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1.
Emotion ; 22(3): 493-510, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370146

RESUMO

Despite the well-documented negative effects of anxiety on task-switching (switch costs), few studies have directly tested major theoretical assumptions about (a) the specific processing component of task-switching that is impaired by anxiety, (b) anxious individuals' strategies during task-switching, and (c) the mediating role of mind wandering in the relation between anxiety and task-switching. We addressed these issues using a stochastic diffusion model analysis and novel thought-probe technique in the task-switching paradigm. Our results suggest that the locus of impaired switch costs under state anxiety lies in the efficiency of task-set reconfiguration and not in proactive interference processing. Moreover, state anxiety was associated with impaired mixing costs, which are another crucial index of task-switching. We found only partial evidence for anxious individuals' proneness to compensatory strategies during task-switching. However, no evidence was found for a mediating role of task-unrelated thoughts and a moderating role of working memory in the relation between anxiety and task-switching. Our findings elucidate theoretical assumptions underlying anxiety and cognitive functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30210, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep insufficiency on spatial working memory in low-pressure and hypoxic environments. METHODS: We selected 58 insufficient sleepers and 27 normal sleepers among the college students living in high-altitude areas for a long time to receive a spatial 2-back working memory task, while collecting behavioral and electroencephalograph data. We adopted an independent sample t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to compare the differences in response time and accuracy, P2 and late positive potential components, and theta band energy values in the spatial working memory task between insufficient and normal sleepers. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in response time and accuracy between the insufficient sleep group and the normal sleep group; however, the P2 peak value and the early theta band energy value were higher in the insufficient sleep group than in the normal sleep group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the spatial working memory ability of individuals with sleep insufficiency was weakened under low-pressure and low-oxygen environment.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Privação do Sono , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112627

RESUMO

Deficits in spatial navigation in three-dimensional space are prevalent in various neurological disorders and are a sensitive cognitive marker for prodromal Alzheimer's disease, but are also associated with non-pathological aging. However, standard neuropsychological tests used in clinical settings lack ecological validity to adequately assess spatial navigation. Experimental paradigms, on the other hand, are often too difficult for seniors or patients with cognitive or motor impairments since most require operating a human interface device (HID) or use complex episodic memory tasks. Here, we introduce an intuitive navigation assessment, which is conceptualized using cognitive models of spatial navigation and designed to account for the limited technical experience and diverging impairments of elderly participants and neurological patients. The brief computer paradigm uses videos of hallways filmed with eye tracking glasses, without employing an episodic memory task or requiring participants to operate a HID. Proof of concept data from 34 healthy, middle-aged and elderly participants (56-78 years) provide evidence for the assessment's feasibility and construct validity as a navigation paradigm. Test performance showed normal distribution and was sensitive to age and education, which needs to be considered when investigating the assessment's psychometric properties in larger samples and clinical populations. Correlations of the navigation assessment with other neuropsychological tests confirmed its dependence on visuospatial skills rather than visual episodic memory, with age driving the association with working memory. The novel paradigm is suitable for a differentiated investigation of spatial navigation in elderly individuals and promising for experimental research in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Navegação Espacial , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2115610119, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067286

RESUMO

Real-world tasks require coordination of working memory, decision-making, and planning, yet these cognitive functions have disproportionately been studied as independent modular processes in the brain. Here, we propose that contingency representations, defined as mappings for how future behaviors depend on upcoming events, can unify working memory and planning computations. We designed a task capable of disambiguating distinct types of representations. In task-optimized recurrent neural networks, we investigated possible circuit mechanisms for contingency representations and found that these representations can explain neurophysiological observations from the prefrontal cortex during working memory tasks. Our experiments revealed that human behavior is consistent with contingency representations and not with traditional sensory models of working memory. Finally, we generated falsifiable predictions for neural data to identify contingency representations in neural data and to dissociate different models of working memory. Our findings characterize a neural representational strategy that can unify working memory, planning, and context-dependent decision-making.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Memória de Curto Prazo , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2209308119, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067292

RESUMO

There is a growing body of research focused on developing and evaluating behavioral training paradigms meant to induce enhancements in cognitive function. It has recently been proposed that one mechanism through which such performance gains could be induced involves participants' expectations of improvement. However, no work to date has evaluated whether it is possible to cause changes in cognitive function in a long-term behavioral training study by manipulating expectations. In this study, positive or negative expectations about cognitive training were both explicitly and associatively induced before either a working memory training intervention or a control intervention. Consistent with previous work, a main effect of the training condition was found, with individuals trained on the working memory task showing larger gains in cognitive function than those trained on the control task. Interestingly, a main effect of expectation was also found, with individuals given positive expectations showing larger cognitive gains than those who were given negative expectations (regardless of training condition). No interaction effect between training and expectations was found. Exploratory analyses suggest that certain individual characteristics (e.g., personality, motivation) moderate the size of the expectation effect. These results highlight aspects of methodology that can inform future behavioral interventions and suggest that participant expectations could be capitalized on to maximize training outcomes.


Assuntos
Cognição , Memória de Curto Prazo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078655

RESUMO

This group randomized control trial examined the dose-response effect of varied combinations of linear and nonlinear pedagogy (enriched physical education with specific program led by specialist vs. conventional physical education led by generalist) for improving first-grade children's motor creativity, executive functions, self-efficacy, and learning enjoyment. We led three physical education classes per group through 12 weeks of combined instruction, based on linear and nonlinear pedagogy: mostly linear (ML; 80% linear, 20% nonlinear; n = 62); mostly nonlinear (MNL; 20% linear, 80% nonlinear; n = 61); and control (C; conventional teaching from generalists; n = 60). MNL improved in (a) motor creativity ability (DMA; 48.7%, 76.5%, and 47.6% for locomotor, stability, and manipulative tasks, respectively); (b) executive functions (working memory and inhibitory control) for RNG task (14.7%) and task errors (70.8%); (c) self-efficacy (5.9%); and (d) enjoyment (8.3%). In ML, DMA improved by 18.0% in locomotor and 60.9% in manipulative tasks. C improved of 10.5% in enjoyment, and RNG task worsened by 22.6%. MNL improvements in DMA tasks, executive functions, and self-efficacy were significantly better than those in C. ML was better than C in DMA task and in executive functions' task errors. Overall, ML and MNL approaches were more effective than conventional generalist teaching (C), and the MNL combination of 80% nonlinear and 20% linear pedagogy was optimal. We recommend that educators favor the MNL approach.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Educação Física e Treinamento , Criança , Função Executiva , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Autoeficácia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078698

RESUMO

The Matsigenka people living traditional lifestyles in remote areas of the Amazon rely on a fish-based diet that exposes them to methylmercury (MeHg) at levels that have been associated with decreased IQ scores. In this study, the association between Hg levels and working memory was explored using the framework of the Multicomponent Model. Working memory tasks were modified to fit the culture and language of the Matsigenka when needed and included measures for verbal storage (Word Span) visuospatial storage (Corsi Block Task) and a measure of executive functions, the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT). An innovation of the Trail Making Tests A & B (TMT A & B) was pilot tested as another potential measure of executive functions. The mean hair Hg levels of 30 participants, ages 12 to 55 years, from three different communities (Maizal, Cacaotal and Yomibato) was 7.0 ppm (sd = 2.40), well above the World Health Organization (WHO) limit for hair of 2.0 ppm and ranged from 1.8 to 14.2 ppm, with 98% of a broader sample of 152 individuals exceeding the WHO limit. Hair Hg levels showed significant associations with cognitive performance, but the degree varied in magnitude according to the type of task. Hg levels were negatively associated with executive functioning performance (SOPT errors), while Hg levels and years of education predicted visuospatial performance (Corsi Block accuracy). Education was the only predictor of Word Span accuracy. The results show that Hg exposure is negatively associated with working memory performance when there is an increased reliance on executive functioning. Based on our findings and the review of the experimental research, we suggest that the SOPT and the Corsi Block have the potential to be alternatives to general intelligence tests when studying remote groups with extensive cultural differences.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Mercúrio , Animais , Função Executiva , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Mercúrio/análise , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Peru
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078752

RESUMO

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neurofeedback training (NFT) of theta activity on working memory (WM) and episodic memory (EM) in healthy participants via a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 337 articles obtained from electronic databases were assessed; however, only 11 articles met the criteria for meta-analysis after manually screening and eliminating unnecessary studies. A meta-analysis calculating the Hedges' g effect size metric with 95% confidence intervals using random effects models was employed. Heterogeneity was estimated using I2 statistics. Theta NFT is effective in improving memory outcomes, including WM with a Hedges' g of 0.56 [0.10; 1.02] (I2 = 62.9% and p = 0.02), and EM with a Hedges' g of 0.62 [0.13; 1.10] (I2 = 42.04% and p = 0.01). Overall, the results suggest that theta NFT seems to be useful as nonpharmacological/adjunct training to improve WM and EM in healthy participants.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Neurorretroalimentação , Nível de Saúde , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15072, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064572

RESUMO

Most neuroscientific studies investigating mental effort apply unspecific effort allocation paradigms. In contrast, the present EEG study targets specific effort allocation during task prioritization. Twenty-eight participants performed a cued number classification task during the retention interval of a working memory task including retrospective cues. One of two possible number classifications was done per trial. Each trial started with a cue indicating which of the two tasks would be more important in the upcoming trial. Subjects were told to engage in both tasks, but to concentrate on the important one. Feedback given at the end of each trial was calculated based on task performance, with scores obtained from the relevant task being tripled. Participants performed significantly better in either task when it was important compared to when not. Task prioritization modulates theta, alpha and beta oscillations, predominantly during task preparation. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that the exact type of the two possible number classifications was decodable, however, decoding accuracy did not depend on task importance. Hemispheric alpha power asymmetries indicating attentional orienting between working memory representations also did not depend on task importance. The findings suggest that task prioritization primarily affects proactive cognitive control on a superordinate level.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15050, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064880

RESUMO

Working memories have long been thought to be maintained by persistent spiking. However, mounting evidence from multiple-electrode recording (and single-trial analyses) shows that the underlying spiking is better characterized by intermittent bursts of activity. A counterargument suggested this intermittent activity is at odds with observations that spike-time variability reduces during task performance. However, this counterargument rests on assumptions, such as randomness in the timing of the bursts, which may not be correct. Thus, we analyzed spiking and LFPs from monkeys' prefrontal cortex (PFC) to determine if task-related reductions in variability can co-exist with intermittent spiking. We found that it does because both spiking and associated gamma bursts were task-modulated, not random. In fact, the task-related reduction in spike variability could largely be explained by a related reduction in gamma burst variability. Our results provide further support for the intermittent activity models of working memory as well as novel mechanistic insights into how spike variability is reduced during cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Potenciais de Ação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
11.
Cogn Sci ; 46(9): e13194, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070854

RESUMO

Recent studies on visual working memory (VWM) have shown that visual information can be stored in VWM as continuous (e.g., a specific shade of red) as well as categorical representations (e.g., the general category red). It has been widely assumed, yet never directly tested, that continuous representations require more VWM mental effort than categorical representations; given limited VWM capacity, this would mean that fewer continuous, as compared to categorical, representations can be maintained simultaneously. We tested this assumption by measuring pupil size, as a proxy for mental effort, in a delayed estimation task. Participants memorized one to four ambiguous (boundaries between adjacent color categories) or prototypical colors to encourage continuous or categorical representations, respectively; after a delay, a probe indicated the location of the to-be-reported color. We found that, for memory load 1, pupil size was larger while maintaining ambiguous as compared to prototypical colors, but without any difference in memory precision; this suggests that participants relied on an effortful continuous representation to maintain a single ambiguous color, thus resulting in pupil dilation while preserving precision. Strikingly, this effect gradually inverted, such that for memory load 4, pupil size was smaller while maintaining ambiguous and prototypical colors, but memory precision was now substantially reduced for ambiguous colors; this suggests that with increased memory load participants increasingly relied on categorical representations for ambiguous colors (which are by definition a poor fit to any category). Taken together, our results suggest that continuous representations are more effortful than categorical representations and that very few continuous representations (perhaps only one) can be maintained simultaneously.


Assuntos
Atenção , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Orientação Espacial
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 777-780, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085611

RESUMO

Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in helping individuals perform everyday activities and interact with the external environment. However, despite valuable insights into visual memory mechanisms, the multi-sensory aspects of WM have not been thoroughly investigated, especially in congenitally blind individuals, primarily due to a lack of proper technologies. This work presents an audio-haptic system to study the generation and recall of multi-sensory spatial representations in visually impaired and sighted individuals. Precisely, we developed an audio-tactile tablet composed of a set of spatialized speakers covered by tactile sensors and tri-modal stimulations units providing acoustic, visual, and haptic feedback. Furthermore, we integrated these two systems among each other. Interestingly, visually impaired and sighted adults could easily interact with these devices. Technologies like the ones we developed might be suitable in experimental and clinical settings to study the influence of the different sensory modalities on high-level cognitive skills and the impact of early visual deprivation on such abilities for rehabilitative intervention since the first period of life.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Adulto , Cegueira , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Órgãos dos Sentidos
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4031-4035, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085679

RESUMO

Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit working memory (WM) deficits that are associated with deficient dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortical activity, including decreased frontal gamma power. We thus hypothesized that training SCZ patients to increase frontal gamma activity would improve their WM performance. We administered electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to 31 participants with SCZ for 12 weeks (24 sessions), which provides real-time visual and auditory feedback related to frontal gamma activity. The EEG-NFB training significantly improved EEG markers of optimal working memory, e.g., frontal P3 amplitude and gamma power. Based on these promising results, we developed a novel, EEGLAB/MATLAB-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that delivers F3-F4 gamma coherence NFB with a dynamic threshold to SCZ patients randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The BCI significantly increased F3-F4 gamma coherence after 12 weeks (24 sessions) of training, according to data from the first 12 subjects ( n=6 /group) who completed gamma- or placebo-NFB training.


Assuntos
Neurorretroalimentação , Esquizofrenia , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Neurorretroalimentação/métodos , Esquizofrenia/terapia
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4230-4236, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085870

RESUMO

So far, it shows a growing interest in the biomechanics community in the development of wearable technologies and their clinical applications, which enables the diagnosis of movement disorders and design of the rehabilitation interventions. To provide reliable feedback in the human-machine interface for advanced rehabilitation devices, methods to predict motion intention was developed which aim to generate future human motion based on the measured motion. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a promising device for motion tracking, with the advantages of low cost and high convenience in sensor placement to measure motion in almost every environment. However, it reveals that few contributions have been devoted to human motion prediction with pure IMU data. Thus, we propose a hybrid method integrating a musculoskeletal (MSK) model and the long short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural network (ANN) to predict human motion. The proposed method was capable to predict motion in the daily tasks (stand-to-sit-to-stand and walking) for healthy participants: the predicted knee joint angles had an RMSE of 2.93° when compared to measured knee joint angles from the IMU data. The proposed method outperformed the methods based on the ANN/MSK model (RMSE of 31.15°) and LSTM without the integration of the MSK model (RMSE of 31.26°) in the motion prediction. Clinical Relevance- This proposed model based on IMU data alone has the great potential to become a low-cost, easy-to-use alternative in motion prediction to interact with advanced rehabilitation devices in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Medicina , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Memória de Longo Prazo , Movimento (Física)
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 317-320, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085985

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method that enables the analysis and quantification of brain metabolites, which provide useful information about the neuro-biological substrates of brain function. Lactate plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of various brain diseases. However, accurate lactate quantification is generally difficult to achieve due to the presence of large lipid peaks resonating at a similar spectral position. To overcome this problem several techniques have been proposed. However, most of them suffer from lactate signal loss or poor lipid peak removal. In this paper, a novel method for lipid suppression for MRS signal is proposed. The method combines a semi-classical signal analysis method and a bidirectional long short term memory technique. The method is validated using simulated data that mimics real MRS data.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Ácido Láctico , Lipídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 2606-2610, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086213

RESUMO

Medical practices are engaged and motivated by new technologies and methods to enhance patient care as efficiently as possible. These new methods and technologies give way for medical practices and clinicians to have the insight, comprehension, and projections to develop better decisions and overall levels of care. In this paper, we propose a model, PatientCentered-LSTM (or PC-LSTM), using the states of the LSTM model to produce a novel, ontology-based state system for data incompleteness. The overall architecture and system design are based around utilizing the hidden and cell states of the LSTM model to produce a network of states for each of the corresponding hierarchies in an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. The resulting methodology allows for an accurate and precise approach to predicting data incompleteness in electronic health records. Clinical relevance- The method presented uses the hierarchical nature of electronic health record systems to positively influence the analysis of its data completeness; thereby, increasing the possibility of improved healthcare outcomes.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Previsões , Humanos , Memória de Longo Prazo
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4056-4059, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086235

RESUMO

An efficient machine learning (ML) implementation in the so-called 'AI for social good' domain shall contribute to dementia digital neuro-biomarker development for early-onset prognosis of a possible cognitive decline. We report encouraging initial developments of wearable EEG-derived theta-band fluctuations examination and a successive classification embracing a time-series complexity examination with a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) in the face or emotion video-clip identification short-term oddball memory tasks. We also report findings from a thirty-five elderly volunteer pilot study that EEG responses to instructed to ignore (inhibited) oddball paradigm stimulation results in more informative MFDFA features, leading to better machine learning classification results. The reported pilot project showcases vital social assistance of artificial intelligence (AI) application for an early-onset dementia prognosis. Clinical Relevance- This introduces a candidate for an objective digital neuro-biomarker from theta-band EEG recorded by a wearable for a plausible replacement of biased 'paper & pencil' tests for a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) evaluation.


Assuntos
Demência , Memória de Curto Prazo , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Biomarcadores , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 807-811, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086558

RESUMO

Executive function (EF) consists of higher level cognitive processes including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition which together enable goal-directed behaviors. Many neurological disorders are associated with EF dysfunctions which can lead to suboptimal behavior. To assess the roles of these processes, we introduce a novel behavioral task and modeling approach. The gamble-like task, with sub-tasks targeting different EF capabilities, allows for quantitative assessment of the main components of EF. We demonstrate that human participants exhibit dissociable variability in the component processes of EF. These results will allow us to map behavioral outcomes to EEG recordings in future work in order to map brain networks associated with EF deficits. Clinical relevance- This work will allow us to quantify EF deficits and corresponding brain activity in patient populations in future work.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Memória de Curto Prazo , Encéfalo , Tomada de Decisões , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 3653-3656, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086654

RESUMO

In this work, we evaluated the possibility to use synthesized IMU data for training a deep neural network to generate a more complex, full-body description of the human gait in terms of joint angle trajectories from a sparse sensor setup. In this context, a sparse sensor setup consists of a few sensors attached to human body segments in an unobtrusive manner to possibly provide a monitoring system in an everyday life scenario. Since the relation between the input IMU data and the output joint angle trajectories is highly non-linear, neural networks appear to provide an optimal framework to formulate a mapping description. Especially with respect to periodic signals, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have gained importance in the recent years. In this work, we have used a special type of RNNs that can be implemented by using long-short term memory (LSTM) cells, which have shown promising results when being applied to sequential data. The artificial training data was generated by a simulative human gait model and virtually attached sensor devices. The trained network was subsequently validated by a dataset that was recorded from a treadmill walking trial using a motion capturing system and an IMU sensor system. The qualitative comparison already shows promising results, however, this study can only be considered to provide preliminary results in this area. Clinical Relevance- This approach has the potential to be applied in the remote assessment of gait behavior during everyday life environments using an unobtrusive sensor net-work. In particular for monitoring older people suffering from an increased fall risk or any significant gait impairments this work is of possible interest.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha , Memória de Curto Prazo , Idoso , Marcha , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Caminhada
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(36): e30330, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086757

RESUMO

Cross-modal conflicts arise when information from multisensory modalities is incongruent. Most previous studies investigating audiovisual cross-modal conflicts have focused on visual targets with auditory distractors, and only a few studies have focused on auditory targets with visual distractors. Moreover, no study has investigated the differences in the impact of visual cross-modal conflict with semantic and nonsemantic competition and its neural basis. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the impact of 2 types of visual cross-modal conflicts with semantic and nonsemantic distractors through a working memory task and associated brain activities. The participants were 33 healthy, right-handed, young male adults. The paced auditory serial addition test was performed under 3 conditions: no-distractor and 2 types of visual distractor conditions (nonsemantic and semantic distractor conditions). Symbols and numbers were used as nonsemantic and semantic distractors, respectively. The oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) concentration in the frontoparietal regions, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and inferior parietal cortex (IPC) were measured during the task under each condition. The results showed significantly lower paced auditory serial addition test performances in both distractor conditions than in the no-distractor condition, but no significant difference between the 2 distractor conditions. For brain activity, a significantly increased Oxy-Hb concentration in the right VLPFC was only observed in the nonsemantic distractor condition (corrected P = .015; Cohen d = .46). The changes in Oxy-Hb in the bilateral IPC were positively correlated with changes in task performance for both types of visual cross-modal distractor conditions. Visual cross-modal conflict significantly impairs auditory working memory task performance, regardless of the presence of semantic or nonsemantic distractors. The right VLPFC may be a crucial region to inhibit visual nonsemantic information in cross-modal conflict situations, and bilateral IPC may be closely linked with the inhibition of visual cross-modal distractor, regardless of the presence of semantic or nonsemantic distractors.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Semântica , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
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