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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 286: 79-83, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755694

RESUMO

The medical literature shows that social determinants of health have a significant impact upon health outcomes. However, health professionals often lack the skills to address these determinants at the systems-level. Therefore, we developed a Design Thinking workshop to teach about health-related social needs and to practice designing person-centered solutions. We piloted the workshop with 53 medical and physician assistant students; 69.8% responded to the post-workshop questionnaire. Nearly 80% of students agreed the workshop helped them understand the effect of context on clinical outcomes and demonstrated how to design patient-centered solutions. However, only 50% of respondents anticipated using the Design Thinking methods in their future practice. We need to identify more effective ways to demonstrate the practical application of Design Thinking to clinical work settings.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária , Currículo , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639532

RESUMO

Stress is one of the most common problems among healthcare professionals, as they are exposed to potentially stressful and emotionally challenging situations in the workplace. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training programs have been shown to decrease stress. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an abbreviated 4-weeks MBSR training program in relation to a standard 8-weeks one on the stress levels. A controlled and randomized clinical trial was designed, in which 112 tutors and resident intern specialists in Family and Community Medicine and Nursing of six Spanish National Health System teaching units (TUs) participated. Participants included in the experimental groups (EGs) received a MBRS training program (standard or abbreviated), while control group (CG) participants did not receive any intervention. The stress levels were assessed by the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in three different moments during the study: before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Adjusted covariance analysis (ANCOVA), using pretest scores as the covariate, showed a significant reduction in stress (F(2,91) = 5.165; p = 0.008; η2 = 0.102) in the post-test visit, attributable to the implementation of the standard training program, but without the maintenance of its effects over time. No significant impact of the abbreviated training program on stress levels was observed in the intergroup comparison. A standard 8-weeks MBSR training program aimed at tutors and resident intern specialists in Family and Community Medicine and Nursing produces significant improvements in stress levels compared with the abbreviated intervention and no intervention. New studies about abbreviated training programs are needed to provide effective treatments which improve well-being of these professionals.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Medicina Comunitária , Empatia , Humanos , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 253-270, jul.-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286265

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad en infantes afecta la adaptación y bienestar de sus cuidadores primarios, lo cual reclama la superación de los profesionales de la enfermería para su atención. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de un curso de superación, dirigido a profesionales de enfermería sobre la atención a cuidadores primarios de infantes con déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prexperimental, en el Policlínico Universitario "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" del municipio Santa Clara, en Villa Clara, de 2018 a 2020. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético, sistematización, inductivo-deductivo y sistémico-estructural; empíricos: análisis documental, cuestionario y entrevista abierta; y matemáticos-estadísticos. Resultados: se diseñó y aplicó el curso de superación dirigido a profesionales de la Enfermería, sustentado en la integración de fundamentos teóricos a partir de la identificación de necesidades de aprendizaje, y conformado por siete temas con sus objetivos, temáticas, materiales y medios de enseñanza y sistema de evaluación, el cual fue aprobado por el consejo científico de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Conclusiones: el curso de superación implementado sobre la atención a cuidadores primarios de infantes con déficit de atención e hiperactividad se considera efectivo al producir cambios significativos en el nivel de conocimientos de los profesionales y la satisfacción expresada por ellos.


ABSTRACT Background: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in infants affects the adaptation and well-being of their primary caregivers, which demands the upgrading of nursing professionals for their care. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of an upgrading course, aimed at nursing professionals on the care of primary caregivers of infants with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Methods: a pre-experimental study was carried out at the "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" University Polyclinic of the Santa Clara municipality, in Villa Clara, from 2018 to 2020. Theoretical methods were used: historical-logical, analytical-synthetic, systematization, inductive-deductive and systemic-structural; empirical ones: documentary analysis, questionnaire and open interview; and mathematical-statistics. Results: an upgrading course aimed at nursing professionals was designed and applied, based on the integration of theoretical foundations from the identification of learning needs, and made up of seven topics with their objectives, topics, materials and teaching aids and evaluation system, which was approved by the scientific council of Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences. Conclusions: the upgrading course implemented on the care of primary caregivers of infants with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder is considered effective as it produces meaningful changes in the level of knowledge of the professionals and the satisfaction expressed by them.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Medicina do Comportamento , Cuidadores , Medicina Comunitária , Programa
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2119-2130, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231724

RESUMO

The training, recruitment and retention of primary care professionals is a constant challenge in Brazil. The recent expansion of family and community medicine residency programs in the country coexists with gaps in the literature on the effects of this process. This article explores municipal health managers' understanding of these programs and the role they play in professional training and improving the quality of health care. We conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the responses to questionnaires answered by 48 health managers working in municipal health services affiliated to residency programs. A descriptive statistical analysis of the quantitative data was performed and the qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings show that efforts were made to incorporate family and community doctors into the health care network and that managers recognized the potential residency program have to improve the quality of care and enhance professional training. Weaknesses were found in actions to improve infrastructure and facilities and the organization of the services affiliated to the programs. This study highlights the potential of residency programs for addressing longstanding problems in primary health care in Brazil when combined with actions to strengthen services, human resources and the programs.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária , Internato e Residência , Brasil , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 23(1): 0-0, mar.-jun. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201956

RESUMO

La soledad es un fenómeno emergente relacionado con la pérdida funcional de las capacidades básicas (ABVD), el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades y el aumento de la morbimortalidad. Objetivo principal: describir la prevalencia del sentimiento de soledad en las personas > 60 años de un entorno semirrural. Objetivos secundarios: estudiar la relación de la soledad con factores personales y uso de los servicios médicos. Estudio transversal en el ámbito de la Atención Primaria. Población de estudio: personas entre 60 y 85 años usuarias del Centre d'Atenció Primaria Palafrugell. La variable principal es la soledad medida con una escala validada en España (Escala De Jong y Gierveld de 11 ítems [DJGS-11]). Se pasó la escala a los usuarios del centro de salud mediante entrevista telefónica. Obtuvimos una muestra aleatoria de 149 pacientes estratificada por edad y sexo. El 54,4% de las personas estudiadas se sienten solas en Palafrugell. Existe más riesgo de probabilidad (RP) de sentirse solo entre las personas de 71-85 años que entre las de 60-70 años (p > 0,05; RP = 1,41), entre aquellos que tienen una mala percepción de la salud (p < 0,05; RP = 1,65), viven solos (p < 0,05, RP = 1,48) y no tienen carné de conducir (p < 0,05; RP = 1,48). Las personas solas visitan el doble las urgencias hospitalarias (p < 0,05; RP = 1,98). La soledad es un determinante de salud importante en la población anciana, ya que una de cada dos de estas personas experimenta soledad. Se han observado tendencias como la relación entre soledad y uso de los servicios sanitarios, pero son necesarios más estudios en esta dirección


Loneliness is an emergent social phenomenon related to a loss of basic activities of daily living (Barthel Index), increased risk of developing disease as well as morbidity and mortality rate. The main objective was to report the prevalence of loneliness in elderly people (> 60 years old) in a non-urban setting. The secondary objective was to study the relationship between personal factors and use of health services. We performed a transversal study in the scope of primary care. People aged 60 to 85 years old and users of the Primary Health Care Centre from Palafrugell were included. The De Jong and Gierveld 11-item scale was used to determine loneliness by phone interview. We obtained a random sample of 149 patients which was stratified by age and sex. The prevalence of loneliness in Palafrugell is 54,4%. There is a higher risk of feeling lonely in those people aged 71-85 years old compared to those aged 60-70 years old (p > 0,05; RP = 1,41), those who have a poor perception of one's own state of health (P < 0,05; RP = 1,65), those who live alone (p < 0,05; RP = 1,48) and do not have a driving licence (p < 0,05; RP = 1,48). Lonely people visit the casualty department twice as often (p < 0,05; RP = 1,98). Loneliness is a key health determinant in elderly people and one in two feels lonely. Trends such as the relationship between loneliness and use of health services are observed. However, further studies along these lines are needed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Solidão/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923868

RESUMO

Health professionals are among the most vulnerable to work stress and emotional exhaustion problems. These health professionals include tutors and resident intern specialists, due to the growing demand for the former and the high work overload of the latter. Mindfulness training programs can support these professionals during times of crisis, such as the current global pandemic caused by the coronavirus-19 disease. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an abbreviated Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) training program in relation to a standard training program on the levels of mindfulness, self-compassion, and self-perceived empathy in tutors and resident intern specialists of Family and Community Medicine and Nursing. A total of 112 professionals attached to six Spanish National Health System teaching units (TUs) participated in this randomized and controlled clinical trial. Experimental Group (GE) participants were included in the standard or abbreviated MBSR programs. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Self-Compassion Scale short form (SCS-SF), and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) were administered three times during the study: before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Adjusted covariance analysis (ANCOVA), using pretest scores as the covariate, showed a significant increase in mindfulness (F(2,91) = 3.271; p = 0.042; η2 = 0.067) and self-compassion (F(2,91) = 6.046; p = 0.003; η2 = 0.117) in the post-test visit, and in self-compassion (F(2,79) = 3.880; p = 0.025; η2 = 0.089) in the follow-up visit, attributable to the implementation of the standard training program. The standard MBSR and MSC training program improves levels of mindfulness and self-compassion, and promotes long-lasting effects in tutors and resident intern specialists. New studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of abbreviated training programs.


Assuntos
Empatia , Atenção Plena , Medicina Comunitária , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Espanha , Especialização
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(4): 1265-1274, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of family medicine residence on the PHC referral rate. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study on 375.645 visits and 34.776 referrals by 123 PHC physicians in 2016, linking the referral rate to the characteristics of doctors (gender, age, family medicine training), patients (gender and age) and service (general population and working population). RESULTS: Family and community medicine residency training had a significant reduction in PHC referral rate (2.86%), CI:(1.55;4.17), p < 0,0001. This reduction persisted in the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for all the possible confounding variables. No difference was found between the referral rates of doctors with and without family and community medicine (FCM) degree. Concerning referral to specialties, doctors with FCM residence training had lower rates of referral to gynecology, psychiatry and pediatrics and higher rates of referral to ophthalmology. CONCLUSION: The study showed that FCM residency significantly reduced PHC referral rates.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta
8.
Tunis Med ; 99(1): 5-11, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899170

RESUMO

Mohamed Soussi SOLTANI (June 27, 1953 - March 2, 2016) is Professor of Preventive and Community Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of Monastir (Tunisia). The objective of this paper is to present, to new generations of the specialty in the Greater Maghreb, this leading teacher from the Center-East of Tunisia (Monastir), through the testimonies of his companions, and his indexed publications. All the colleagues of the late SOLTANI testified to his high human and professional qualities, particularly perseverance, commitment, forward thinking, integrity and professionalism. The scientific life of the late Professor Soltani was oriented towards two major themes: Public Health and Family Medicine. Indeed, the deceased has developed several new preventive activities in first-line structures such as anonymous and free HIV screening, family planning, rational use of drugs, breast cancer screening, smoking cessation, prevention of rheumatic heart disease. Pr SOLTANI welcomed general practitioners from the Monastir region to the Faculty's Community Medicine Department, creating with them a movement to advocate for the academic and professional development of general medicine into an authentic specialty of family medicine. Out of the 34 publications of Professor SOLTANI, indexed on PubMed, 11 were signed by himself in first position, mainly relating to maternal health (prenatal surveillance, education for maternal health, pregnancy referral system) and infant (low birth weight, vaccination, mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B, meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae). Thus, with a life prospering by innovations and research in public health, Professor SOLTANI will always remain a model for young people in the specialty of Preventive and Community Medicine. His followers have an obligation to write his complete biography, to safeguard it and pass it on to new generations of public health.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Saúde Pública , Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Adolescente , Medicina Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Tunísia
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 207-215, 2021 03.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The recent lockdown, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, has had a strong social and psychological impact on the most fragile individuals and family structures. In the present work we investigated the experience of families without specific elements of social or health vulnerability during the quarantine period that occurred in the spring of 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May and July 2020, 22 primary care pediatricians belonging to AUSL Romagna administered to a number of families a questionnaire to detect changes that occurred, during the lockdown, in family environment, school attendance and personal attitudes. RESULTS: A total of 721 questionnaires were collected, analyzing the associations between variables relating to home environment, daily rhythms, school and warning signs in relation to the age of children. As a result of the lockdown, family habits changed in 31% of cases, with a greater presence of the reference figure in 68% of these. Three out of four families reported they had sufficient domestic spaces, and nine out of ten had access to an outdoor, private or condominium space. Daily rhythms were preserved in 56.7% of cases; mood disorders appeared in 30% of adolescent children, followed by sleep, appetite and psychosomatic disorders. One in three children has made progress in terms of evolution and behavior, and one in 5 children has seen their relationships improve. The overall resilience of families during the lockdown period was considered good in 66.3%, sufficient in 31.3% and not satisfactory in only 2.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that, in the interviewed families, the simultaneous presence of adults and children at home has generally intensified. Families refer, on the whole, a positive and resilient behavior in the lockdown period, even if initial emotional problems are reported in one out of three children-adolescents. The ability to maintain a family organized structure seems to be partially compromised. Forced cohabitation leads to competition for the same resources of time and space and affects the entire family unit. The school institution emerges as a protective factor for children, young people and also for the well-being of families themselves.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicina Comunitária , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Pandemias , Pediatras , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aglomeração/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/etiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
10.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(1): 69-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431396

RESUMO

The uprisings for racial justice that followed the brutal murder of George Floyd on May 28, 2020 in Minneapolis, Minnesota damaged the physical building where a family medicine residency is situated. We discuss the emotions that follow that event and reflect on ways that family medicine should address racism and discrimination. We also call on those in family medicine to work more in the communities that we serve, and to make advocacy a core part of the identity of family medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Racismo , Justiça Social , Emoções , Humanos
12.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2589, 20210126. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282028

RESUMO

Introduction: Authors choose scholarly journals not only to advance their careers but also to interact with their respective scholarly communities. Objective: To describe the journals where family and community physicians in Brazil publish their work. Methods: In late 2018, we compiled a nationwide list of family and community physicians, and downloaded their curricula from the Lattes Platform. We extracted data on their complete journal articles from their curricula, completed these data with queries to CrossRef, VHL/LILACS, and PubMed/MEDLINE, and obtained data on the journals with queries to the United States NLM Catalog. Results: We found 3558 unique articles, published by 1011 journals. The most productive journal was RBMFC (Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade), which published 347 (9.8%) of these articles. About one in six articles were published in journals on family practice or primary health care. The proportion of articles published in journals in Brazil decreased during the study period from 83.8% to 58.4%. Conclusion: As in other countries, family and community physicians in Brazil usually publish in the national journal dedicated to their scholarly community, while also publishing extensively in journals from other disciplines. The increasing proportion of articles published in journals outside Brazil suggests primary care research in Brazil is increasingly of international relevance.


Introdução: Os autores escolhem periódicos acadêmicos não apenas para avançar em suas carreiras, mas também para interagir com suas respectivas comunidades acadêmicas. Objetivo: Descrever as revistas onde médicos de família e comunidade do Brail publicam seus trabalhos. Métodos: No final de 2018, compilamos uma lista nacional de médicos de família e comunidade e baixamos seus currículos da Plataforma Lattes. Extraímos dados de seus artigos completos de periódicos de seus currículos, completamos esses dados com consultas a CrossRef, BVS/LILACS e PubMed/MEDLINE, e obtivemos dados dos periódicos com consultas ao NLM Catalog, dos Estados Unidos. Resultados: foram encontrados 3558 artigos únicos, publicados por 1011 periódicos. O periódico mais produtivo foi a RBMFC (Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade), que publicou 347 (9,8%) desses artigos. Cerca de um em cada seis artigos foram publicados em periódicos sobre medicina de família e comunidade ou atenção primária à saúde. A proporção de artigos publicados em periódicos no Brasil diminuiu no período do estudo de 83,8% para 58,4%. Conclusão: Como em outros países, os médicos de família e comunidade no Brasil costumam publicar em periódico nacional dedicado à sua comunidade acadêmica, ao mesmo tempo que publicam extensivamente em periódicos de outras disciplinas. A crescente proporção de artigos publicados em periódicos fora do Brasil sugere que a pesquisa em atenção primária no Brasil é cada vez mais de relevância internacional.


Introducción: Los autores eligen revistas académicas no solo para avanzar en sus carreras, sino también para interactuar con sus respectivas comunidades académicas. Objetivo: Describir las revistas donde los médicos de familia y comunidad en Brasil publican su trabajo. Métodos: a fines de 2018, compilamos una lista nacional de médicos de familia y comunidad y descargamos sus currículos de la Plataforma Lattes. Extrajimos datos sobre sus artículos completos de revistas de su currículos, completamos estos datos con consultas a CrossRef, BVS/LILACS y PubMed/MEDLINE, y obtuvimos datos sobre las revistas con consultas al NLM Catalog, de Estados Unidos. Resultados: se encontraron 3558 artículos únicos, publicados por 1011 revistas. La revista más productiva fue RBMFC (Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade), que publicó 347 (9,8%) de estos artículos. Aproximadamente uno de cada seis artículos se publicó en revistas de medicina familiar o atención primaria de salud. La proporción de artículos publicados en revistas en Brasil disminuyó durante el período de estudio del 83,8% al 58,4%. Conclusión: Al igual que en otros países, los médicos de familia y comunidad en Brasil suelen publicar en la revista nacional dedicada a su comunidad académica, mientras que también publican extensamente en revistas de otras disciplinas. La creciente proporción de artículos publicados en revistas fuera de Brasil sugiere que la investigación en atención primaria en Brasil es cada vez más de relevancia internacional.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Editoração , Medicina Comunitária , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Brasil
15.
Ir J Med Sci ; 190(1): 379-385, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) patients are at a high risk of Emergency Department (ED) attendance, and adverse events in the ED. With an increasing NH population, monitoring trends in ED utilization is important to aid service planning, and attention to potentially preventable attendances should be paid, to identify areas that may benefit from specialist support. AIMS: This 12-year (2008-2019) study aimed to observe trends in ED utilization of NH patients in a single urban Irish catchment area, surrounding the introduction of a Community Medicine for the Older Person (CMOP) outreach program. METHOD: A retrospective review of all NH attendances within the catchment area was performed based upon NH address. Attendance, admission, discharge, and died in department (DID) were adjusted per annual NH bed numbers (PBC). Trends were observed and compared pre and post the CMOP activation. Comparisons of continuous variables were performed using an unpaired parametric Student's t test. RESULTS: There were 6877 attendances, with 58% (n = 3989) admitted, 40% (n = 2785) discharged, and 2% (n = 123) DID. There was a statistically significant difference in mean discharge rate PBC pre and post the CMOP introduction (0.22 vs 0.16, P = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in attendance, admission, or DID. CONCLUSION: This is the first Irish study of NH ED utilization over an extended period. ED attendances PBC have not decreased since the introduction of the CMOP. Discharges PBC, however, have decreased and may represent a decrease in potentially preventable attendance/improvement in appropriateness of ED transfers, following the introduction of this intervention.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Casas de Saúde/normas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Urbana
16.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(6): 567-571, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200248

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir las actividades formativas en participación comunitaria en salud que se realizan en España. MÉTODO: Identificación y análisis descriptivo de las acciones formativas en el periodo 2017-2018 en los ámbitos de la universidad, la Administración pública y las unidades docentes de medicina y enfermería familiar y comunitaria. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 28 actividades formativas en el análisis descriptivo de ocho comunidades autónomas diferentes y dos de ámbito nacional. La mayoría de las actividades formativas son presenciales e impartidas por unidades docentes de formación especializada para profesionales de medicina y enfermería de atención familiar y comunitaria, con una duración de entre 10 y 25 horas, y sin coste de matriculación. CONCLUSIÓN: Existe un vacío formativo en la mayoría de las comunidades autónomas que evidencia que la formación en participación comunitaria en salud es escasa y está poco integrada. Las actividades formativas analizadas están incluidas principalmente en la formación de especialistas de medicina y enfermería de familia y comunitaria, si bien esta formación no está unificada ni se incorpora en todos los planes docentes. Para una mirada integral sobre la salud de las personas es esencial incluir la participación comunitaria en salud en la formación de grado y posgrado, tanto del ámbito sanitario como de otras disciplinas. Las instituciones responsables de la formación en los diferentes niveles deben incluir la participación comunitaria en salud en los itinerarios formativos de los profesionales


OBJECTIVE: To describe the professional training health professionals receive in community health engagement in Spain. METHOD: The identification and descriptive analysis of trainings developed between 2013-2018 offered by public universities, public administrations and the teaching units for the specialization of family and community health doctors and nurses. RESULTS: Twenty eight trainings were included in the descriptive analysis. Most of them had been organized during 2018 in eight Autonomous Communities. Two of them were organized at a national level. Most trainings were attendance based and have been developed by teaching units in charge of training doctors and nurses specializing in family and community health, with an average duration of 10-25hours and no enrolment costs. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of training in community health engagement in the majority of autonomous communities in Spain which shows that it is scarce and not yet fully integrated in the training of health professionals. The trainings that have been analyzed are mainly part of wider specialization programs for doctors and nurses specializing in family and community health, and even so this training is not standardized and included in the specialization programs of all the Spanish regions. To develop a comprehensive health approach it is key to include community health engagement as part of the trainings professionals receive during their University degree, and to extend it to other health professions. The institutions responsible for the training of health professionals should include community health engagement as part of the different training itineraries of professionals


Assuntos
Humanos , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Educação em Saúde/tendências , Espanha/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração
17.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(11): 1352-1371, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106860

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Emergency medical services (EMS) programs have been using point-of-care testing (POCT) for more than 20 years. However, only a handful of reports have been published in all of that time on POCT practices in field settings. OBJECTIVE.­: To provide an overview of POCT practices and failure modes in 3 of Alberta's EMS programs, and to propose risk-mitigation strategies for reducing or eliminating these failure modes. DESIGN.­: Details about POCT practices, failure modes, and risk-mitigation strategies were gathered through (1) conversations with personnel, (2) in-person tours of EMS bases, (3) accompaniment of EMS personnel on missions, (4) internet searches for publicly available information, and (5) a review of laboratory documents. RESULTS.­: Practices were most standardized and robust in the community paramedicine program (single service provider, full laboratory oversight), and least standardized and robust in the air ambulance program (4 service providers, limited laboratory oversight). Common failure modes across all 3 programs included device inoperability due to cold weather, analytical validation procedures that failed to consider the unique challenges of EMS settings, and a lack of real-time electronic transmission of results into the health care record. CONCLUSIONS.­: A provincial framework for POCT in EMS programs is desirable. Such a framework should include appropriate funding models, laboratory oversight of POCT, and relevant expertise on POCT in EMS settings. The framework should also incorporate specific guidance on quality standards that are needed to address the unique challenges of performing POCT in field settings.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Testes Imediatos/normas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Resgate Aéreo/normas , Resgate Aéreo/estatística & dados numéricos , Alberta , Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/normas , Medicina Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193594

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: el modelo de los activos comunitarios se caracteriza por fomentar condiciones de salud que potencian las capacidades y habilidades individuales y colectivas. El objetivo de este proyecto ha sido identificar el mapa de activos en salud del barrio Arturo Eyries de Valladolid, para promover la prescripción social por parte del personal sanitario y hacer más visibles los recursos de los que dispone la comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: se han utilizado diferentes técnicas de mapeo: búsqueda de datos en internet, redes sociales, periódicos, paseos por el barrio, entrevistas, mapas mudos y fotovoz. Se incluyeron pacientes y profesionales sanitarios del Centro de Salud Arturo Eyries. RESULTADOS: se ha recogido información de un total de 40 participantes: 10 profesionales sanitarios y 30 pacientes del centro de salud. El resultado de esta investigación fueron 37 activos clasificados en seis categorías: sanidad, ocio y cultura, apoyo social, educación, ejercicio físico y transporte. Con todo esto se ha creado un fichero de activos, un mapa del barrio, una página web, un tríptico y una sesión clínica para los profesionales del centro. CONCLUSIONES: este proyecto de mapeo constituye el punto de partida para mejorar el conocimiento que los profesionales sanitarios y los pacientes tienen sobre los recursos de salud de su entorno. Este trabajo representa el inicio de una red para la promoción de la salud, dirigida a implicar a instituciones y responsables políticos en la creación de una cartografía común, a nivel ciudad o incluso comunidad autónoma, de activos para la salud


INTRODUCTION: The community assets model is characterized by fostering health conditions that enhance individual and collective capacities and abilities. The aim of this project has been to identify the map of health assets in the Arturo Eyries neighbourhood of Valladolid to promote social prescription by health personnel, and to make the resources available to the community more visible. METHODOLOGY: Different mapping techniques have been used: internet data search, social networks, newspapers, walks around the neighbourhood, interviews, silent maps and photovoice. Patients and health professionals from the Arturo Eyries health centre were included in this study. RESULTS: Information was collected from a total of 40 participants: 10 health professionals and 30 health centre patients. The result of this research was 37 assets classified into six categories: health, leisure and culture, social support, education, physical exercise and transport. With all this, an asset file, a map of the neighbourhood, a web page, a leaflet and a clinical session for the centre's professionals were created. CONCLUSIONS: This mapping project is the starting point for improving the knowledge that health professionals and patients have about the health resources of their environment. This work represents the beginning of a network for health promotion, and we would like to involve institutions and the politicians in the creation of common mapping, at local or regional level, of health assets


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Medicina Comunitária , Pessoal de Saúde , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Características de Residência , Nível de Saúde , Espanha
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In community-based medical education, opportunities for medical students to interact with local residents are important. To facilitate such interaction, we aimed to evaluate acceptance of a homestay program and attitude toward community medicine among medical students. METHODS: The participants (n = 39) were allowed to stay in the local homes of residents for one night in August 2016, 2017, and 2018. Before and after the homestays, the students responded to a self-reported questionnaire using the visual analog scale (VAS; 0-100 mm). The questionnaire included four questions on homestay/community medical training and community medicine and four questions about attitude toward community medicine in the local areas of medical students. Then, we compared the VAS scores before and after training. RESULTS: The VAS scores for all questions about homestay/community medical training and community medicine significantly increased: "Is it worthwhile for you to have experience in the field of community medicine," "Did you find the homestay enjoyable," "Does the homestay add educational significance to the program," and "Is direct interaction with residents meaningful?" For the two questions about attitude toward community medicine, the VAS scores significantly increased: "Is there a challenge to practicing community medicine" and "In the future, do you want to work in Tamba area where you stayed?" CONCLUSIONS: The medical students were extremely enthusiastic about the educational program for community medicine involving residential homestays, which improved their attitudes toward practicing community medicine. Moreover, the students appreciated that their training sites could become their future workplaces.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Medicina Comunitária , Educação Médica/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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