economics researchers to consider experiments, interventions, and assessments through primary data collection; we further encourage the formulation of multidisciplinary teams to ensure that health economics skills are well melded with other areas of expertise. These teams are needed to maximize novelty and rigor of evidence. As policies are promulgated to address disparities in cancer, involvement of economics in a multidisciplinary context can help ensure that these policies do not have unintended impacts that may deepen inequities.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Neoplasias , Idoso , Economia Médica , Humanos , Medicare , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Políticas , Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
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