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1.
J Anxiety Disord ; 89: 102587, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661576

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common psychological disorder associated with broad interpersonal impairment. Most previous studies have examined nonverbal behavior in SAD using human coders. However, one recent study utilized a machine-based analysis of nonverbal behavior and dyadic synchrony in SAD (Asher, Kauffmann, & Aderka, 2020). In the present study, we compared human and computer assessments of nonverbal behavior in social anxiety to enhance our knowledge about their commonalities and unique differences in capturing nonverbal behavior in the context of SAD. Specifically, the present study included 152 individuals: 38 individuals diagnosed with SAD and 114 individuals without SAD. Participants formed 76 opposite-sex interaction dyads comprising either two individuals without SAD (n = 39 control dyads) or one individual with SAD and one individual without SAD (n = 37 SAD dyads). All participants underwent a getting-acquainted task and were videotaped during the conversation. Half of the interactions were small talk interactions and half were closeness-generating interactions that required significant self-disclosure. We found that both types of coding were associated with self-reported social anxiety but that machine-based coding was superior in capturing social anxiety in closeness-generating contexts. Implications for research on nonverbal behavior in SAD are discussed.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comunicação , Computadores , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Fobia Social/psicologia , Comportamento Social
2.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(5): 517-523, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708945

RESUMO

Affective state recognition and in particular the identification of fear is known to be impaired in psychopathy. It is unclear, however, whether this reflects a deficit in basic perception ('fear blindness') or a deficit in later cognitive processing. To test for a perceptual deficit, 63 male incarcerated offenders, assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), detected fearful, neutral, and happy facial expressions rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression (CFS). Fearful faces were detected faster than neutral and happy faces. There was no reduction of the fear advantage in the 20 offenders diagnosed with psychopathy according to the PCL-R, and there was no correlation between the fear advantage and PCL-R scores. Deficits in the processing of fearful facial expressions in psychopathy may thus not reflect fear blindness, but impairments at later postperceptual processing stages. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criminosos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Cegueira , Criminosos/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Medo , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(6): e37466, 2022 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global public health and socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been substantial, rendering herd immunity by COVID-19 vaccination an important factor for protecting people and retrieving the economy. Among all the countries, Japan became one of the countries with the highest COVID-19 vaccination rates in several months, although vaccine confidence in Japan is the lowest worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We attempted to find the reasons for rapid COVID-19 vaccination in Japan given its lowest vaccine confidence levels worldwide, through Twitter analysis. METHODS: We downloaded COVID-19-related Japanese tweets from a large-scale public COVID-19 Twitter chatter data set within the timeline of February 1 and September 30, 2021. The daily number of vaccination cases was collected from the official website of the Prime Minister's Office of Japan. After preprocessing, we applied unigram and bigram token analysis and then calculated the cross-correlation and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between the term frequency and daily vaccination cases. We then identified vaccine sentiments and emotions of tweets and used the topic modeling to look deeper into the dominant emotions. RESULTS: We selected 190,697 vaccine-related tweets after filtering. Through n-gram token analysis, we discovered the top unigrams and bigrams over the whole period. In all the combinations of the top 6 unigrams, tweets with both keywords "reserve" and "venue" showed the largest correlation with daily vaccination cases (r=0.912; P<.001). On sentiment analysis, negative sentiment overwhelmed positive sentiment, and fear was the dominant emotion across the period. For the latent Dirichlet allocation model on tweets with fear emotion, the two topics were identified as "infect" and "vaccine confidence." The expectation of the number of tweets generated from topic "infect" was larger than that generated from topic "vaccine confidence." CONCLUSIONS: Our work indicates that awareness of the danger of COVID-19 might increase the willingness to get vaccinated. With a sufficient vaccine supply, effective delivery of vaccine reservation information may be an important factor for people to get vaccinated. We did not find evidence for increased vaccine confidence in Japan during the period of our study. We recommend policy makers to share accurate and prompt information about the infectious diseases and vaccination and to make efforts on smoother delivery of vaccine reservation information.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Medo , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 151: 657-666, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661523

RESUMO

Abnormalities in valence processing - the processing of aversive or appetitive stimuli - may be an underrecognized component of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Preclinical rodent models have been critical in furthering pathophysiological understanding of OCD, yet there is a dearth of investigations examining whether rodent models of compulsive behavior show alterations in valence systems congruent with those seen in individuals with OCD. In this study, we sought to assess valence processing in a preclinical rodent model of compulsive behavior, the SAPAP3 knockout (KO) mouse model, and compare our preclinical findings to similar behavioral phenomena in OCD patients. In SAPAP3 KO mice, we used auditory fear conditioning and extinction to examine alterations in negative valence processing and reward-based operant conditioning to examine alterations in positive valence processing. We find that SAPAP3 KO mice show evidence of heightened negative valence processing through enhanced fear learning and impaired fear extinction. SAPAP3 KO mice also show deficits in reward acquisition and goal-directed behavior, suggesting impaired positive valence processing. In OCD patients, we used validated behavioral tests to assess explicit and implicit processing of fear-related facial expressions (negative valence) and socially-rewarding happy expressions (positive valence). We find similar trends towards enhanced negative and impaired positive valence processing in OCD patients. Overall, our results reveal valence processing abnormalities in a preclinical rodent model of compulsive behavior similar to those seen in OCD patients, with implications for valence processing alterations as novel therapeutic targets across a translational research spectrum.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Animais , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682340

RESUMO

As human activities have destabilised life on Earth, a new geological era is upon us. While there is a myriad of challenges that have emerged because of such human-driven planetary changes, one area of investigation that requires ongoing scholarly attention and scientific debate is the emotions of the Anthropocene. The emotional, mental, and psychological burdens induced by rapid and unprecedented change must be understood to better reflect the experiences of people around the globe and to initiate conversations about how emotions may be used for transformative change and effective politics. This paper aims to provide insights into the types of emotions that are emerging in Oceania as the Anthropocene unfolds. To do this, we draw on several data sets: questionnaire results with visitors of Mt Barney Lodge in the World Heritage Gondwana area in Queensland, Australia; another questionnaire with Pacific Island "experts" engaged in climate change, development, and disaster risk management work; interviews with locals living in the Cook Islands; and various spoken, written, and visual art from the Pacific. Bringing these data sets together allows us to explore a diversity of experiences, perspectives, and emotional responses to the Anthropocene from participants across Oceania. We found that acute and slow-onset weather events, experiences of direct loss and change, a perceived lack of agency or control over futures, and a sense of injustice triggered emotions including fear, stress, anxiety, exhaustion, sadness, grief, anger, frustration, helplessness, worry, but also empowerment. These results are critical for the first step of acknowledging and naming the emotions that are emerging in Oceania, such that they can then be worked through, and may be used for transformative change, effective politics, and agency over futures.


Assuntos
Desastres , Emoções , Ira , Ansiedade , Medo , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682347

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to reveal whether religiosity and trust in institutions are longitudinal predictors of change in fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19) across Poland, Germany, Slovenia, and Israel among young adults over a three-month period. The representative sample consisted of 1723 participants between the ages of 20 and 40 years (M = 30.74, SD = 5.74) across Poland (n = 446), Germany (n = 418), Slovenia (n = 431), and Israel (n = 428). The first measurement was carried out in February 2020 and the second was conducted in May/June 2020. A repeated-measures, two-way, mixed-factor ANOVA was performed to examine changes over time (T) and across countries (C) as well as the interaction of time and country (TxC) for FCV-19, religiosity, and trust in institutions. The results showed a significant decrease over time and differences between countries in all variables, as well as in TxC for FCV-19 and trust in institutions. Linear generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to assess the longitudinal change between T1 and T2 in FCV-19, including religiosity and trust in institutions as predictors, country as a factor, and gender and age as confounders. Female gender, religiosity, and trust in institutions were found to be significant longitudinal predictors of change in FCV-19. Country was a significant moderator of the relationship between trust in institutions and FCV-19, with the highest result achieved in Poland. Religiosity and trust in institutions were positive predictors of change in fear of COVID-19 among young adults across countries. Religious and governmental institutions should take this into consideration when communicating with believers and citizens during challenging situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Religião , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
7.
IEEE Pulse ; 13(3): 19-22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727749

RESUMO

While COVID-19 Has been racing through much of the human population, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has also turned up in other mammals. This leads to many questions: Might these animals serve as reservoirs where new variants can emerge and then infect humans? Can animal surveillance identify novel variants before they appear in humans? How dangerous is COVID-19 to nonhuman animals?


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Medo , Humanos , Mamíferos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cell Rep ; 39(10): 110921, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675779

RESUMO

The accurate interpretation of ethologically relevant stimuli is crucial for survival. While basolateral amygdala (BLA) neuronal responses during fear conditioning are well studied, little is known about how BLA neurons respond during naturalistic events. We recorded from the rat BLA during interaction with ethological stimuli: male or female rats, a moving toy, and rice. Forty-two percent of the cells reliably respond to at least one stimulus, with over half of these exclusively identifying one of the four stimulus classes. In addition to activation during interaction with their preferred stimulus, these cells signal micro-behavioral interactions like social contact. After stimulus removal, firing activity persists in 30% of responsive cells for several minutes. At the micro-circuit level, information flows from highly tuned event-specific neurons to less specific neurons, and connection strength increases after the event. We propose that individual BLA neurons identify specific ethological events, with event-specific neurons driving circuit-wide activity during and after salient events.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Korean J Med Educ ; 34(2): 121-129, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Based on the logic that self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) is one of the most well-established predictors of academic procrastination (AP), we predicted that fear of failure (FF) would mediate the association between SOP and AP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of FF on the influence of SOP on AP in medical students. METHODS: A total of 156 undergraduate medical students completed a battery of questionnaires. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional data obtained through an offline survey. The self-report questionnaires assessed demographics and psychological scales, including the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory, and Aitken Procrastination Inventory. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlations analysis, and multiple regression analyses using IBM SPSS ver. 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA). RESULTS: SOP had a direct negative influence on AP (ß=-0.420, p<0.001). Also, SOP had a significant indirect effect on AP through FF (ß=0.0393; 95% confidence interval, 0.040-0.0936). These results indicated that the FF partially mediates the relationship between SOP and AP. CONCLUSION: Although SOP among medical students might play an adaptive role to lessen AP, in cases FF gets higher, SOP could have opposing effects via the mediating effect of FF, leading to an actual increase in AP. Attempts to deal with the FF among medical students should be made for better academic achievements.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Procrastinação , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos
10.
Elife ; 112022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674316

RESUMO

During threat exposure, survival depends on defensive reactions. Prior works linked large glutamatergic populations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) to defensive freezing and flight, and established that the overarching functional organization axis of the PAG is along anatomically-defined columns. Accordingly, broad activation of the dorsolateral column induces flight, while activation of the lateral or ventrolateral (l and vl) columns induces freezing. However, the PAG contains diverse cell types that vary in neurochemistry. How these cell types contribute to defense remains unknown, indicating that targeting sparse, genetically-defined populations may reveal how the PAG generates diverse behaviors. Though prior works showed that broad excitation of the lPAG or vlPAG causes freezing, we found in mice that activation of lateral and ventrolateral PAG (l/vlPAG) cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) cells selectively caused flight to safer regions within an environment. Furthermore, inhibition of l/vlPAG-CCK cells reduced predator avoidance without altering other defensive behaviors like freezing. Lastly, l/vlPAG-CCK activity decreased when approaching threat and increased during movement to safer locations. These results suggest CCK cells drive threat avoidance states, which are epochs during which mice increase distance from threat and perform evasive escape. Conversely, l/vlPAG pan-neuronal activation promoted freezing, and these cells were activated near threat. Thus, CCK l/vlPAG cells have opposing function and neural activation motifs compared to the broader local ensemble defined solely by columnar boundaries. In addition to the anatomical columnar architecture of the PAG, the molecular identity of PAG cells may confer an additional axis of functional organization, revealing unexplored functional heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Medo , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal , Animais , Colecistocinina , Medo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia
11.
Learn Mem ; 29(7): 171-180, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710304

RESUMO

Pavlovian fear conditioning is a widely used behavioral paradigm for studying associative learning in rodents. Despite early recognition that subjects may engage in a variety of both conditioned and unconditioned responses, the last several decades have seen the field narrow its focus to measure freezing as the sole indicator of conditioned fear. We previously reported that female rats were more likely than males to engage in darting, an escape-like conditioned response that is associated with heightened shock reactivity. To determine how experimental parameters contribute to the frequency of darting in both males and females, we manipulated factors such as chamber size, shock intensity, and number of trials. To better capture fear-related behavioral repertoires in our animals, we developed ScaredyRat, an open-source custom Python tool that analyzes Noldus Ethovision-generated raw data files to identify darters and quantify both conditioned and unconditioned responses. We found that, like freezing, conditioned darting occurrences scale with experimental alterations. While most darting occurs in females, we found that with an extended training protocol, darting can emerge in males as well. Collectively, our data suggest that darting reflects a behavioral switch in conditioned responding that is a product of an individual animal's sex, shock reactivity, and experimental parameters, underscoring the need for careful consideration of sex as a biological variable in classic learning paradigms.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Medo , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 884551, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712291

RESUMO

Falls are prevalent among older people and can lead to serious health problems. We newly developed a novel Kinect-based tailored interactive fall intervention system, which seamlessly integrates multifactorial fall risk assessment and tailored intervention programs to prevent falls in older people. This preliminary study aimed to examine the effectiveness and usability of this developed system for fall prevention in older people. Thirty community-dwelling older women participated in this experiment; they were allocated to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG) for a quasi-randomized trial (15 people each). Participants in IG followed an 8-week tailored intervention (40 min/session × 2 sessions/week × 8 weeks) using the Kinect-based interactive fall intervention system, while participants in CG maintained their habitual activities. Various outcome measures were evaluated at baseline (Week 0), interim (Week 4), and post-intervention (Week 8). Experimental results showed that IG led to significant improvements in TUG-Timed Up and Go (p = 0.010), BBS-Berg Balance Scale (p = 0.011), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA (p = 0.022) between baseline and post-intervention. In comparison to the baseline, TUG and BBS were even significantly improved at interim (p = 0.004 and 0.047, respectively). There were no significant changes in static balance-related performance outcomes and the Short Falls Efficacy Scale-SFES after the intervention. Whereas in CG, most performance measures did not show significant changes during the 8-week period, TUG completion time became significantly longer at post-intervention in comparison to interim (p = 0.028) and fear of falling was also significantly higher at post-intervention than baseline (p = 0.021). These findings suggest that the Kinect-based 8-week tailored interactive fall interventions effectively improved older people's physical and cognitive abilities. Regarding the usability of the developed system, the average System Usability Scale (SUS) score was 83.5 out of 100, indicating excellent system usability. The overall mean Computer Literacy Scale (CLS) score was 2.5 out of 26, showing that older participants in this study had very limited experience with computers. No significant correlation between SUS and CLS scores demonstrated that newly developed Kinect-based tailored interactive fall intervention system was easy to use for older people, regardless of their computer experience. This novel system should help health professionals and older people proactively manage the risk of falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Equilíbrio Postural , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Medição de Risco/métodos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682454

RESUMO

Tanzania is among the top five countries with a high burden of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the world. Even though the effects of SCD on quality of life have been documented in other countries including Nigeria and the United States of America, few are known from Tanzania. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating the effects of SCD on the quality of life among children living with SCD and their parents. The study employed a qualitative approach to interview purposively selected parents of children who have lived with SCD and have used hydroxyurea (HU) for more than 3 years. The in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 parents of children with SCD at the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Three themes were generated including psycho-social effects: family conflicts and divorce, limited access to education, stress and fear; financial effects: Employment limitation, reduced efficiency and productivity, loss of job and lack of self-keeping expenses; and physical effects: physical disability and dependence, and burden of the frequent crisis. Children living with SCD and their parents suffer psycho-social, financial, and physical impacts of the disease. Appropriate interventions should be introduced to minimize the observed effects as ways of improving the quality of life of the individuals living with SCD and their caregivers.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Qualidade de Vida , Cuidadores , Criança , Medo , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
14.
Behav Res Ther ; 154: 104124, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642990

RESUMO

Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves repeated presentation of trauma-related cues without aversive outcomes. A primary learning mechanism of PE is fear extinction (new learning that a dangerous cue is now safe) and its retention (maintaining this new learning over time). Extant research suggests extinction is impaired in PTSD patients. In this study, we employed an established fear-potentiated startle-based paradigm to examine fear acquisition, extinction learning and retention before and after completion of intensive outpatient treatment. First, PTSD patients undergoing PE (n = 55) were compared to trauma-exposed patients without PTSD (n = 57). We identified excessive fear in PTSD patients during acquisition and extinction before treatment compared to non-PTSD patients. At post-treatment, we examined the return of fear after extinction in PTSD patients showing high or low treatment response to PE (≥50% change in PTSD symptom severity vs. < 50%). High PE responders maintained fear extinction learning whereas low PE responders showed significant return of fear at post-treatment. These results replicate and extend previous findings of impaired extinction in PTSD and provide support for the proposed theoretical link between fear extinction and PE response.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682405

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to high levels of fear worldwide. Given that fear is an important factor in causing psychological distress and facilitating preventive behaviors, assessing the fear of COVID-19 is important. The seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is a widely used psychometric instrument to assess this fear. However, the factor structure of the FCV-19S remains unclear according to the current evidence. Therefore, the present study used a network analysis to provide further empirical evidence for the factor structure of FCV-19S. A total of 24,429 participants from Iran (n = 10,843), Bangladesh (n = 9906), and Norway (n = 3680) completed the FCV-19S in their local language. A network analysis (via regularized partial correlation networks) was applied to investigate the seven FCV-19S items. Moreover, relationships between the FCV-19S items were compared across gender (males vs. females), age groups (18-30 years, 31-50 years, and >50 years), and countries (Iran, Bangladesh, and Norway). A two-factor structure pattern was observed (three items concerning physical factors, including clammy hands, insomnia, and heart palpitations; four items concerning psychosocial factors, including being afraid, uncomfortable, afraid of dying, and anxious about COVID-19 news). Moreover, this pattern was found to be the same among men and women, across age groups and countries. The network analysis used in the present study verified the two-factor structure for the FCV-19S. Future studies may consider using the two-factor structure of FCV-19S to assess the fear of COVID-19 during the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neuron ; 110(12): 1887-1888, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709693

RESUMO

Social modulation of pain sensitivity is considered part of the empathic response. In this issue of Neuron, Zhang at al. (2022) uncover the neurobiological basis of observational pain in mice. They report increased synaptic transmission from the insular cortex to the basolateral amygdala and explore genes mediating this effect.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Medo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Dor , Irmãos
17.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 76: 101747, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although exposure therapy is an efficacious treatment for anxiety disorders, fear often returns after treatment. From an inhibitory learning perspective, long-term improvement depends not only on learning that feared stimuli are safe, but also that it is safe to experience the emotional response triggered by these stimuli. Accordingly, the current study examined the effects of occasional threat reinforcement during repeated exposure to multiple cues on the return of fear in snake phobia by incorporating reminders of the feared outcome. METHODS: Snake fearful community adults (N = 74) were randomized to either repeated exposure to multiple cues or exposure to multiple cues that also explicitly depicted the feared outcome (snake biting someone). A measure of self-reported threat expectancy and a threat-relevant behavioral approach task (BAT) were administered pre-exposure, post-exposure, and at a one-week follow-up. RESULTS: Compared to the multiple-cue exposure group, the multiple-cue + fear-outcome group showed significantly less subjective expectancy for a snake to bite and increased behavioral approach of snake images at one-week follow-up. The fear-outcome group also reported significantly greater variability in distress during exposure than the multiple-cue exposure group and this difference mediated the intervention effect on behavioral approach at follow-up. LIMITATIONS: Findings are limited by the use of videos as an analogue to exposure and a computer-delivered BAT. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest presentation of the feared outcome may result in more variability in distress during exposure therapy and this may partially explain the maintenance of behavioral gains.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva , Transtornos Fóbicos , Adulto , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Serpentes
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 261, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739088

RESUMO

Pharmacologically disrupting fear memory reconsolidation dramatically reduces fear behaviour. For example, 2-3 min of tarantula exposure followed by 40 mg of propranolol HCl (i.e., a reconsolidation intervention) abruptly decreased spider avoidance, an effect that persisted one year later. However, the success of reconsolidation interventions is not guaranteed: Pavlovian fear-conditioning research shows that the window to target memory reconsolidation is small and easy to miss. If exposure is too long to trigger reconsolidation, but too short for extinction learning, an inactive transitional limbo state occurs, rendering the fear memory unchanged and insensitive to amnesic agents. In this pre-registered study, we aimed to find this behaviourally-controlled boundary condition. Spider-fearful participants underwent a ~3 min (n = 23) or ~14 min (n = 20) exposure to a tarantula, intended to trigger reconsolidation or the limbo state respectively, followed by 40 mg of propranolol. We expected greater spider fear reduction after 3 than 14 min of exposure. Unexpectedly, there were no group differences on any outcome measures. In both groups, Bayesian analysis revealed a marked reduction in fear behaviour towards a generalisation stimulus (a house spider) accompanied by lower self-reported distress, with a sharp decline in spider fear scores two days after treatment that persisted one year later. Possible explanations include that the boundary conditions of reconsolidation are wider in older and stronger memories than experimentally-induced fears, or that alternative processes caused the treatment effects. Although the mechanism is unclear, these results carry a tentative promising message for the potential of brief reconsolidation-targeting interventions to mitigate irrational fears.


Assuntos
Propranolol , Aranhas , Idoso , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Condicionamento Clássico , Extinção Psicológica , Medo , Humanos , Propranolol/farmacologia
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 172: 108283, 2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661782

RESUMO

It remains unclear to date whether spatial attention towards emotional faces is contingent on, or independent of visual awareness. To investigate this question, a bilateral attentional blink paradigm was used in which lateralised fearful faces were presented at various levels of detectability. Twenty-six healthy participants were presented with two rapid serial streams of human faces, while they attempted to detect a pair of target faces (T2) displayed in close or distant succession of a first target pair (T1). Spatial attention shifting to the T2 fearful faces, indexed by the N2-posterior-contralateral component, was dependent on visual awareness and its magnitude covaried with the visual awareness negativity, a neural marker of awareness at the perceptual level. Additionally, information consolidation in working memory, indexed by the sustained posterior contralateral negativity, positively correlated with the level of visual awareness and spatial attention shifting. These findings demonstrate that spatial attention shifting to fearful faces depends on visual awareness, and these early processes are closely linked to information maintenance in working memory.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual , Atenção , Expressão Facial , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
20.
J Anxiety Disord ; 89: 102589, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689849

RESUMO

Accurate assessment is crucial for determining appropriate therapeutic interventions for social anxiety and conducting sound clinical research. While self-report measures of social anxiety are widely used in both research and clinical settings, they have several drawbacks inherent to their textual nature. Here, we describe the development and initial validation of the Visual Social Anxiety Scale (VSAS), a novel picture-based self-report measure of social anxiety, based on the well-established widely-used Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Specifically, the 24 items of the LSAS were used as the basis for social situations to be included in the VSAS. First, pictures to serve as VSAS items were selected using a rigorous two-phase process (four pilot studies; n = 225). Next, reliability (internal consistency, test-retest) and validity (convergent, discriminant) were explored with new participants (n = 304) who completed the VSAS and a battery of additional self-report questionnaires, delivered in a random order. The VSAS was completed again a month later (n = 260/304). The VSAS showed high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good convergent and discriminant validities. VSAS correlations with convergent measures were significantly greater than its correlations with discriminant measures. Thus, the VSAS shows initial promise as a novel picture-based self-report measure of social anxiety.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Psicometria , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Medo , Humanos , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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