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1.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0303807, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985819

RESUMO

Against the background of digital development, this study's research object is the platform-based highway transportation supply chain. It also analyzes two modes of supply chain financial credit financing, namely, upstream, and downstream enterprises of the platform, and network freight platform as the main financing body. Notably, the financial provider sets up a transaction credit based on the principle of business truth, and closed-loop transactions, determine the upper limit of the credit line based on the principle of financing self-compensation, build the expected profit maximization model, and establish the optimal credit line. Combined with the Highway Freight Index and Logistics Prosperity Index, the dynamic early warning value is established for the financing mode, where the platform as the main financing body. Through numerical analysis, the credit line and expected profit increase with the transaction credit, expected freight volume, and credit interest rate under the two modes, and the increase deriving from the credit interest rate is more significant. Finally, this paper describes the two-dimensional credit matrix of the financing subject via transaction credit and credit interest rate, which provides an intuitive credit reference for financial institutions to conduct the credit financing of the platform-based highway transportation supply chain.


Assuntos
Meios de Transporte , Meios de Transporte/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Administração Financeira
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15752, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977818

RESUMO

Governmental policies, regulations, and responses to the pandemic can benefit from a better understanding of people's resulting behaviours before, during, and after COVID-19. To avoid the inelasticity and subjectivity of survey datasets, several studies have already used some objective variables like air pollutants to estimate the potential impacts of COVID-19 on the urban transportation system. However, the usage of reactant gases and a narrow time scale might weaken the results somehow. Here, both the objective passenger volume of public transport and the concentration of private traffic emitted black carbon (BC) from 2018 to 2023 were collected/calculated to decipher the potential relationship between public and private traffic during the COVID-19 period. Our results indicated that the commuting patterns of citizens show significant (p < 0.01) different patterns before, during, and after the pandemic. To be specific, public transportation showed a significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation with private transportation before the pandemic. This public transportation was significantly (p < 0.01) affected by the outbreaks of COVID-19, showing a significant (p < 0.01) negative correlation with private transportation. Such impacts of the virus and governmental policy would affect the long-term behaviour of individuals and even affect public transportation usage after the pandemic. Our results also indicated that such behaviour was mainly linked to the governmental restriction policy and would soon be neglected after the cancellation of the restriction policy in China.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Meios de Transporte , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Cidades , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Emissões de Veículos/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
Lab Anim ; 58(2): 170-182, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003772

RESUMO

On 1 January 2013, research using cephalopod molluscs, from hatchlings to adults, became regulated within Directive 2010/63/EU. There are significant difficulties in captive breeding in the great majority of currently utilised species. Thus, scientific research relies upon the use of wild-caught animals. Furthermore, live cephalopods are shared and transported between different stakeholders and laboratories across Europe and other continents. Despite existing European and national legislation, codes, guidelines and reports from independent organisations, a set of recommendations specifically addressing the requirements for the capture and transport of animals belonging to this taxon are missing. In addition, although training and development of competence for all people involved in the supply chain are essential and aim to ensure that animals do not suffer from pain, distress or lasting harm, the requirements for those capturing and transporting wild cephalopods have not been considered. This Working Group reviewed the current literature to recognise scientific evidence and the best practice, and compiled a set of recommendations to provide guidance on the 'techniques' to be used for the capture and transport of live cephalopods for their use in scientific procedures. In addition, we propose to (a) develop standardised approaches able to assess recommended methods and objectively quantify the impact of these processes on animals' health, welfare and stress response, and (b) design a training programme for people attaining the necessary competence for capture and transportation of live cephalopods, as required by Directive 2010/63/EU.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Cefalópodes , Meios de Transporte , Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0307209, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995960

RESUMO

The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight the role of debt sustainability in achieving sustainable development. China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an international cooperation effort that is endorsed by over 150 countries and organizations. Given the alignment between BRI development goals and the SDGs, the issue of debt sustainability in BRI countries warrants attention. While existing studies focus on sovereign risk in debt sustainability, there is a lack of emphasis on currency risk, indicating a need for further investigation to mitigate risks and comprehensively evaluate debt stability. Using data from 142 countries, this study examines currency risk reduction in BRI countries by assessing currency competitiveness. We find that the US dollar (USD) is the most competitive currency among BRI countries, followed by the Euro (EUR), Chinese yuan (CNY), sterling pound (GBP), and Japanese yen (JPY). The USD maintains its competitive edge over time, making it the preferred choice, with the EUR as a less optimal option and the CNY showing potential. Geographically, the EUR's close ties with BRI countries lend it prominence, followed by the USD, with the CNY gaining traction. GBP and JPY are considered conservative choices. Recommendations for currency selection vary based on countries' competitiveness, bilateral relationships, and development status.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Cooperação Internacional , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte
5.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306344, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995906

RESUMO

As urbanization speeds up, the concept of healthy cities is receiving more focus. This article compares Chongzuo and Nanning in Guangxi with Beijing to assess the development gaps in cities in Guangxi. An indicator system for healthy cities was designed from six dimensions-healthy economy, healthy population, healthy healthcare, healthy environment, healthy facilities, and healthy transportation-and 26 secondary indicators, which were selected from 2005 to 2022, and an improved factor analysis was used to synthesize a healthy city index (HCI). The number of factors was determined by combining characteristic roots and the variance contribution rate, and the HCI was weighted using the entropy-weighted Topsis method. A comprehensive evaluation of the urban health status of these cities was conducted. The results showed that extracting six common factors had the greatest effect, with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 93.83%. Chongzuo city scored higher in the field of healthcare. The healthy environment score of Nanning was relatively high, which may be related to continuous increases in green measures. In terms of the healthy economy dimension, Beijing was far ahead. However, in recent years, the healthy economy level in Chongzuo has increased, and the GDP growth rate has ranked among the highest in Guangxi. In addition, the growth rate of healthy facilities in Nanning was relatively fast and has been greater than that in Chongzuo in recent years, which indicates that the Nanning Municipal Government believes urban construction and municipal supporting facilities are highly important. In terms of healthy transportation, Chongzuo and Nanning scored higher than Beijing. This may be because the transportation in these two cities is convenient and the traffic density is more balanced than that in Beijing, thereby reducing traffic congestion. Chongzuo had the highest score for a healthy population, and a steadily growing population provides the city with stable human resources, which helps promote urban economic and social development. Finally, relevant policy recommendations were put forwards to enhance the health level of the cities.


Assuntos
Cidades , China , Humanos , Análise Fatorial , Urbanização , Meios de Transporte , Saúde da População Urbana , Pequim
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003538

RESUMO

The current geopolitical situation raised pointed question of developing new supply chains and looking for rolling stock to develop newly formed cargo flows, including medicinal preparations transportation. Considering necessity in timely and safe supply of medicines, it is necessary to develop set of measures permitting to implement export of this production of national industry to ensure ultimate independence from unfriendly states. The article considers main indicators of import and export operations of medicinal preparations and measures taken by the state to support industry in current conditions, requirements for international transportation of this category of goods. The measures increasing exports within the framework of the Pharmaceutical Industry Development Strategy until 2030, such as expansion of fleet of autonomous refrigerated containers, use of consolidation warehouses in Turkey and Kazakhstan to ensure decreasing of cost of multi-modal transportation of medicinal preparations, as well as validation of rolling stock in accordance with GDP requirements.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Cazaquistão , Meios de Transporte , Comércio , Turquia , Federação Russa
7.
J Emerg Manag ; 22(3): 249-260, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017598

RESUMO

Ashfall from the April 2021 La Soufrière volcano eruption significantly impacted the Caribbean Island of St. Vincent. Out of all infrastructure sectors, transportation was the most affected across the island, with damages totaling $27.5 million (USD). Removal of ash is a debris management, public health, and disaster concern. This study uses the United States Geological Survey Ash3d model to estimate the thickness of ashfall covering roads, structures, and agricultural lands, totaling 9.4 million ft.3 on roadways, 4.8 million ft.3 on structures, and 147 million ft.3 in agricultural areas. Total ashfall on the island was estimated at 1.3 billion ft.3 Long-term planning and recovery challenges include the remote island location, limited resources, and the existing social and humanitarian needs intensified by the disaster. A staged approach to cleanup, debris management, temporary storage of ash, and sustainable reuse of ash as an aggregate for paving and building materials is proposed. The benefits of new technologies for converting ash into building materials using both off- and on-island systems should be considered for reconstruction materials. Using alternatives to sand mining and developing the adaptive reuse of disaster debris would support long-term recovery and resilience.


Assuntos
Erupções Vulcânicas , Humanos , Planejamento em Desastres , Meios de Transporte , Materiais de Construção , Modelos Teóricos
8.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301188, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837982

RESUMO

We present a novel perspective on how connected vehicles can reduce total vehicular delay arising due to the capacity drop phenomenon observed at fixed freeway bottlenecks. We analytically determine spatial regions upstream of the bottleneck, called zones of influence, where a pair of connected vehicles can use an event-triggered control policy to positively influence a measurable traffic macrostate, e.g., the total vehicular delay at bottlenecks. These analytical expressions are also able to determine the boundaries (called null and event horizons) of these spatial extents, outside of which a connected vehicle cannot positively influence the traffic macrostate. These concepts can help ensure that information is disseminated to connected vehicles in only those spatial regions where it can be used to positively impact traffic macrostates. Some scenarios examined in this study indicate that communication between connected vehicles may be required over a span of several kilometers to positively impact traffic flow and mitigate delays arising due to the capacity drop phenomenon.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Condução de Veículo , Meios de Transporte
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1325193, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932765

RESUMO

Public transportation is an important mode of transportation in developing countries like Pakistan since it is accessible and convenient. But there are also serious health hazards associated with it, especially when it comes to the transmission of infectious diseases including COVID-19, TB, and Haemophilus influenzae. Worldwide transportation systems are vulnerable, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown, underscoring the necessity for study and mitigating measures. The danger of disease transmission is increased in Pakistan by crowded metropolitan areas, inadequate sanitation, and low health awareness. In addition, congested public transportation and inadequate ventilation lead to reduced air quality and elevated stress levels among commuters. Comprehensive actions are needed to address these health hazards, such as promoting physical distance, improving cleanliness, enforcing traffic safety laws, and implementing policy changes that support sustainable transportation. Community involvement and advocacy are critical in campaigning for safer and more sustainable transportation networks. Pakistan can enhance public health outcomes and reduce the health hazards linked to public transportation by giving priority to these measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Meios de Transporte , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PeerJ ; 12: e17455, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832041

RESUMO

Background: The rapid global emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 created urgent demand for leading indicators to track the spread of the virus and assess the consequences of public health measures designed to limit transmission. Public transit mobility, which has been shown to be responsive to previous societal disruptions such as disease outbreaks and terrorist attacks, emerged as an early candidate. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological study of the association between public transit mobility reductions and COVID-19 transmission using publicly available data from a public transit app in 40 global cities from March 16 to April 12, 2020. Multilevel linear regression models were used to estimate the association between COVID-19 transmission and the value of the mobility index 2 weeks prior using two different outcome measures: weekly case ratio and effective reproduction number. Results: Over the course of March 2020, median public transit mobility, measured by the volume of trips planned in the app, dropped from 100% (first quartile (Q1)-third quartile (Q3) = 94-108%) of typical usage to 10% (Q1-Q3 = 6-15%). Mobility was strongly associated with COVID-19 transmission 2 weeks later: a 10% decline in mobility was associated with a 12.3% decrease in the weekly case ratio (exp(ß) = 0.877; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.859-0.896]) and a decrease in the effective reproduction number (ß = -0.058; 95% CI: [-0.068 to -0.048]). The mobility-only models explained nearly 60% of variance in the data for both outcomes. The adjustment for epidemic timing attenuated the associations between mobility and subsequent COVID-19 transmission but only slightly increased the variance explained by the models. Discussion: Our analysis demonstrated the value of public transit mobility as a leading indicator of COVID-19 transmission during the first wave of the pandemic in 40 global cities, at a time when few such indicators were available. Factors such as persistently depressed demand for public transit since the onset of the pandemic limit the ongoing utility of a mobility index based on public transit usage. This study illustrates an innovative use of "big data" from industry to inform the response to a global pandemic, providing support for future collaborations aimed at important public health challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cidades , SARS-CoV-2 , Meios de Transporte , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
11.
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305563, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38917141

RESUMO

Efficient city logistics is essential to build smart sustainable cities where inhabitants' well-being is a priority. Meanwhile, despite the great importance of city logistics processes, their improvement is problematic for many cities. Although solutions from the field of emerging technologies are more and more often used, the question is whether implementing technological tools and filling cities with sensors is a sufficient solution that can solve the problems of intensely growing urban freight transport. The aim of the paper is to examine the role of knowledge management in city logistics and identify barriers to the implementation of knowledge-based city logistics. A key element of the research procedure was an expert survey, to which 31 international experts specialising in city logistics issues were invited, characterised by extensive experience working on research projects in the area of interest. Four knowledge management processes have been transferred to the city logistics area. The results of the study show that the difficulties are observed mainly in the processes of data gathering and knowledge acquisition. The main reason for difficulties in that area is the reluctance of city users, retailers, transport and logistics operators to share information. Identifying these processes as the most problematic is a valuable hint for logistics managers, municipalities and academics. To improve knowledge-based city logistics, it is therefore necessary to focus on these processes and look for the best solutions and new forms of organisational and business support. The solution to the problems identified in the study is the proposal to create a city logistics collaborative knowledge base which is a combination of an IT tool - the CL knowledge management platform, and the Freight Quality Partnership.


Assuntos
Cidades , Humanos , Meios de Transporte , Gestão do Conhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimento , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1505, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active transport- for example walking and bicycling to travel from place to place- may improve physical fitness and health and mitigate climate change if it replaces motorised transport. The aim of this study is to analyse the active transport behaviour of adults living in Germany, to investigate differences among population groups and to determine whether climate protection is a frequent motive for this behaviour. METHODS: This study uses self-reported data of 4,971 adults who participated in a national health survey (German Health Update 2021), which was conducted as a telephone survey from July to December 2021. Associations between active transport behaviour and corresponding motives with sociodemographic and health-related variables were analysed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the adult population, 83% use active transport at least once a week. The frequency and duration of walking per week are significantly higher than those for bicycling (walking 214 min/week; bicycling 57 min/week). Those with a lower education level are less likely to practise active transport than those with a higher education level. Furthermore, women are less likely to use a bicycle for transport than men. Among those practising active transport, the most frequently mentioned motive is "is good for health" (84%) followed by "to be physically active" (74%) and "is good for the climate/environment" (68%). Women and frequent bicyclists (at least 4 days/week) mention climate protection as a motive more often than men and those bicycling occasionally. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of active transport, especially among people with lower education and women (for bicycling), may benefit from better insights into motives and barriers. Climate protection is an important motivator for practising active transport within the adult population living in Germany and should therefore have greater emphasis in behavioural change programmes.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Motivação , Meios de Transporte , Caminhada , Humanos , Alemanha , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Adolescente , Mudança Climática , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0300036, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843145

RESUMO

With the continuous development of large-scale engineering projects such as construction projects, relief support, and large-scale relocation in various countries, engineering logistics has attracted much attention. This paper addresses a multimodal material route planning problem (MMRPP), which considers the transportation of engineering material from suppliers to the work zones using multiple transport modes. Due to the overall relevance and technical complexity of engineering logistics, we introduce the key processes at work zones to generate a transport solution, which is more realistic for various real-life applications. We propose a multi-objective multimodal transport route planning model that minimizes the total transport cost and the total transport time. The model by using the ε - constraint method that transforms the objective function of minimizing total transportation cost into a constraint, resulting in obtaining pareto optimal solutions. This method makes up for the lack of existing research on the combination of both engineering logistics and multimodal transportation, after which the feasibility of the model and algorithm is verified by examples. The results show that the model solution with the introduction of the key processes at work zones produces more time-efficient and less time-consuming route planning results, and that the results obtained using the ε - constraint method are more reliable than the traditional methods for solving multi-objective planning problems and are more in line with the decision maker's needs.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Meios de Transporte , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Engenharia/métodos , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
15.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304808, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875263

RESUMO

The efficiency and responsiveness of supply chains are vitally dependent on inventory replenishment and transportation decisions. In this paper, we study a supply chain consisting of a single retailer ordering seasonal products within the newsvendor framework. The primary objective of the paper is to investigate the retailer's decision-making process, aimed at determining the optimal replenishment quantities and selecting the appropriate mix and size of the truck fleet. Initially, we formulate a mathematical model where the retailer exclusively manages a limited fleet of its own trucks for inbound transportation of a single seasonal product. In this context, we determine a lower breakeven point for the fixed transportation cost than what has been previously proposed in the literature. Subsequently, we examine a commonly encountered transportation scenario where the retailer has the opportunity to expand its fleet size by leasing trucks from the external market. The outcomes of the numerical example indicates that the flexibility resulting from the utilization of different types of trucks can lead to reduced overall costs. We also address the practical transportation problem of efficiently shipping various seasonal products solely with the retailer's own trucks. For this complex problem, we propose an optimal solution procedure based on Lagrangian method. We show that the joint replenishment of multiple products results in cost savings and enhances utilization of the trucks' capacities.


Assuntos
Meios de Transporte , Meios de Transporte/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Comércio/economia , Veículos Automotores/economia , Humanos , Tomada de Decisões , Custos e Análise de Custo
16.
Environ Int ; 189: 108789, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852258

RESUMO

Urban and transportation policies are increasingly recognized for their potential to mitigate climate change impacts and address transport externalities. Amidst efforts to shift modal preferences and reduce transport emissions, cities are turning to spatialbased policies, such as Superblocks, to reshape urban mobility. This research examines the electoral outcomes associated with the implementation of Superblocks in Barcelona, focusing on their impact on political support for Barcelona en Comú (BEC) during the local elections of 2015 and 2023. Utilizing a combination of adjusted difference-in-differences and propensity score matching methods, we assessed the public's electoral response to the Superblock initiative amidst a backdrop of declining city-wide support for BEC. Our findings reveal that Superblock areas demonstrated significantly stronger support for BEC, suggesting a political premium for the party responsible for these urban interventions. Specifically, electoral support in Superblock districts saw an increase of 10-14% compared to the rest of the city. This result highlights the potential of urban transformation policies to influence political preferences locally and potentially validate the use of local electoral data as a tool for evaluating public response to highly contested urban policies.


Assuntos
Cidades , Política , Meios de Transporte , Espanha , Mudança Climática , Humanos
17.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 21: E45, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900694

RESUMO

Built environment approaches that improve active transportation infrastructure and environmental design can increase physical activity. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Texas Department of State Health Services rejuvenated the Texas Plan4Health program from 2018 to 2023 to expand such approaches in Texas by providing technical assistance to teams of local public health professionals and planners to identify and implement projects connecting people to everyday destinations via active transport in their communities. However, the COVID-19 pandemic prompted Texas Plan4Health to modify the delivery of technical assistance to accommodate restrictions on travel and in-person gatherings. We used qualitative methods to conduct a postintervention process evaluation to describe the modified technical assistance process, understand the experiences of the 4 participating communities, and identify short-term outcomes and lessons learned. Texas Plan4Health helped communities overcome common barriers to built environment change, facilitated collaboration across community public health and planning professionals, and educated professionals about active transportation infrastructure and the relationship between their disciplines, thereby increasing community capacity to implement built environment improvements. This outcome, however, was mediated by the pre-existing resources and previous experiences with active transportation planning among the participating communities. Public health practitioners seeking to improve active transportation infrastructure and environmental design for physical activity should consider community-engaged approaches that advance partnership-building and collaborative experiential education among public health, planning, and other local government representatives, directing particular attention and additional training toward communities with fewer resources.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Texas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Assistência Técnica ao Planejamento em Saúde
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 352: 117030, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a complementary means to urban public transit systems, public bike-sharing provides a green and active mode of sustainable mobility, while reducing carbon-dioxide emissions and promoting health. There has been increasing interest in factors affecting bike-sharing usage, but little is known about the effect of ambient air pollution. METHOD: To assess the short-term impact of daily exposure to multiple air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3) on the public bike-sharing system (PBS) usage in Seoul, South Korea (2018-2021), we applied a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model combined with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM). The model was adjusted for day of the week, holiday, temperature, relative humidity, and long-term trend. We also conducted stratification analyses to examine the potential effect modification by age group, seasonality, and COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that there was a negative association between daily ambient air pollution and the PBS usage level at a single lag day 1 (i.e., air quality a day before the event) across all four pollutants. Our results suggest that days with high levels of air pollutants (at 95th percentile) are associated with a 0.91% (0.86% to 0.96%) for PM2.5, 0.89% (0.85% to 0.94%) for PM10, 0.87% (0.82% to 0.91%) for O3, and 0.92% (0.87% to 0.98%) for NO2, reduction in cycling behavior in the next day compared to days with low levels of pollutants (at 25th percentile). No evidence of effect modification was found by seasonality, age nor the COVID-19 pandemic for any of the four pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ambient air pollution are associated with decreased rates of PBS usage on the subsequent day regardless of the type of air pollutant measured.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ciclismo , COVID-19 , Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Seul , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Estações do Ano
19.
Nature ; 631(8019): 179-188, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38926578

RESUMO

Encouraging routine COVID-19 vaccinations is likely to be a crucial policy challenge for decades to come. To avert hundreds of thousands of unnecessary hospitalizations and deaths, adoption will need to be higher than it was in the autumn of 2022 or 2023, when less than one-fifth of Americans received booster vaccines1,2. One approach to encouraging vaccination is to eliminate the friction of transportation hurdles. Previous research has shown that friction can hinder follow-through3 and that individuals who live farther from COVID-19 vaccination sites are less likely to get vaccinated4. However, the value of providing free round-trip transportation to vaccination sites is unknown. Here we show that offering people free round-trip Lyft rides to pharmacies has no benefit over and above sending them behaviourally informed text messages reminding them to get vaccinated. We determined this by running a megastudy with millions of CVS Pharmacy patients in the United States testing the effects of (1) free round-trip Lyft rides to CVS Pharmacies for vaccination appointments and (2) seven different sets of behaviourally informed vaccine reminder messages. Our results suggest that offering previously vaccinated individuals free rides to vaccination sites is not a good investment in the United States, contrary to the high expectations of both expert and lay forecasters. Instead, people in the United States should be sent behaviourally informed COVID-19 vaccination reminders, which increased the 30-day COVID-19 booster uptake by 21% (1.05 percentage points) and spilled over to increase 30-day influenza vaccinations by 8% (0.34 percentage points) in our megastudy. More rigorous testing of interventions to promote vaccination is needed to ensure that evidence-based solutions are deployed widely and that ineffective but intuitively appealing tools are discontinued.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunização Secundária , Sistemas de Alerta , Meios de Transporte , Vacinação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/tendências , Imunização Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Alerta/classificação , Sistemas de Alerta/estatística & dados numéricos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Meios de Transporte/economia , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121400, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936028

RESUMO

Outdoor exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in urban areas can vary considerably depending on the mode of transport. This study aims to quantify this difference in exposure during daily travel, by carrying out a micro-sensor measurement campaign. The pollutant exposure was assessed simultaneously over predefined routes in order to allow comparison between different transport modes having the same starting and ending points. During the six-week measurement campaign, the average reference values for PM background concentrations were 13.72 and 17.92µg/m3 for the PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The results revealed that the mode with the highest exposure to PM2.5 adjusted to background concentration (PM2.5Norm) was the bus (1.65) followed by metro (1.51), walking (1.33), tramway (1.31), car (1.09) and finally the bike (1.06). For PM10Norm, the tramway had the highest exposure (1.86), followed by walking (1.68), metro (1.65), bus (1.61), bike (1.43) and finally the car (1.39). The level of urbanization around the route and the presence of preferential lanes for public transportation influenced the concentration to which commuters were exposed. For the active modes (bike and walking), we observed frequent variations in concentrations during the trip, characterized by punctual peaks in concentration, depending on the local characteristics of road traffic and urban morphology. Fluctuations in particulate matter inside public transport vehicles were partly explained by the opening and closing of doors during stops, as well as the passenger flows, influencing the re-suspension of particles. The car was one of the least exposed modes overall, with the lowest concentration variability, although these concentrations can vary greatly depending on the ventilation parameters used. These results encourage measures to move the most exposed users away from road traffic, by developing a network of lanes entirely dedicated to cycling and walking, particularly in densely populated areas, as well as encouraging the renewal of motorized vehicles to use less polluting fuels with efficient ventilation systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Meios de Transporte , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , França , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Humanos , Poluição do Ar/análise
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