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1.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 155-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During cruises, the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections poses serious organizational problems such as those encountered in 2020 by the Zaandam, the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle or the Diamond Princess. In French Polynesia, the mixed cargo ship Aranui 5 transports both tourists and freight to the Marquesas Islands. The purpose of this article is to show how COVID-19 infections were diagnosed and contained before and after passengers boarded a cruise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On October 15, 2020, 161 passengers including 80 crew members embarked for a 13-day voyage from Papeete to the Marquesas Islands. Prior to boarding, all passengers underwent a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test; the tests results were all negative. On Day 0, 3, 5, 8 and 11, Biosynex® rapid antigen diagnostic tests were carried out on all or some of the crew members and tourists who may have had contact with new positive cases. Each day, forehead or temporal temperatures were measured using an infrared thermometer and questions were asked concerning the subjects' health status. When a subject was positive, the person and their contacts were isolated in individual cabins. The infected person then left the vessel to be received in a communal reception centre on the nearest island. RESULTS: A total of 9 positive cases were observed, including two before departure (a tourist and a crew member). During the trip, 7 crew members tested positive. The patients and their contacts were isolated and then disembarked at the earliest opportunity. At the time of sampling, the subjects were asymptomatic. The patients and their contacts all became symptomatic within 24 to 48 hours after sampling. CONCLUSIONS: In total, the voyage could be completed without any transmission on board among the tourists and with a minimum transmission among the crew members, thus maintaining the tourist and economic activity of the islands during the times of COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicina Naval/métodos , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Polinésia , Quarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Navios , Viagem
2.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 179-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604986

RESUMO

The increasing availability of safe and authorised coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines for the first time provides the opportunity to vaccinate seafarers on board their ships while in port. Speedy vaccination of seafarers secures their health and serves to avoid the international propagation of COVID-19 virus variants via maritime traffic. As a port medical clinic, we will share our practical vaccination experience on board of merchant vessels in German/European ports with our esteemed coastal colleagues to stimulate their participation in this endeavour. You will have to adapt the procedure to your national particularities, otherwise please freely share the information with interested parties. Detailed guidance on COVID-19 vaccination in shipping and accompanying legal issues was published by the International Chamber of Shipping (www.ics-shipping.org).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicina Naval/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina do Trabalho/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Navios , Vacinação/normas
3.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 183-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604987

RESUMO

This narrative review examines current academic literature on the mental health of Filipino seafarers working internationally, including the mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Framed within a rights-based approach, it aims to identify and analyse emerging themes on Filipino seafarers' mental health literature to understand what these studies potentially mean for the improvement of seafarers' education on mental health. Based on a broad selection criteria, 28 eligible papers demonstrate collectively three key findings: firstly, there is paucity in published research on seafarers' mental health; secondly, the majority of published studies are associated with a recent piracy crisis, where a significant number of mariners were attacked, taken as hostages, or killed; thirdly, three key areas emerged under which research on Filipino seafarers' mental health can be organized: the medical repatriation of seafarers, system of care for the mental health of seafarers including the diagnostic standards used, and seafarers' experiences and conceptions of mental health including the mental health effects of COVID-19. Though the bulk of the current understanding of the mental health problems is associated with piracy, several risk factors for which the quality of quantitative and qualitative evidence are patchy. The few sources of primary data to date lack focus on mental health needs which makes it difficult to grasp the extent of the problem. Developing policies and programmes for the promotion of mental health through mental health education among seafarers is important for a couple of reasons. Seafaring remains a dangerous and socially isolating occupation where work-related accidents are likely and will be potentially traumatic to mariners. Research on occupational stressors is increasingly providing evidence of their contributions to poor mental health outcomes among seafarers. Thus, mental health education of seafarers in the context of their work is important for proactive training and development.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/educação , Medicina Naval/métodos , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Filipinas/etnologia , Navios
5.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 71(6-7): 277-283, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparative long-term trends in fatal accident rates in the UK's most hazardous occupations have not been reported. AIMS: To compare trends in fatal accident rates in six of the most hazardous occupations (the three armed forces, merchant shipping, sea fishing and coal mining) and the general British workforce during peacetime years since 1900. METHODS: Examinations of annual mortality reports, returns, inquiry files and statistics. The main outcome measure was the fatal accident rate per 100 000 population employed. RESULTS: These six occupations accounted for ~40% of all fatal accidents in the British workforce. Fatal accident rates were highest in merchant shipping to 1914 (400-600 per 100 000) and in the Royal Air Force and sea fishing by the early 1920s (around 300 per 100 000). Since the 1950s sea fishing has remained the most hazardous occupation (50-200). Widespread reductions in fatal accident rates for each occupation have been greatest in recent years in the three armed forces and merchant shipping. Compared with the general workforce, relative risks of fatalities have increased in recent decades in all these occupations except shipping. CONCLUSIONS: All six occupations still have high fatal accident rates. The greatly increased fatalities in sea fishing generally and in the Royal Air Force during its early years reflect, for different reasons, cultures of extreme risk-taking in these two sectors. Reductions in fatality rates in the armed forces over the last 20 years are due largely to decreases in land transport accidents.


Assuntos
Militares , Medicina Naval , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho , Humanos , Ocupações , Navios
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(2S Suppl 2): S46-S55, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324471

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In the future, United States Navy Role 1 and Role 2 shipboard medical departments will be caring for patients during Distributed Maritime Operations in both contested and noncontested austere environments; likely for prolonged periods of time. This literature review examines 25 modern naval mass casualty incidents over a 40-year period representative of naval warfare, routine naval operations, and ship-based health service support of air and land operations. Challenges, lessons learned, and injury patterns are identified to prepare afloat medical departments for the future fight. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Literature Review, level V.


Assuntos
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Medicina Naval , Previsões , Humanos , Medicina Naval/tendências , Medicina Submarina , Transporte de Pacientes , Estados Unidos , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/mortalidade , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/terapia
7.
Int Marit Health ; 72(2): 87-92, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People on ships are at high risk for outbreaks of infectious diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A rapid and well-coordinated response is important to curb transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We studied an outbreak on an industrial ship to improve outbreak control for ships and coordination between participating harbour partners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Public Health Service (PHS) Rotterdam-Rijnmond performed an epidemiological investigation during the outbreak of COVID-19 among 77 seafarers on a ship in their port. The captain was interviewed about ship details and his experiences during the outbreak. The seafarers were asked to fill in questionnaires about symptoms suspicious of COVID-19 and date of symptom onset. Information about stakeholders involved in outbreak control was registered. RESULTS: The captain first contacted PHS about probable cases on March 31st 2020 via a physician ashore. One crewmember was hospitalised on April 8th and another died unexpectedly aboard on April 10th. Questionnaires distributed mid-April to the 75 remaining seafarers showed that 38 of 60 responders (63%) had had suspicious symptoms between February 15th and April 13th. None of them were tested but a total of 8 other crewmembers tested positive for COVID-19 after leaving the ship, including the hospitalised crewmember and the one who died aboard. On May 5th, the last case left isolation and the quarantine ended. Many different stakeholders were involved in the outbreak response and responsibilities were not always fully clear beforehand, causing coordination issues. CONCLUSIONS: Testing crew with COVID-19 symptoms underpins control measures and clarifies communication between stakeholders. Building a network beforehand to develop outbreak guidelines tailored to ships and local circumstances is essential to control future outbreaks on ships.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Navios , Adulto , Humanos , Medicina Naval/métodos , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem
10.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 799-803, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327966

RESUMO

Today, the presence of specifics in the organization of the work of sea cargo, fishing and passenger ships is indisputable, which affects the difficulties in providing qualified timely medical care in case of need. This issue is especially urgent in the context of the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus infection COVID-19. The article carried out a detailed analysis of the regulatory framework governing the formation of the list of ship's first aid kit and formulated the appropriate conclusions and recommendations. In addition, the article developed recommendations for supplementing the ship's list with drugs necessary for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Primeiros Socorros/instrumentação , Medicina Naval , Recursos Humanos , Humanos , Navios
11.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 808-812, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327968

RESUMO

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the issue of protecting the vital functions of crew members on ship's board in conditions of a long voyage and stay in a confined space is urgent. In addition, excluding cases of infection with a new coronavirus infection, one must not forget about the readiness to provide first and subsequent medical assistance in case of urgent need to any crew member, and this can sometimes be done only by using drugs containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in treatment or medical care. The analysis carried out indicates that there is no normative legal regulation of the composition of a first-aid kit in the Russian Federation, and many of the available international documents are for the most part advisory in nature. In this regard, the article carried out a detailed analysis of the regulatory framework governing the procedure for providing ships for overseas navigation with drugs, including those containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, to protect the health of crew members of sea vessels in the context of the spread of COVID-19 and formulated the appropriate conclusions and recommendations.


Assuntos
Entorpecentes/provisão & distribuição , Psicotrópicos/provisão & distribuição , Navios , COVID-19 , Humanos , Medicina Naval , Pandemias , Federação Russa
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205743

RESUMO

Noise has long been neglected as an environmental pollutant and impairment health factor in maritime transport. Recently, acoustic pollution indicates the highest growth in transport external cost unit values. In 2020, questionnaires were submitted to seafarers to examine their noise exposure and perception on board and attitudes towards noise abatement measures. Responses of 189 participants were processed using descriptive statistics and Likert scale valuation, while their consistency was tested with indirect indicators using linear regression and correlation test. Results show that more than 40% of respondents do not consider noise as a significant environmental problem. The negative perception among respondents with ≥10 years of work experience was much lower (23.53%). Most are aware of the onboard noise harmful effects that can influence their health. Despite that, they use personal protection equipment only sometimes. A higher positive perception was recorded in groups of respondents with a university degree (90%), work experience longer than ten years (82.35%), and monthly income higher than 4000 € (70%). Respondents are not strongly motivated to participate in funding noise mitigation measures, and such a viewpoint is not related to their monthly incomes. The low awareness and motivation regarding acoustic pollution generally shown by the surveyed seafarers should be watched as a threat by the company managers. Better education and awareness are likely to be crucial to change the current state of affairs.


Assuntos
Medicina Naval , Saúde do Trabalhador , Atitude , Humanos , Percepção , Navios , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048660, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To curb the spread of COVID-19, most countries have adopted measures such as banning shore leave at ports and placed restrictions on crew change. Seafarers may bear an excess pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with depression symptoms among Chinese seafarers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This field survey-based study was conducted at Rongcheng Port, Shandong Province, China, from 10 June 2020 to 25 July 2020. Sociodemographic and occupational characteristics and health-related behaviours were collected through a face-to-face questionnaire. The Self-Rating Depression Scale was used to evaluate depression status during the preceding week. Logistic regression models were used to explore factors related to depression. RESULTS: 441 male Chinese seafarers were enrolled. Overall, the proportions of seafarers with low, moderate and severe depression symptoms were 23.35%, 9.30% and 9.07%, respectively. Compared with those with good self-rated health (SRH), seafarers with poor SRH had higher odds of depression (OR, 2.24, 95% CI 1.22 to 4.11). Less leisure time or physical exercise was associated with more severe self-reported depression symptoms (1-3 per week vs ≥4 per week: OR, 1.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.14; none vs ≥4 per week: OR, 3.93, 95% CI 1.67 to 9.26). Poor sleep quality was associated with higher likelihood of reporting severe depression (fair vs good: OR, 2.78, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.01; poor vs good: OR, 4.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 11.24). The more frequent seafarers worked overtime a week, the higher the likelihood of reporting severe depression symptoms (1-2 per week vs none: OR, 1.82, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.18; ≥3 per week vs none: OR, 2.49, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.92). Also, high perceived work stress was linked to higher odds of being depressed (intermediate vs low: OR, 2.06, 95% CI 0.78 to 5.46; high vs low: OR, 3.83, 95% CI 1.35 to 10.90). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high burden of depression associated with COVID-19 among seafarers. Special interventions that protect the mental health of seafarers are more critical than ever in the context of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Ansiedade , COVID-19/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Naval , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int Marit Health ; 72(1): 49-54, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working and living on board merchant vessels often constitute high psychophysical stress for the crews. In this study, the current stress of seafarers is examined by using observation-based and subjective measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The workplaces of 70 crew members on board 11 container ships were analysed and evaluated using the objective instrument for the situational screening of mental workload (SMW-S). In addition, standardised interviews were carried out with 198 seafarers about their subjectively experienced stress. RESULTS: According to SMW-S, nautical and technical officers experience psychological strain due to their limited decision latitude, risky work situations and the physical and psychosocial working conditions. Among the ratings, psychological distress is more likely due to the limited decision latitude, physical and psychosocial working conditions and low qualification requirements (and, for the engine room ratings, given the low complexity and variability in their work). The interview results show that the irregular work is stressful for 79% of seafarers, the long working periods for 77%, the long working hours per day for 69% and working under time pressure for 62%. Additional psychosocial burdens are present for 95% of seafarers due to family separation and for 65% due to existing social differences in a multicultural occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the stressful work on board, particular attention must be paid to shipping-specific conditions such as long working times, family and socio-cultural separation and living together in a heterogeneous crew.


Assuntos
Medicina Naval , Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Navios , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Carga de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho
15.
Br Dent J ; 230(7): 383, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837306
16.
N Z Med J ; 134(1529): 26-38, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582705

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to estimate the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks in a COVID-19-free destination country (New Zealand) associated with shore leave by merchant ship crews who were infected prior to their departure or on their ship. METHODS: We used a stochastic version of the SEIR model CovidSIM v1.1 designed specifically for COVID-19. It was populated with parameters for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, shipping characteristics and plausible control measures. RESULTS: When no control interventions were in place, we estimated that an outbreak of COVID-19 in New Zealand would occur after a median time of 23 days (assuming a global average for source country incidence of 2.66 new infections per 1,000 population per week, crews of 20 with a voyage length of 10 days and 1 day of shore leave per crew member both in New Zealand and abroad, and 108 port visits by international merchant ships per week). For this example, the uncertainty around when outbreaks occur is wide (an outbreak occurs with 95% probability between 1 and 124 days). The combination of PCR testing on arrival, self-reporting of symptoms with contact tracing and mask use during shore leave increased this median time to 1.0 year (14 days to 5.4 years, or a 49% probability within a year). Scenario analyses found that onboard infection chains could persist for well over 4 weeks, even with crews of only 5 members. CONCLUSION: This modelling work suggests that the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 through shore leave from international shipping crews is likely, even after long voyages. But the risk can be substantially mitigated by control measures such as PCR testing and mask use.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Medicina Naval , Quarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Navios , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Máscaras , Medicina Naval/métodos , Medicina Naval/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
17.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(4): 397-401, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576704

RESUMO

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has impacted both land and maritime health services. The purpose of this study is to describe the calls received by the Tele-Medical Assistance Service (TMAS) in relation to this epidemic. Methods: From March 1 to 30 April 30, 2020, all records coded by TMAS doctors as "influenza due to an unidentified virus" were extracted. The following data were collected: patients' age, gender, nationality, role on board, type of ship, area of navigation, reason for the teleconsultation, patient's symptoms, whether or not a COVID test had been carried out, and treatment given. The data were analyzed in two groups, depending on the reason for the consultation: teleconsultation for suspected COVID patients and teleconsultation for non-COVID patients for whom the call was nevertheless related to the COVID pandemic. Results: Sixty-one records were included-51 for suspected COVID patients and 10 records for COVID-related problems (six patients whose treatment had stopped due to shortage of medication/one patient reporting a psychiatric problem associated with isolation, three patients followed up as contact cases). Forty-five patients presented with fever when the first call was made (88%) and 39 had a cough (76%). On closure of the medical records, 33 were receiving treatment on board (65%), 10 had disembarked (20%), 1 had been rerouted (2%), and 7 had been evacuated (13%). Discussion: TMAS was able to aid professional sailors as well as passengers/recreational sailors in terms of telemedicine (diagnosis and monitoring), logistics (barrier actions and isolation), and operations (evacuation and repatriation).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Naval , Consulta Remota , Telemedicina , França , Humanos , Pandemias
18.
World Neurosurg ; 145: 348-355, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992067

RESUMO

Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson is perhaps the most renowned naval commander, who allowed Britain to have dominion over the sea for 100 years after his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. He was able to do so despite suffering from a multitude of communicable diseases and traumatic injuries, including the functional loss of his right eye, amputation of his right arm, scalp laceration, head injury, and finally a spinal injury. These injuries had permanent consequences but did not stop him from leading the charge and allowing the British to defeat the French and Spanish fleets in the decisive Battle of Trafalgar.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/história , Medicina Naval/história , Traumatismos do Braço/história , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/história , Traumatismos Oculares/história , Pessoas Famosas , Cirurgia Geral/história , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo
20.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 76(1): 53-77, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211808

RESUMO

Efforts to improve the quality and quantity of seafarers in the Royal Navy and merchant service became a particular concern amidst the degeneration debates of late-Victorian Britain. Maritime reformers not only promoted fitness in adult sailors, but also particularly sought to improve health and physique of boy recruits in order to rear a new generation of healthy sailors. This article shows how both services experimented with tighter admission criteria and dietary and exercise reforms, and became early advocates of using metrical standards to exclude all but the fittest, healthiest boys from training opportunities. While the physical monitoring of boy recruits undoubtedly showed the value of early lifestyle interventions in fostering healthy development, the rising physical standards of British seafarers in this period was just as much the result of restrictive medical examinations as a commitment to welfare initiatives.


Assuntos
Militares/história , Medicina Naval/história , Adolescente , Criança , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
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