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2.
Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 45: 45-54, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639080

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In Bangladesh, prior to the availability of the approved combination regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol for menstrual regulation (MR), drug seller provision of misoprostol-only regimens for MR without a prescription was widespread but service quality was poor. Examining provider practices relating to misoprostol-only provision in Bangladesh may increase understanding of misoprostol use and provision in other low-resource, legally restrictive settings. METHODS: In 2013-2014, a countrywide cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practice survey was conducted among 777 randomly selected drug sellers; data were analyzed descriptively. Logistic regression was used to test the associations between exposure to three interventions designed to improve drug seller practice (nongovernmental organization [NGO]-led training, a call center and in-shop training from pharmaceutical company representatives) and correct knowledge of the misoprostol-only MR regimen. RESULTS: Almost all (97%) of the drug sellers reported providing medications intended for MR; misoprostol-only was more commonly sold than the combination regimen (96% vs. 26%). Nine percent had received NGO-led training, 62% had received in-shop training from a pharmaceutical company representative and 27% had used the call center. Overall, 19% of drug sellers knew the correct misoprostol-only MR regimen, and 74% wanted more information about this regimen. Correct regimen knowledge was positively associated with receipt of NGO training and call center utilization (odds ratios, 2.0 and 1.9, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: NGO-led training and call centers should be considered in other settings in which misoprostol alone is provided off-label for pregnancy termination.


RESUMEN Contexto: En Bangladesh, antes de que el régimen combinado de mifepristona y misoprostol fuera aprobado para la regulación menstrual (RM), la provisión sin receta de regímenes de misoprostol solo para RM por parte de vendedores de medicamentos estuvo muy generalizada, pero la calidad de servicio era deficiente. Examinar las prácticas de los proveedores relacionadas con la provisión de misoprostol solo en Bangladesh podría aumentar la comprensión sobre el uso y la provisión de misoprostol en otros entornos de bajos recursos restringidos legalmente. Métodos: Entre 2013 y 2014, se realizó una encuesta transversal de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en todo el país entre 777 vendedores de medicamentos seleccionados al azar; los datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Se utilizó regresión logística para evaluar las asociaciones entre la exposición a tres intervenciones diseñadas para mejorar las prácticas de los vendedores de medicamentos (capacitación conducida por una organización no gubernamental [ONG], un centro de atención telefónica y capacitación en el negocio por parte de representantes de las compañías farmacéuticas), así como el conocimiento correcto del régimen de misoprostol solo usado para RM. Resultados: Casi la totalidad (97%) de los vendedores de medicamentos informaron que estaban vendiendo medicamentos para RM; que la venta de misoprostol solo era más común que el régimen combinado (96% vs 26%). El nueve por ciento había recibido capacitación impartida por ONG, el 62% había recibido capacitación en su negocio de un representante de una compañía farmacéutica y el 27% había utilizado el centro de llamadas. En general, el 19% de los vendedores de medicamentos conocía el régimen correcto de RM basado en misoprostol solo y el 74% quería más información sobre ese régimen. El conocimiento correcto del régimen se asoció positivamente con la recepción de capacitación de las ONG y la utilización del centro de atención telefónica (razón de probabilidades, 2.0 y 1.9, respectivamente). Conclusiones: La capacitación conducida por ONG y el uso del centro de atención telefónica deberían considerarse en otros entornos restringidos en los que el misoprostol solo se proporciona sin autorización para la interrupción del embarazo.


RÉSUMÉ Contexte: Au Bangladesh, avant la disponibilité du traitement homologué au mifépristone associé au misoprostol pour la régulation menstruelle (RM), la prestation par les vendeurs de médicaments des traitements de RM au misoprostol seul sans ordonnance était répandue, mais la qualité du service était faible. L'examen des pratiques de prestation relatives à la fourniture de misoprostol seul au Bangladesh peut aider à mieux cerner l'usage et l'offre de ce médicament dans d'autres contextes à faibles ressources soumis à des lois restrictives. Méthodes: En 2013­2014, une étude transversale sur les connaissances, les attitudes et les pratiques à l'échelle du pays a été menée auprès de 777 vendeurs de médicaments sélectionnés aléatoirement, pour analyse descriptive des données. La régression logistique a servi au test des associations entre l'exposition à trois interventions conçues pour améliorer la pratique des vendeurs de médicaments (formation sous la conduite d'organisations non gouvernementales [ONG], établissement d'un centre d'appels et formation par des représentants de laboratoires pharmaceutiques) et la connaissance correcte du traitement de RM à base de misoprostol seul. Résultats: Presque tous les vendeurs de médicaments (97%) ont déclaré vendre des médicaments destinés à la RM. Le misoprostol seul était vendu plus fréquemment que le traitement d'association (96% vs 26%). Neuf pour cent avaient bénéficié d'une formation par une ONG, 62% d'une formation locale assurée par un représentant de laboratoire pharmaceutique et 27% avaient eu recours au centre d'appels. Globalement, 19% des vendeurs avaient une connaissance correcte du traitement de RM à base de misoprostol seul et 74% désiraient plus d'information à ce sujet. La connaissance correcte du traitement était associée positivement à l'obtention d'une formation par une ONG et au recours au centre d'appels (RC, 2,0 et 1,9, respectivement). Conclusions: La formation sous la conduite d'une ONG et l'établissement d'un centre d'appels doivent être envisagés dans d'autres contextes sujets à une législation restrictive dans lesquels le misoprostol seul est proposé hors indication pour l'interruption d'une grossesse.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Farmácias
3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 140(2): 205-210, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for menstrual regulation among Bangladeshi women attending public sector facilities. METHODS: In a prospective study, women (aged ≥18 years) with up to 9 weeks of amenorrhea were enrolled at 24 government health facilities in Bangladesh from November 2012 to June 2015. Paramedics or female welfare visitors provided most menstrual regulation care. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 µg buccal misoprostol after 24 hours, and were asked to return to the clinic 10-14 days later for clinical assessment and an exit interview. The primary outcome was successful evacuation of the uterus without need for surgical intervention. Women who completed follow-up were included in analyses for the primary outcome. RESULTS: Among 1744 enrolled participants, 1738 completed follow-up. Most (1674, 96.3%) had a successful uterine evacuation without the need for surgical intervention. A successful outcome was significantly more common in primary (724/744, 97.3%) and secondary facilities (861/895, 96.2%) than in the specialty hospital (89/99, 89.9%; P<0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Menstrual regulation with mifepristone and misoprostol can be provided effectively in public sector facilities in Bangladesh. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01798017.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Indutores da Menstruação/administração & dosagem , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Contraception ; 97(2): 144-151, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the provision of the combination of mifepristone-misoprostol for menstrual regulation (MR) in randomly selected urban pharmacies in Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 553 pharmacy workers followed by 548 mystery client visits to the same pharmacies in 3 municipal districts during July 2014-December 2015. RESULTS: The survey found that 99% of pharmacy workers visited had knowledge of MR procedures but only two-thirds (67%) could state the legal time limit correctly; they mentioned misoprostol (86%) over mifepristone-misoprostol combination (78%) as a procedure of MR with medication (MRM); 36% reported knowing the recommended dosage of mifepristone-misoprostol combination; 70% reported providing information on effectiveness of the medicines; 50% reported recommending at least one follow-up visit to them; 63% reported explaining possible complications of using the medications; and 47% reported offering any post-MR contraception to their clients. In contrast, mystery client visits found that the mifepristone-misoprostol combination (69%) was suggested over misoprostol (51%) by the pharmacy workers; 54% provided the recommended dosage of mifepristone-misoprostol combination; 42% provided information on its effectiveness; 12% recommended at least one follow-up visit; 11% counseled on possible complications; and only 5% offered post-MR contraceptives to the mystery clients. CONCLUSIONS: We found knowledge gaps regarding recommended dosage for MRM and inconsistent practice in informing women on effectiveness, follow-up visits, possible complications and provision of post-MR contraceptives among the pharmacy workers, particularly during the mystery client visits. IMPLICATIONS: Pharmacy workers in Bangladesh need to be trained on legal time limits for MR services provision, on providing accurate information on disbursed medicine, and on proper referral mechanisms. A strong monitoring and regulatory system for pharmacy provision of MRM in pharmacies should be established.


Assuntos
Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Cidades , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez
5.
Contraception ; 97(2): 152-159, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of following up women who purchase mifepristone+misoprostol or misoprostol-only from pharmacies in order to measure the safety and effectiveness of self-administration of menstrual regulation. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study followed women purchasing mifepristone+misoprostol or misoprostol-only from pharmacies in Bangladesh. Participants were recruited by pharmacy workers either in person or indirectly via the purchaser of the drugs. End users were contacted by phone 2 weeks after recruitment, screened and interviewed. RESULTS: Study recruitment rates by pharmacy workers were low (30%, 109 of 642 women informed about the study), but 2-week follow-up rates were high (87%). Of the 109 end users interviewed, 87 purchased mifepristone+misoprostol and 20 misoprostol-only, while 2 women did not know what drugs they had purchased. Mean self-reported number of weeks of pregnancy was 5.7 weeks. Information provision by pharmacy workers was inadequate (40.4% received none, 8.7% received written information or pictures). A total of 80.5% of mifepristone+misoprostol users were sold the correct regimen versus 9 out of 20 misoprostol-only users. A total of 68.8% did not report experiencing any complications (70.0% misoprostol-only; 69.0% mifepristone+misoprostol users, p=1.0). A total of 94.3% of mifepristone+misoprostol users and 75% of misoprostol-only users reported that they were not pregnant at day 15 (p=.020). However, 7.3% of all users sought additional treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Challenges in assessing outcomes of self-managed menstrual regulation medications purchased from pharmacies must be overcome through further development of this methodology. Interventions are urgently needed to ensure that women have access to correct dosages, accurate information and necessary referrals. IMPLICATIONS: This paper assesses the outcomes of women who self-manage menstrual regulation medications purchased from pharmacies. The methodology requires further development, but our study provides preliminary positive evidence on the safety and effectiveness of self-management despite low information provision from pharmacy workers.


Assuntos
Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
J Med Ethics ; 41(9): 762-5, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085334

RESUMO

In regulating the voluntary interruption of pregnancy, English law has accorded particular significance to two biological events. First, 'viability', the moment when a fetus is said to acquire the capacity for independent life, plays an important role in grounding restrictions on access to legal abortion later in pregnancy. Second, equally significantly but far less frequently discussed, 'implantation' marks the point in pregnancy from which abortion laws apply. This paper focuses on this earlier biological event. It suggests that an unquestioning reliance on implantation as marking an appropriate moment of transition between two radically different legal frameworks is deeply problematic and is rendered still less sustainable in the light of the development of new technologies that potentially operate shortly after the moment of implantation.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Início da Vida Humana , Anticoncepção/ética , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Implantação do Embrião , Obrigações Morais , Aborto Induzido/ética , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Pós-Coito/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Legislação Médica/história , Legislação Médica/tendências , Indutores da Menstruação/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Reino Unido
7.
Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 39(2): 79-87, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895884

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Annually, more than 700,000 women turn to menstrual regulation, or uterine evacuation with vacuum aspiration; many more resort to unsafe abortion. Using pills for the evacuation of the uterus could increase women's access to safe menstrual regulation services and reduce the high levels of abortion- and menstrual regulation- related morbidity in Bangladesh. METHODS: At 10 facilities in Bangladesh, 651 consenting women who were seeking menstrual regulation services and who were 63 days or less past their last menstrual period received 200 mg of mifepristone followed 24 hours later by 800 mcg of buccal misoprostol, administered either at home or in the clinic. Prospective data were collected to determine women's experience and satisfaction with the procedure, menstrual regulation outcome, and the human and physical resources required for providing the method. Focus group discussions were conducted with a purposively sampled group of service providers at each site to understand their attitudes about the introduction of menstrual regulation with medication. RESULTS: The majority of women (93%) with known menstrual regulation outcomes evacuated the uterus without surgical intervention. Overall, most women (92%) were satisfied with use of pills for their menstrual regulation. Providers faced initial challenges and concerns, particularly related to the additional counseling requirements and lack of control over the final outcome, but became more confident after successful use of the medication regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Mifepristone-misoprostol can be safely offered within existing menstrual regulation services in urban and periurban areas in Bangladesh and is highly acceptable to women. Providers' initial concerns diminish with increased experience with the method.


Assuntos
Abortivos/administração & dosagem , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Indutores da Menstruação/administração & dosagem , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Abortivos não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
8.
Anesth Analg ; 116(1): 155-61, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23223094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Recent data from trauma patients and patients with hemorrhagic shock have suggested that an increased fresh frozen plasma:red blood cell (FFP:RBC) ratio may be of benefit in massive bleeding. We addressed this issue in cases of severe postpartum hemorrhage. METHODS: We reviewed data from all patients diagnosed with severe postpartum hemorrhage during a 4-year period (2006-2009). Patients who were treated with sulprostone and required transfusion within 6 hours of delivery were included in the study and were divided into 2 groups according to their response to sulprostone: bleeding controlled with sulprostone alone (sulprostone group) and bleeding requiring an additional advanced interventional procedure including arterial angiographic embolization and/or surgical procedures (arterial ligation, B-Lynch suture, or hysterectomy; intervention group). The requirement or no requirement for advanced procedures constituted the primary end point of the study. Propensity scoring was used to assess the effect of a high FFP:RBC ratio on bleeding control. RESULTS: Among 12,226 deliveries during the study period, 142 (1.1%) were complicated by severe postpartum hemorrhage. Bleeding was controlled with sulprostone alone in 90 patients (63%). Advanced interventional procedures were required for 52 patients (37%). Forty-one patients were transfused with both RBCs and FFP. The FFP:RBC ratio increased over the study period (P < 0.001), from 1:1.8 at the start to 1:1.1 at the end of the study period. After propensity score modeling (inverse probability of treatment weighting), a high FFP:RBC ratio was associated with lower odds for advanced interventional procedures (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.25 [1.07-1.47]; P = 0.008). There were no deaths, severe organ dysfunction, or other complications as a consequence of severe postpartum hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, a higher FFP:RBC ratio was associated with a lower requirement for advanced interventional procedures in the setting of postpartum hemorrhage. The benefits of transfusion using a higher FFP:RBC ratio should be confirmed by randomized-controlled trials.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Plasma , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica , Angiografia , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea , Dinoprostona/análogos & derivados , Dinoprostona/uso terapêutico , Embolização Terapêutica , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/cirurgia , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(3): 427-433, July-Sept. 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-653456

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.


Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Gravidez , Perigos Teratogênicos , Produtos Biológicos/análise , Indutores da Menstruação/análise
10.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 286(4): 939-46, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22648443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of mifepristone on the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein and COX-2 mRNA and then to evaluate the mechanism. METHODS: After the establishment of 30 mice endometriosis models, the mice were randomly divided into six groups with 5 mice each group and assigned to experimental and control groups of 1-, 4- and 6-week circle according to whether mifepristone (0.13 mg d(-1)) was taken or not. Small animal optical imaging system was used to detect the fluorescent intensity of the ectopic tissue. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction and western blot was used to examine COX-2 protein and COX-2 mRNA expression. ELISA was used to examine concentration of PGE(2) in serum. RESULT(S): Mifepristone could not affect the fluorescent intensity of the ectopic endometrium after it was taken 1, 4, and 6 (P > 0.05). However, it could decrease the transcription of COX-2 mRNA in the 1 and 4 week groups (P < 0.05), while the difference in the 6 week group was not significant (P > 0.05). It could decrease the expression of COX-2 protein after it was taken 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). The serous PGE(2) in the trial groups was lower than that in the control groups, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION(S): This study showed that mifepristone could not affect the size of the ectopic endometrium, but it could decrease the transcription of COX-2 gene and then reduce the expression of COX-2 protein and its product PGE(2) which is an important factor which mediate pain. This maybe another mechanism that mifepristone takes effect through anti-inflammatory path.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Endométrio/metabolismo , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dinoprostona/sangue , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Fluorescência , Indutores da Menstruação/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mifepristona/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 119(5): 902-8, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22525900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether progestin-induced endometrial shedding, before ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or a combination of both, affects ovulation, conception, and live birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A secondary analysis of the data from 626 women with PCOS from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network trial was performed. Women had been randomized to up to six cycles of clomiphene citrate alone, metformin alone, or clomiphene citrate plus metformin. Women were assessed for occurrence of ovulation, conception, and live birth in relation to prior bleeding episodes (after either ovulation or exogenous progestin-induced withdrawal bleed). RESULTS: Although ovulation rates were higher in cycles preceded by spontaneous endometrial shedding than after anovulatory cycles (with or without prior progestin withdrawal), both conception and live birth rates were significantly higher after anovulatory cycles without progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding (live births per cycle: spontaneous menses 2.2%; anovulatory with progestin withdrawal 1.6%; anovulatory without progestin withdrawal 5.3%; P<.001). The difference was more marked when rate was calculated per ovulation (live births per ovulation: spontaneous menses 3.0%; anovulatory with progestin withdrawal 5.4%; anovulatory without progestin withdrawal 19.7%; P<.001). CONCLUSION: Conception and live birth rates are lower in women with PCOS after a spontaneous menses or progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding as compared with anovulatory cycles without progestin withdrawal. The common clinical practice of inducing endometrial shedding with progestin before ovarian stimulation may have an adverse effect on rates of conception and live birth in anovulatory women with PCOS. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Fertilização , Nascido Vivo , Menstruação , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Clomifeno/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Menstruação/administração & dosagem , Indutores da Menstruação/farmacologia , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/farmacologia
12.
PLoS One ; 7(3): e32922, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22412950

RESUMO

The complex tissue remodeling process of menstruation is experienced by humans and some primates, whereas most placental mammals, including mice, go through an estrous cycle. How menstruation and the underlying mechanisms evolved is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that the process of menstruation is not just species-specific but also depends on factors which can be induced experimentally. In intact female mice endogenous progesterone levels were raised by the induction of pseudopregnancy. Following an intrauterine oil injection, the decidualization of the endometrium was reliably induced as a prerequisite for menstruation. The natural drop of endogenous progesterone led to spontaneous breakdown of endometrial tissue within an average of 3 days post induction of decidualization. Interestingly, morphological changes such as breakdown and repair of the endometrial layer occurred in parallel in the same uterine horn. Most importantly, endometrial breakdown was accompanied by vaginally visible (overt) bleeding and flushing out of shed tissue comparable to human menstruation. Real-time PCR data clearly showed temporal changes in the expression of multiple factors participating in inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue modulation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as has been described for human menstruating endometrium. In conclusion, human menstruation can be mimicked in terms of extravaginally visible bleeding, tissue remodeling, and gene regulation in naturally non-menstruating species such as intact female mice without the need for an exogenous hormone supply.


Assuntos
Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Menstruação/farmacologia , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Animais , Decídua/citologia , Decídua/efeitos dos fármacos , Decídua/fisiologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Estro/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Progesterona/metabolismo , Pseudogravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 140(1): 1-32, 2012 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22245754

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional medicines are practiced worldwide for regulation fertility since ancient times. This review provides a comprehensive summary of medicinal flora inhabitating throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for fertility regulation in females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts traditionally used for abortion, contraception, emmenagogue and sterilization purposes have been considered as antifertility agents. Research status of selected potential plant species has been discussed. Further, compounds isolated from plants with attributed fertility regulating potentials are also classified into three categories: (a) phytoconstituents with anti-implantation activity, (b) phytoconstituents with abortifacient activity and (c) phytoconstituents with contraceptive activity. RESULTS: 577 plant species belonging to 122 families, traditionally used in fertility regulation in females, have been recorded, of which 298 plants have been mentioned as abortifacients (42%), 188 as contraceptives (31%), 149 as emmenagogues (24%), and 17 as sterilizers. Among 122 plant families, fabaceae constitutes 49.2%, asteraceae 40.98%, euphorbiaceae 19.7%, apiaceae 16.4%, poaceae 12.3%, labiateae 11.5%, and others in lesser proportion. Various plant parts used in fertility regulation include leaves (25%), roots (22%), fruits (15%), seeds (12%), stem/stem bark (37%), and flowers (4%). Some active compounds, isolated from about various plant species, have been reported to possess significant antifertility potential. CONCLUSION: This review clearly indicates that it is time to increase the number of experimental studies to find out novel potential chemical entities from such a vast array of unexploited plants having traditional role in fertility regulation. Also, the mechanisms of action by which plant extracts and their active compounds exert antifertility effects remain to be studied.


Assuntos
Abortivos , Anticoncepcionais , Etnofarmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Menstruação , Fitoterapia , Plantas/química , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estruturas Vegetais , Gravidez
14.
J Pediatr Surg ; 46(10): E33-6, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22008360

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is the most common uterine tumor in adult females but is rare in the pediatric population with only 10 previous cases reported. We describe the unique case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain and menometrorrhagia and was found to have a uterine leiomyoma as well as a mature ovarian teratoma that required surgical resection. We review diagnostic imaging and optimal management for the 2 gynecologic masses in this teenage girl.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/complicações , Menorragia/etiologia , Metrorragia/etiologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Teratoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/complicações , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovário/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Teratoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia
15.
Int J Obstet Anesth ; 18(4): 320-7, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19733052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In France obstetric haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the management of postpartum haemorrhage at individual maternity units followed guidelines established by the Aurore Network. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in 16 maternity units of the Aurore network between October 2004 and September 2005. Cases and data were prospectively identified and collected. RESULTS: Postpartum haemorrhage occurred in 1144 of 21 350 deliveries, an overall incidence of 5.4+/-0.3%. Of these, 316 cases were rated as severe. Diagnosis was clinical in 82.5% of severe cases and 77.5% of non-severe cases; the remainder were detected by postpartum laboratory tests. Uterotonic agents were given prophylactically to 46.7% of the 896 patients following vaginal delivery. In cases in which postpartum haemorrhage was due to uterine atony, 83.1% of women underwent examination of the uterine cavity and 96.3% received oxytocin, which proved therapeutic. Sulprostone was administered to 39.5% cases of persistent postpartum haemorrhage. A uterotonic was given prophylactically to 85.4% of the 247 patients at caesarean delivery. Oxytocin was therapeutic in 94.8% of cases of uterine atony. Sulprostone was administered in 84.4% of cases of persistent postpartum haemorrhage. CONCLUSION: The regional guidelines issued by the Aurore network were only partially followed. More effective guideline dissemination and implementation is required to improve the prevention and management of confirmed haemorrhage.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Dinoprostona/análogos & derivados , Dinoprostona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Endocrinol. Ginecol. Reprod ; 16(2): 40-46, ago. 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171284

RESUMO

Intároducción:el síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP) se caracteriza por anovulación crónica e hiperandrogenismo y en nuestro medio afecta el 12% de las mujeres. No existen dudas de la función que cumple la metformina en pacientes con SOP, obesidad e insulinorresistencia (IR), sin embargo, al no conocer íntegramente su mecanismo de acción, no estamos en condiciones de predecir cual es su rol en el grupo de no obesas, no IR. Se trata del 80% de nuestras pacientes con diagnóstico de PCO que solo presentan oligoamenorrea-anovulación y ovarios ecográficamente poliquísticos. Objetivo: investigar la efectividad de la metformina en la restauración de los ciclos menstruales y la ovulación, así como también en el logro del embarazo en mujeres con SOPQ no obesas, no IR, y reportar la evolución de los embarazos con metformina. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un trabajo prospectivo, desde julio de 2005 a marzo de 2007, en 59 pacientes con diagnóstico de SOP, según los criterios del Consenso de Rotterdam, todas con deseo de fertilidad, oligomenorreicas-anovuladoras, no obesas, no IR (mediana del peso: 60kg, mediana de talla:165 cm, BMI 22,8 de mediana. Indice HOMA:143 de mediana) El estudio se dividió en 3 etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizó metformina en dosis crecientes hasta la dosis de 1700mg/día, durante 6 meses. En la segunda, se sumó citrato de clomifeno, 50 mg/día entre el 5º y 9º días. La tercera etapa la constituyó el seguimiento de embarazos con el uso de metformina. Resultados: se observó un franco cambio en el ritmo menstrual y en la ovulación, con eumenorrea en un 72% de los casos post-metformina y dosaje de progesterona dentro de rango ovulatorio en el día 21 del ciclo. La tasa de embarazo global fue del 52,5% (31/59), de los que el 74% fue solo con metformina, más un 25,8% con el agregado de citrato de clomifeno. El 58% de embarazos (18/31) ocurrió en los 2 primeros meses. De los 31 embarazos, se logró seguimiento completo de 24, ...


Assuntos
Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Clomifeno/uso terapêutico , Menstruação , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Ovulação
17.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Endocrinol. Ginecol. Reprod ; 16(2): 40-46, ago. 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS, BINACIS | ID: bin-124037

RESUMO

Intároducción:el síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP) se caracteriza por anovulación crónica e hiperandrogenismo y en nuestro medio afecta el 12% de las mujeres. No existen dudas de la función que cumple la metformina en pacientes con SOP, obesidad e insulinorresistencia (IR), sin embargo, al no conocer íntegramente su mecanismo de acción, no estamos en condiciones de predecir cual es su rol en el grupo de no obesas, no IR. Se trata del 80% de nuestras pacientes con diagnóstico de PCO que solo presentan oligoamenorrea-anovulación y ovarios ecográficamente poliquísticos. Objetivo: investigar la efectividad de la metformina en la restauración de los ciclos menstruales y la ovulación, así como también en el logro del embarazo en mujeres con SOPQ no obesas, no IR, y reportar la evolución de los embarazos con metformina. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un trabajo prospectivo, desde julio de 2005 a marzo de 2007, en 59 pacientes con diagnóstico de SOP, según los criterios del Consenso de Rotterdam, todas con deseo de fertilidad, oligomenorreicas-anovuladoras, no obesas, no IR (mediana del peso: 60kg, mediana de talla:165 cm, BMI 22,8 de mediana. Indice HOMA:143 de mediana) El estudio se dividió en 3 etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizó metformina en dosis crecientes hasta la dosis de 1700mg/día, durante 6 meses. En la segunda, se sumó citrato de clomifeno, 50 mg/día entre el 5º y 9º días. La tercera etapa la constituyó el seguimiento de embarazos con el uso de metformina. Resultados: se observó un franco cambio en el ritmo menstrual y en la ovulación, con eumenorrea en un 72% de los casos post-metformina y dosaje de progesterona dentro de rango ovulatorio en el día 21 del ciclo. La tasa de embarazo global fue del 52,5% (31/59), de los que el 74% fue solo con metformina, más un 25,8% con el agregado de citrato de clomifeno. El 58% de embarazos (18/31) ocurrió en los 2 primeros meses. De los 31 embarazos, se logró seguimiento completo de 24, ... (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Menstruação , Clomifeno/uso terapêutico , Indutores da Menstruação/uso terapêutico , Ovulação , Gravidez , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/uso terapêutico
18.
Reprod. clim ; 23(4): 170-175, out.-dez. 2008.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-516351

RESUMO

O emprego de plantas para indução da menstruação e do aborto é amplamente difundido, e há uma grande diversidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas. Este trabalho revisa a literatura sobre o uso popular de plantas como emenagogas e abortivas, visando a contribuir com a divulgação de informações etnofolclóricas e dados experimentais a respeito das espécies vegetais mais utilizadas. Foram apresentados os dados sobre carrapichinho (Acanthospermum hispidum), cipó mil homens (Aristolochia triangularis), losna (Arthemisia absinthium), erva de santa maria(Chenopodium ambrosioides), buchinha do norte (Luffa operculata), pariparoba (Piper sp.) e arruda (Ruta graveolens). A ação das plantas deve-se à presença de substâncias estrogênicas, citotóxicas e/ou que estimulem a contratilidade uterina. Se o aborto não ocorrer, anomalias ou malformações podem ser produzidas. O uso de plantas para indução do aborto é comum, apesar dos riscos de intoxicação. Essa conduta deveria ser desestimulada por programas de saúde comunitária, com esclarecimento sobre os riscos à saúde da mulher e do feto e com acesso a métodos contraceptivos. Por outro lado, os produtos de origem vegetal devem ser considerados pela indústria farmacêutica como importante fonte na busca de agentes interceptivos e de medicamentos para o tratamento das desordens menstruais


Assuntos
Abortivos , Indutores da Menstruação , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 199(4): 391.e1-7, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18928984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether progesterone (P4) or 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) directly inhibit human uterine contractility in vitro and thereby clarify their mechanisms of action. STUDY DESIGN: Myometrial tissues were suspended in organ chambers and exposed for 2 to 20 hours to varying concentrations of P4 or 17P or solvent. Contractile activity was registered, stored, and analyzed. Dose response curves were then generated for P4 or 17P at various times. RESULTS: P4 significantly inhibited spontaneous contractility dose dependently. The inhibition was not blocked by RU486 but was reversible after washing. Surprisingly, 17P dose dependently stimulated contractility. HPLC and GC-MS methods were used to determine the detectable concentrations of progestins in the baths. CONCLUSION: P4, at concentrations equivalent to those present in the placenta and uterus, inhibit spontaneous myometrial contractility in vitro by nongenomic mechanisms.


Assuntos
17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/farmacologia , Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Progestinas/farmacologia , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Indutores da Menstruação/farmacologia , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Miométrio/fisiologia
20.
Can J Clin Pharmacol ; 15(1): e74-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18204102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature for evidence on the use, safety and pharmacology of chastetree, focusing on issues pertaining to pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: We searched 7 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found. RESULTS In pregnancy, there is poor evidence based on theoretical and expert opinion and in vitro studies that chastetree may have estrogenic and progesteronic activity, uterine stimulant activity, emmenagogue activity and prevent miscarriages. In lactation, theoretical and expert opinion conflict as to whether chastetree increases or decreases lactation. CONCLUSIONS: Given its relatively common use amongst women of childbearing age, it is likely that some women may consume chastetree while unknowingly pregnant. Complementary and alternative medicine, midwifery and medical practitioners should be aware of this fact when prescribing chastetree to women of childbearing age, particularly when the patient is planning a family. Key words: Chastetree, vitex agnus-castus, pregnancy, lactation, breastfeeding, systematic review.


Assuntos
Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Menstruação/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Vitex , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Animais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Frutas , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Menstruação/química , Indutores da Menstruação/toxicidade , Ocitócicos/química , Ocitócicos/toxicidade , Fitoestrógenos/química , Fitoestrógenos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Receptores de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Progesterona/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitex/química
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