Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 44.367
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105260, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390926

RESUMO

From infancy, neural processes for perceiving others' actions and producing one's own actions overlap (neural mirroring). Adults and children show enhanced mirroring in social interactions. Yet, whether social context affects mirroring in infancy, a time when processing others' actions is crucial for action learning, remains unclear. We examined whether turn-taking, an early form of social interaction, enhanced 9-month-olds' neural mirroring. We recorded electroencephalography while 9-month-olds were grasping (execution) and observing live grasps (observation). In this design, half of the infants observed and acted in alternation (turn-taking condition), whereas the other half observed several times in a row before acting (blocked condition). Replicating previous findings, infants showed significant 6- to 9-Hz mu suppression (indicating motor activation) during execution and observation (n = 24). In addition, a condition (turn-taking or blocked) by time (action start or end) interaction indicated that infants engaged in turn-taking (n = 9), but not in the blocked context (n = 15), showed more mirroring when observing the action start compared with the action end. Exploratory analyses further suggest that (a) there is higher visual-motor functional connectivity in turn-taking toward the action's end, (b) mirroring relates to later visual-motor connectivity, and (c) visual attention as indexed by occipital alpha is enhanced in turn-taking compared with the blocked context. Together, this suggests that the neural processing of others' actions is modulated by the social context in infancy and that turn-taking may be particularly effective in engaging infants' action perception system.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento do Lactente , Adulto , Criança , Força da Mão , Humanos , Lactente , Meio Social
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210207, 2022. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339879

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo refletir sobre o conceito de vulnerabilidade em saúde à luz dos pressupostos de educação e liberdade de Hannah Arendt. Método estudo teórico-reflexivo cujos resultados foram agrupados em duas categorias: Vulnerabilidade em saúde como condição humana e Educação e liberdade do sujeito em situação de vulnerabilidade. Resultados a vulnerabilidade deve ser reconhecida como traço da condição humana, pois suas dimensões envolvem o sujeito e suas condições de saúde, materiais, socioambientais, culturais e jurídicas. Ao considerar a vulnerabilidade na perspectiva política e conscientizadora, a educação emerge como ferramenta para sobrepujá-las, pois possibilita desenvolver as singularidades dos sujeitos, preparando-os para a responsabilidade com o mundo; propicia superar a alienação; concretiza o aprendizado político e a tomada de decisões. Tudo isso reunido é crucial para suplantar a condição de vulnerabilidade frente às desigualdades existentes no mundo e o respeito à liberdade dos sujeitos. Conclusão e implicações para a prática pensamentos arendtianos guardam relação com vulnerabilidade, pois a conscientização, por meio da educação, é indispensável ao aprimoramento do atual contexto social e político. A busca do ser humano pela liberdade e o encorajamento de suas ações oportunizam a evolução do sujeito no mundo.


Resumen Objetivo reflexionar sobre el concepto de vulnerabilidad en salud a la luz de los supuestos de educación y libertad de Hannah Arendt. Método estudio teórico-reflexivo cuyos resultados se agruparon en dos categorías: Vulnerabilidad en salud como condición humana y Educación y libertad del sujeto en situación de vulnerabilidad. Resultados la vulnerabilidad debe ser reconocida como un rasgo de la condición humana, ya que sus dimensiones involucran al sujeto y sus condiciones de salud, materiales, socioambientales, culturales y legales. Al considerar la vulnerabilidad desde una perspectiva política y de sensibilización, la educación surge como una herramienta para superarlas, ya que permite desarrollar las singularidades de los sujetos, preparándolos para la responsabilidad con el mundo; permite superar la alienación; materializa el aprendizaje político y la toma de decisiones. Todo esto en conjunto es fundamental para superar la condición de vulnerabilidad ante las desigualdades existentes en el mundo y el respeto a la libertad de los sujetos. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los pensamientos arendtianos están relacionados con la vulnerabilidad, ya que la conciencia, a través de la educación, es fundamental para mejorar el contexto social y político actual. La búsqueda por la libertad de los seres humanos y el estímulo de sus acciones brindan oportunidades para la evolución del sujeto en el mundo.


Abstract Objective reflect on the concept of health vulnerability in light of Hannah Arendt's assumptions on education and freedom. Method a theoretical-reflexive study whose results were grouped into two categories: Vulnerability in health as a human condition and Education and freedom of the subject in a vulnerable situation. Results vulnerability must be recognized as a feature of the human condition, because its dimensions involve the subject and their health, material, socio-environmental, cultural and legal conditions. When considering vulnerability from a political and awareness-raising perspective, education emerges as a tool to overcome it, for it makes it possible to develop the singularities of the subjects, preparing them for their responsibility to the world; it enables them to overcome alienation; it materializes political learning and decision making. All of this together is crucial to overcome the condition of vulnerability to the inequalities existing in the world and the respect for the subjects' freedom. Conclusion and implications for practice arendtian thoughts are related to vulnerability, since awareness, through education, is indispensable to the improvement of the current social and political context. The human being's search for freedom and the encouragement of their actions enable the evolution of the subject in the world.


Assuntos
Humanos , Filosofia , Educação , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Liberdade , Meio Social , Formação de Conceito
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107116, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562776

RESUMO

This study examines the relationship between personal networks and polysubstance use among people who use drugs (PWUD) in a medium sized city in the Midwest. A large body of work has demonstrated that personal relationships have an ambivalent association with substance use. On the one hand, a supportive network is associated with safer drug use practices and dramatically improves the outlook for recovery. However, individuals whose personal networks are composed of co-drug use partners are more likely to engage in risky practices. We argue that this notion of "supportive" social contacts and "risky" social contacts is ultimately incomplete: risky behaviors are introduced and further developed in a social context, often with the people who provide emotional support. We argue that personal networks with more multiplex relationships (where co-drug use and confiding fuse) are harmful because they combine norms of trust and reciprocity with drug use. We use data from the Rural Health Cohort (RHC) study to test this idea. The sample consists of 120 adult PWUD in a medium sized city located in southeastern Nebraska who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants listed up to nine confidants and nine co-drug use partners, indicating any overlap between the two networks. Our results demonstrate that multiplex ties are as strongly associated with polysubstance use as simple co-drug use relationships. As the drug crisis has increasingly shifted to underserved populations outside large urban centers, this paper represents an important advance in our understanding of the current drug crisis.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Meio Social , Rede Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770160

RESUMO

Older public housing tenants experience various factors associated with physical inactivity and are locally dependent on their environment to support their physical activity. A better understanding of the person-environment fit for physical activity could highlight avenues to improve access to physical activity for this subgroup of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate older public housing tenants' capabilities for physical activity in their residential environment using a socioecological approach. We conducted individual semi-structured walk-along interviews with 26 tenants (female = 18, male = 8, mean age = 71.96 years old). Living in housing developments exclusively for adults aged 60 years or over in three neighborhoods in the city of Montreal, Canada. A hybrid thematic analysis produced five capabilities for physical activity: Political, financial, social, physical, and psychological. Themes spanned across ecological levels including individual, public housing, community, and government. Tenant committees appear important to physical activity promotion. Participants called for psychosocial interventions to boost their capability for physical activity as well as greater implication from the housing authority and from government. Results further support a call for intersectoral action to improve access to physical activity for less affluent subgroups of the population such as older public housing tenants.


Assuntos
Habitação , Habitação Popular , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Caminhada
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4919-4932, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787186

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to analyze the association between social capital and bullying among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, in high schools in the Greater Vitória Metropolitan Area in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out at the school base, with a sample of 2293 students, stratified by municipality of school location. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using two instruments: Integrated Questionnaire to Measure Social Capital of the World Bank and adapted versions of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The results showed that victims of bullying were more likely to present low level of cognitive social capital (p = 0.001; OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.29-2.68), underlying (p = 0.002; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.20-2.38) and total (p < 0.001; OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.32-2.59). Bullying offenders were associated with low levels of cognitive social capital (p < 0.001; OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 2.34-4.44) and total (p = 0.042; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.24-2.27). High levels of social capital are related to the reduction of bullying and victimization behaviors. Therefore, healthy social relationships should be promoted in the spaces of mutual coexistence of adolescents to stimulate other positive reactions in school environments.


Assuntos
Bullying , Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mol Biol Cell ; 32(22): ae2, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735269

RESUMO

If this was not happening in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, I imagine that I would be speaking these words instead of writing them on my laptop. Even so, I am so jazzed for this opportunity! No word or phrase describes what I am feeling in this moment in receiving the 2021 American Society for Cell Biology Prize for Excellence in Inclusivity. It is certainly an honor to be recognized in this way. I am grateful to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for awarding me additional resources to keep on keeping on. My approach to finding the connection between people and their science certainly could use the monetary support. Resources open doors. At the same time that I am grateful for the attention, I am not exactly sure what to do with the spotlight. Importantly, there are a host of other folks out there also doing amazing things who have never been recognized. Let's work to ensure that their contributions are supported, appreciated, and recognized. Instead of focusing the spotlight on me, I would rather redirect it to recognize my foundational influences. I also hope to encourage the need for institutional approaches beyond celebrating individual accomplishment.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Diversidade Cultural , Mudança Social , Academias e Institutos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Meio Social
7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 992-1000, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841767

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the impact of the social environment of a community on the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults living in the community, and to provide a basis for building favorable community social environment that promotes the health of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Using the community and individual survey data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) done in 2011, 7822 middle-aged and older adults living in 397 communities were selected as the subjects of the study. Community social environment under study included community socioeconomic status, community social security and community services. Self-rated health was measured with a five-level score. A three-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was used to analyze the impact of community social environment on the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults. Results: The proportion of subjects who reported self-rated poor health was 28.8%. According to the results of the three-level HGLM, the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults showed differences at both the city and the community levels, and the variance reduction ratio reached 35.71% at the community level. The self-rated health status of residents in the communities with medium and high net per capita income was better than that in the communities with low net per capita income ( OR=0.84, P<0.05; OR=0.70, P<0.05). The self-rated health status of residents in the communities with secondary and higher education levels was better than that in the communities with low education level ( OR=0.78, P<0.05; OR=0.73, P<0.05). The self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults in the communities with unemployment subsidies was much better ( OR=0.77, P<0.05). The self-rated health status of middle-aged and older adults with chronic diseases was worse ( OR=4.46, P<0.05). Middle-aged and older adults living in cities had better self-rated health status ( OR=0.67, P<0.05). Conclusion: Community socioeconomic status and community unemployment subsidy are positively correlated with the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults living in the community. It is necessary to pay special attention to the health status of middle-aged and older adults in communities of low socioeconomic status, improve unemployment insurance policies, and promote the health of middle-aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Meio Social , Idoso , Correlação de Dados , Humanos , Renda , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769580

RESUMO

The literature has not yet well documented the relative elements of the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits (HLHs) over the long term. More especially, researchers are calling to complete the corpus with qualitative or mixed estimates that would allow them to better explain the conditions necessary for the adoption or maintenance of HLHs over the long term. The present study seeks to understand the winning conditions for the adoption and maintenance of HLHs. Semi-structured group interviews were conducted with three groups of university students (two in Bachelor's degree in physical education (PE) and one in Master's degree in physical activity science), all in favor with HLHs. The results identify some dominant winning conditions in the adoption and maintenance of HLHs, such as the role of the family environment, the role of diversity and choice in physical activities during youth, the physical and social environment, autonomy and also mental health, which is closely linked with physical health. Results were modelled in the form of an ideal pathway, which traces the impact of winning conditions from childhood to adulthood. The originality of this study stands out, among other things, because of its innovative methodology; therefore, this study opens the door to future qualitative research in the field. Investigating pathways, considering the different phases of development of children and adolescents to identify factors of change and maintenance of HLHs now seems to be an interesting and necessary avenue for research in the field.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100957, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794708

RESUMO

Older peoples' independent living in their own homes and their ability to move around and maintain social relations in their communities have been acknowledged as important aims to support their well-being. In this article, we study Special Transport Services as a means to support older persons with 'aging in place' - that is, within their communities. From "go-alongs" (shared dial-a-ride bus journeys) and "sit-down interviews" (at participant's home or a café) with 12 older people living in a Finnish suburb, we explored their everyday dial-a-ride bus trips to the local mall. We used actor-network theory and the concept of motility to show how at first glance what appeared to be simple dial-a-ride journeys were in fact produced by a complex and fluid actor network consisting of people, rules, norms, practices, technical devices, as well as other objects and tools. Associations between various human and non-human actors compensated for the functional limitations experienced by the participants, but also created difficulties during the journeys. Our main finding is that the actor network of dial-a-ride bus did physically help older people be more mobile, but at the same time the service required a wide range of know-how and skills. We argue that developing a truly age-friendly environment - with inclusive services to help older individuals age well within their community - requires a detailed understanding from their perspective of the actor networks that produce those services. When planning old age services, there is a need to engage with older people from different social backgrounds to develop services that are genuinely supportive and easy to use for a heterogeneous group. Our findings can be utilized in developing physical and social environments that better support older people's mobility and enable them to age well in the community.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Vida Independente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Meio Social
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684504

RESUMO

Comprehensive food lists and databases are a critical input for programs aiming to alleviate undernutrition. However, standard methods for developing them may produce databases that are irrelevant for marginalised groups where nutritional needs are highest. Our study provides a method for identifying critical contextual information required to build relevant food lists for Indigenous populations. For our study, we used mixed-methods study design with a community-based approach. Between July and October 2019, we interviewed 74 participants among Batwa and Bakiga communities in south-western Uganda. We conducted focus groups discussions (FGDs), individual dietary surveys and markets and shops assessment. Locally validated information on foods consumed among Indigenous populations can provide results that differ from foods listed in the national food composition tables; in fact, the construction of food lists is influenced by multiple factors such as food culture and meaning of food, environmental changes, dietary transition, and social context. Without using a community-based approach to understanding socio-environmental contexts, we would have missed 33 commonly consumed recipes and foods, and we would not have known the variety of ingredients' quantity in each recipe, and traditional foraged foods. The food culture, food systems and nutrition of Indigenous and vulnerable communities are unique, and need to be considered when developing food lists.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta/etnologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Cultura , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grupos Focais , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , População Rural , Meio Social , Uganda
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639379

RESUMO

Existing studies have demonstrated the restorative benefits of being in forests. However, most studies have designed participants to engage individually in forest walking and viewing, which neglects the social aspect of conversation. Researchers suggested that social context should be studied in order to have a better understanding how forests foster human health. To this end, we examined the role of social context using three types of forest therapy programs: a guided program, a self-guided program, and a walk alone program. A between-subject, pretest-posttest field experimental design was employed to evaluate restorative effects by measuring the physiological responses and mood states incurred in different forest therapy programs. Our findings showed, that the walk alone group exhibited a significant systolic blood pressure decrease and a significant increase in sympathetic nervous activity; the self-guided group showed a significant increase in heart rate values and significant decreases in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; and the guided group revealed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure. Further, the three forest therapy programs had positive effects on improving mood states, except a nonsignificant vigor-activity increase in the walk alone group. The three programs did not exhibit significant differences in changes of restorative benefits in physiological and psychological measures except for a significant difference in changes in sympathetic nervous activity between the walk alone group and guided group. The results showed the restorative benefits of forest therapy are apparent regardless of the program type. The management team should continue promoting forest therapy for public health by providing different types of forest therapy programs and experiences.


Assuntos
Meio Social , Caminhada , Florestas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Taiwan
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 754046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660523

RESUMO

Engaging in regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is crucial to reduce future health risk for individuals living with the effects of a stroke and their partners. Although numerous studies point to the importance of social factors in physical activity engagement, little is known about with whom individuals after stroke and their partners engage in physical activity with and whether different physical activity companions are uniquely associated with MVPA. Eighty-nine community-dwelling individuals after stroke (M age = 68.64, SD = 10.44; 74% male) and 83 partners (M age = 66.04, SD = 9.91; 24% male) completed 14 consecutive days of daily life assessments that included wearing physical activity monitors (accelerometers) and self-reporting physical activity companions (n = 1,961 days). Results show that average levels of MVPA were correlated between partners (r = 0.38), as were day-to-day MVPA fluctuations (r = 0.34). Importantly, for individuals after stroke, being active with their partner, but not with any other physical activity companion, was linked with elevated daily MVPA. In contrast, for partners of individuals after stroke, engaging in physical activity with a variety of different companions (partner, other family member, friend, colleague) was each associated with higher MVPA in daily life. For both individuals after stroke and their partners being active by oneself (without a companion) on a given day was not associated with elevated MVPA. Findings suggest that interventions that promote physical activity engagement should consider the role of meaningful others, with the partner being particularly key for individuals living with chronic health conditions.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Meio Social
16.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(11): 76, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613521

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to unravel recent evidence for children's reactions to war and armed conflict focusing on resilience factors mitigating adverse psychological and psychiatric consequences. RECENT FINDINGS: Three categories of mitigating resilience factors emerged from the literature - personal, family, and community factors. In addition, a unifying model of moderating resilience factors emerged, proposing a higher-tier environmental dimension conceptualized here as social climate of support. Wars and armed conflict affect children both by direct exposure to threats, and by disruption of the social fabric supporting development. The notion of producing a climate of social support can direct policy toward service provision and resilience-based programs that both build individual capacities and encompass development of the resources of families, schools, community, and societal structures supportive of children's adjustment and wellbeing. Future research should shift toward systems thinking within a socio-ecological nesting of individual, familial, community, and societal systems.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Resiliência Psicológica , Criança , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Meio Social , Apoio Social
17.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(2): e20210136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the social representations of patients with vasculogenic ulcers about quality of life and analyze such representations from the social context of patients' insertion in relation to the healthcare service. METHOD: a qualitative research, based on social representations, developed in a Family Clinic in Rio de Janeiro with 30 patients with vasculogenic ulcers for over 90 days. Data were produced through interviews and submitted to lexicographical analysis using the Alceste software. RESULTS: the weaknesses of care in the healthcare service to which patients were linked contributed to exacerbate the reconfiguration of daily life that the occurrence of ulcers implies, due to the presence of pain and physical restrictions, influencing the representation of quality of life. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the representation was objectified as a counterpoint to the image of "being happy", and actions expressed proactivity in the search for a cure or passivity due to lack of clinical results.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Úlcera , Brasil , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Meio Social
18.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Referrals of transgender and gender-diverse (trans) youth to medical clinics for gender-affirming care have increased. We described characteristics of trans youth in Canada at first referral visit. METHODS: Baseline clinical and survey data (2017-2019) were collected for Trans Youth CAN!, a 10-clinic prospective cohort of n = 174 pubertal and postpubertal youth <16 years with gender dysphoria, referred for hormonal suppression or hormone therapy, and 160 linked parent-participants. Measures assessed health, demographics, and visit outcome. RESULTS: Of youth, 137 were transmasculine (assigned female) and 37 transfeminine (assigned male); 69.0% were aged 14 to 15, 18.8% Indigenous, 6.6% visible minorities, 25.7% from immigrant families, and 27.1% low income. Most (66.0%) were gender-aware before age 12. Only 58.1% of transfeminine youth lived in their gender full-time versus 90.1% of transmasculine (P < .001). Although transmasculine youth were more likely than transfeminine youth to report depressive symptoms (21.2% vs 10.8%; P = .03) and anxiety (66.1% vs 33.3%; P < .001), suicidality was similarly high overall (past-year ideation: 34.5%, attempts: 16.8%). All were in school; 62.0% reported strong parental gender support, with parents the most common support persons (91.9%). Two-thirds of families reported external gender-related stressors. Youth had met with a range of providers (68.5% with a family physician). At clinic visit, 62.4% were prescribed hormonal suppression or hormone therapy, most commonly depot leuprolide acetate. CONCLUSIONS: Trans youth in Canada attending clinics for hormonal suppression or gender-affirming hormones were generally healthy but with depression, anxiety, and support needs.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Conscientização , Canadá , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero/tratamento farmacológico , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Nível de Saúde , Antagonistas de Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Meio Social , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 619, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal care (PNC) is a crucial health service that reduces the potential risks of adverse pregnancy and childbirth outcomes. It is monitored as one of the indicators of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) under the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. However, there are still mothers who do not use PNC, even when UHC has been achieved. As there have been few reports on the impact of local socio-environmental characteristics within the country, this study aimed to examine the association between local socio-environmental factors and inadequate use of PNC in Japan. METHODS: We conducted an ecological analysis of 47 prefectures in Japan using public open data. The dependent variables were the inadequate use of PNC, which are the rates of pregnant women who missed visiting PNC until 28 weeks' gestational age (GA) or those who never attended PNC before childbirth, and the independent variables were prefectural data of socio-economic, educational, and healthcare workforce-related factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: The rate of pregnant women with late PNC initiation and never attending PNC before childbirth was 3.00-11.24 and 0.23-8.06 per 1000 pregnant women, respectively. Population numbers and densities, divorce rates, percentages of non-Japanese nationalities, and low percentages of high school enrolment were positively associated with inadequate PNC use. There was no statistically significant association with healthcare workforce, such as the number of obstetricians and gynaecologists. CONCLUSIONS: This ecological study revealed that inadequate PNC use is more common in urban areas with more non-Japanese nationality and lower education enrolment. There may be a need to provide education for those who do not have access to reproductive health education, such as that offered in high schools. Further studies are required to examine factors that affect access to PNC in Japan.


Assuntos
Mau Uso de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Gravidez , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570770

RESUMO

The equity of transport accessibility is a prerequisite for sustainable development targets, especially in the ecologically fragile area of the Tibetan Plateau (also known as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau). The relationship between transportation supply and social demand has become a key element of socioeconomic development and environmental protection in agricultural and pastoral areas. Based on data from transportation networks, permanent populations and the economy, this study uses a network analysis model, the coefficient of variation and the Gini coefficient to construct an index of social demand in townships and analyse the equity of transport accessibility on the Tibetan Plateau between 1980 and 2017; the principle of geographic distribution and the spatial relationship between transport accessibility and social demand at the township scale are also discussed. This study finds the following: the development of transportation has improved accessibility on the Tibetan Plateau, creating a highly accessible region with important cities as the nodes and major traffic arteries as the axes; both the coefficient of variation of transport accessibility and the Gini coefficient have increased slightly; and the equity of transport accessibility among townships on the Tibetan Plateau has exhibited a downward trend. Further, the social demand index is doubling every ten years, the spatial distribution has regional characteristics, and a decrease in permanent populations is the main reason for declining social demand index scores among townships. Townships with the lowest and highest social demand index scores for transportation development enjoy greater transportation benefits; there is a significant spatial relationship between social demand and location conditions (potential accessibility); the aggregation of social demand and accessibility types follows specific geographical distribution principles; and the Mangya-Gongshan Line delineates the distribution characteristics of township clusters with low social demand and low accessibility.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Meio Social , Análise de Rede Social , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Humanos , Tibet
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...