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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100557, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024373

RESUMO

This work aimed to conduct a first PCR-based approach for differential diagnosis of kinetoplastidean infections in dogs. Diagnosis of Kinetoplastid infections in domestic animals is difficult, since parasitemia is intermittent and signs are nonspecific; it is mainly based on parasitological smears or concentration techniques, which lack sensitivity and depend on operator` expertise. Dogs are relevant reservoirs in transmission of Kinetoplastids; they function as sentinels to detect active transmission cycles before they involve humans. Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma evansi, and various species of Leishmania genus are multi-host parasites, capable of parasitizing dogs among a vast number of reservoirs. An algorithm based on sequential Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (HRM) (qPCR-HRM) assays directed at 24S alpha ribosomal DNA, ITS1 and Hsp70 designed to distinguish among T. cruzi, T. rangeli, T. evansi and Leishmania spp. was tested in fourteen dogs with suspicion of kinetoplastid diseases. A qPCR control of DNA integrity in the tested sample, targeted to the mammalian interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) gene fragment was incorporated to the algorithm. T. evansi was detected in four dogs and L. infantum in one. Two of five qPCR positive cases were smear negative. Smear and T. evansi qPCR positive cases corresponded to animals that died despite being treated, indicating the association of parasitemia with disease severity. This laboratory tool increases the possibility of confirming outbreaks of kinetoplastid diseases with zoonotic potential and identify the etiological agents involved.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Trypanosoma cruzi , Lobos , Animais , Cães , Leishmania/genética , Mesopotâmia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0246662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852578

RESUMO

In the 12,000 years preceding the Industrial Revolution, human activities led to significant changes in land cover, plant and animal distributions, surface hydrology, and biochemical cycles. Earth system models suggest that this anthropogenic land cover change influenced regional and global climate. However, the representation of past land use in earth system models is currently oversimplified. As a result, there are large uncertainties in the current understanding of the past and current state of the earth system. In order to improve representation of the variety and scale of impacts that past land use had on the earth system, a global effort is underway to aggregate and synthesize archaeological and historical evidence of land use systems. Here we present a simple, hierarchical classification of land use systems designed to be used with archaeological and historical data at a global scale and a schema of codes that identify land use practices common to a range of systems, both implemented in a geospatial database. The classification scheme and database resulted from an extensive process of consultation with researchers worldwide. Our scheme is designed to deliver consistent, empirically robust data for the improvement of land use models, while simultaneously allowing for a comparative, detailed mapping of land use relevant to the needs of historical scholars. To illustrate the benefits of the classification scheme and methods for mapping historical land use, we apply it to Mesopotamia and Arabia at 6 kya (c. 4000 BCE). The scheme will be used to describe land use by the Past Global Changes (PAGES) LandCover6k working group, an international project comprised of archaeologists, historians, geographers, paleoecologists, and modelers. Beyond this, the scheme has a wide utility for creating a common language between research and policy communities, linking archaeologists with climate modelers, biodiversity conservation workers and initiatives.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Recursos Naturais , Arábia , Biodiversidade , Clima , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Gerenciamento de Dados , Planeta Terra , Ecossistema , História Antiga , Humanos , Mesopotâmia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471842

RESUMO

This paper proposes a new range of diversity indexes applicable to ceramic petrographic and geochemical data and potentially to any archaeological data of both metric and non-metric nature in order to assess the degree of craft standardization. The case study is the Late Chalcolithic pottery from Arslantepe in eastern Anatolia, ideal to test the standardization hypothesis, i.e. the assumed correspondence between craft standardization and increased rates of production, which in turn correlate with economic specialization. The results suggest that the procurement and processing of raw materials are more sensible indicators of standardization than vessel shape variability. Higher standardization is connected with the scale of production rather than with the use of the wheel or its rotational speed. The socio-economic centralization marks a process of labor division within the operational sequence and, more generally, a shift from communal to more segregated potting practices. As a result, the variability of both technical procedures and end products increases. In contrast univocal trends towards standardization can be found in coeval contexts from northern Mesopotamia, where the incipient urbanization served to create bonds between vessel makers, favoring the transmission of models and practices regardless of the centralized power.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Cerâmica , Cerâmica/história , Cerâmica/normas , História Antiga , Humanos , Mesopotâmia , Projetos Piloto
4.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 20(3): 343-365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530161

RESUMO

An understanding of alcohol's place in Iraq's history and society can help inform alcohol policy responses in that country and other Muslim majority countries. This article describes the history of alcohol in Iraq from ancient to modern times, with reflection on the challenges facing Iraqi youth today. A search was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes alcohol-related practices, norms, and values across the millennia in Iraq. A historical overview is provided of alcohol's use and context, with more detail on recent times. Alcohol was an important commodity in Iraq until the rise of Islam in the seventh century CE. Despite the subsequent Islamic restrictions on alcohol, alcohol remained present in Iraq's society and cultures. Recent studies provide varying descriptions of the prevalence of alcohol consumption, and there are challenges in researching this sensitive topic. External forces shaping alcohol use in Iraq include direct and indirect alcohol promotion, globalized media, and conflict and violence with its associated stress and trauma. Alcohol research and policy development in Iraq must consider the country's unique cultural, religious, historical, and political context. Iraq's youth may be subject to pressures to increase consumption, and thus policies must be informed by an understanding of the complex set of current perspectives and pressures.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Política Pública , Adolescente , Humanos , Iraque , Islamismo , Mesopotâmia
5.
J Med Biogr ; 29(1): 29-34, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334679

RESUMO

The golden age of Islamic medicine (800 to 1300 CE) is a notable period in medical history. Medical education in this period of time was significant and systematic in Islamic territory. In the early Golden Age of Islamic Medicine, Abu Zayd Hunain ibn Ishaq al-'Ibadi, an exceptional scholar and translator, emerged. He was known as Johannitius in medieval Europe. Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb lil-Mutallimin (Questions on Medicine for Students) was written by Hunain ibn Ishaq. This book remains a definitive text on Islamic medicine and has been printed and published widely in Europe. Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb is written in the style of questions and answers which is distinct from the conventional writing style of medical books on Islamic medicine. The current article reviews Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb and its distinguishing style, the question and answer format. Today, the question-and-answer method is a popular method of medical education, and clinical teachers tend to use it in medical education because of the advantages it offers. The use of this method in Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb for education and examination of medical students by Hunain ibn Ishaq reflects a great improvisation in medical education and introduces him as the leading developer of the question-and-answer method in Islamic medical education.


Assuntos
Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , Medicina Arábica/história , Médicos/história , História Medieval , Iraque , Mesopotâmia
6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(5): 506-516, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094508

RESUMO

Laws against wrongdoing may originate in justice intuitions that are part of universal human nature, according to the adaptationist theory of the origins of criminal law. This theory proposes that laws can be traced to neurocognitive mechanisms and ancestral selection pressures. According to this theory, laypeople can intuitively recreate the laws of familiar and unfamiliar cultures, even when they lack the relevant explicit knowledge. Here, to evaluate this prediction, we conduct experiments with Chinese and Sumerian laws that are millennia old; stimuli that preserve in fossil-like form the legal thinking of ancient lawmakers. We show that laypeople's justice intuitions closely match the logic and content of those archaic laws. We also show covariation across different types of justice intuitions: interpersonal devaluation of offenders, judgements of moral wrongness, mock-legislated punishments and perpetrator shame-suggesting that multiple justice intuitions may be regulated by a common social-evaluative psychology. Although alternative explanations of these findings are possible, we argue that they are consistent with the assumption that the origin of criminal law is a cognitively sophisticated human nature.


Assuntos
Direito Penal/história , Adulto , China , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Eutanásia/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Mesopotâmia , Estados Unidos
7.
J Relig Health ; 59(5): 2486-2503, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848800

RESUMO

The spell formula called the Marduk-Ea incantation from ancient Mesopotamia is unique in history of medicine due to its documented use of almost 3000 years. The incantation was recited in exorcistic healing rituals. The formal structure of the spell is studied from the point of view of neuroscience of doctor-patient relationship and in the context of the decentring mechanism of religious experiences. The incantation structure is also analysed for decentring phenomenology in dreams. The structure of this incantation enables religious and spiritual experiences to occur both to healer and patient. These experiences generated a positive psychosocial context and facilitated placebo effects. The incantation structure is bound to stimulate brain mechanisms in prefrontal cortex that promote both executive functions and placebo responsiveness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Terapias Espirituais , História Antiga , Humanos , Mesopotâmia , Relações Médico-Paciente
8.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 57, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous lists number from 55 to 176 plant species as "Biblical Medicinal Plants." Modern studies attest that many names on these lists are no longer valid. This situation arose due to old mistranslations and/or mistakes in botanical identification. Many previously recognized Biblical plants are in no way related to the flora of the Bible lands. Accordingly, the list needs revision. METHODS: We re-examine the list of possible medicinal plants in the Bible based on new studies in Hebrew Biblical philology and etymology, new studies on the Egyptian and Mesopotamian medicinal use of plants, on ethnobotany and on archaeobotany. RESULTS: In our survey, we suggest reducing this list to 45 plant species. Our contribution comprises 20 "newly" suggested Biblical Medicinal Plants. Only five species are mentioned directly as medicinal plants in the Bible: Fig (Ficus carica), Nard (Nardostachys jatamansi), Hyssop (Origanum syriacum), balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis) and Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum). No fewer than 18 medicinal plants are mentioned in old Jewish post-Biblical sources, in addition to those in the Bible. Most of these plants (15) are known also in Egypt and Mesopotamia while three are from Egypt only. Seven of our suggested species are not mentioned in the Bible or in the Jewish post-Biblical literature but were recorded as medicinal plants from Egypt, as well as from Mesopotamia. It is quite logical to assume that they can be included as Biblical Medicinal Plants. CONCLUSIONS: All our suggested Biblical Medicinal Plants are known as such in Ancient Egypt and/or Mesopotamia also. Examination of our list shows that all these plants have been in continuous medicinal use in the Middle East down the generations, as well as being used in the Holy Land today. Precisely in King Solomon's words, "That which has been is what will be, that which is done is what will be done. And there is nothing new under the sun" (Ecclesiastes 1:9).


Assuntos
Bíblia , Etnobotânica/história , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Egito , História Antiga , Idioma , Mesopotâmia
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 233, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900011

RESUMO

The concentration, source, and ecological risk of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment samples in Hoor Al-Azim wetland, a significant freshwater wetland in Lower Mesopotamia, were evaluated. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 15.3 to 160.15 ng/L, and 15.78 to 410.2 µg/Kg in water and sediment, respectively. PAHs pollution levels in sediments compared with sediment quality guidelines (SQG) were found to be moderate in two stations and low in water and the rest of sediment stations. Based on the diagnostic ratio analysis, cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), the mean percentage contributions were 62.62% for mixed pyrogenic and petrogenic sources (e.g., unburned and combusted fossil fuels from fishing boats and vehicle engines, incomplete combustion, oil leakage), 20.68% for auto emission, and 16.7% for pyrogenic sources (fossil fuels and biomass combustion). According to the sediment risk assessment indices such as mean effects range-median quotient (M-ERM-Q), the ecological risk of multiple PAHs was low. Risk quotient (RQ) calculation of water samples suggested high ecological risk level for Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), and low to moderate for other individual PAHs and ΣPAHs. The result of PAHs partitioning between sediment and water phases revealed that most PAHs prefer to accumulate in sediment. Sediments probably act as a secondary source for some PAHs in the oil collection and pumping station.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Biomassa , Análise por Conglomerados , Ecologia , Sedimentos Geológicos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mesopotâmia , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 161-166, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481693

RESUMO

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is a psychiatric diagnosis that includes three additional symptom clusters beyond those necessary for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. CPTSD is typically associated with a prolonged trauma exposure in which a person's destiny is under the control of other people and escape is not an option. Insomnia prevalence in women suffering from CPTSD was compared to the prevalence of insomnia in those with no-PTSD and those with only PTSD. Yazidi women (N = 108, age = 24.41 ±â€¯5.71) former captives of the Islamic State terrorist group were queried about captivity variables, psychological distress, resilience, PTSD, CPTSD, and insomnia. CPTSD prevalence was high (>50%) and was highly correlated with insomnia (95% of those with CPTSD had insomnia). A dichotomous insomnia variable was regressed on age and marital-status (Step 1), captivity-duration and number of fellow captives (Step 2), resilience and psychological distress (Step 3), and group (no-PTSD/PTSD/CPTSD) (Step 4). Insomnia was 18 times more likely in the CPTSD group than in the no-PTSD group. There were no differences in insomnia prevalence between the no-PTSD and PTSD groups. Insomnia levels among Yazidi women released from captivity support an understanding of CPTSD as a separate entity than PTSD. Potential factors linking CPTSD to insomnia, beyond those associated with PTSD are discussed.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Genocídio/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mesopotâmia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Síndrome , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 48(4): 378-382, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488898

RESUMO

Liquorice is a very ancient plant widely used in the East for millennia. It has often been employed in sweets and confectionery and also for minor ailments including cough, constipation and dyspepsia. It was probably carried to Europe by the Cluniac order of monks. Then, almost by accident, it became established in West Yorkshire at Pontefract after the dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s. Abuse of liquorice is not uncommon. It can occur in the anorexia/bulimia syndrome and also in the dangerous condition of pseudoaldosteronism, which is characterised by severe hypertension and hypokalaemia and can lead to death. Liquorice remains a useful sweetener for all sorts of confectionery, including sweets and cakes (together with beer and liqueurs).


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Glycyrrhiza , Fitoterapia/história , Extratos Vegetais/história , Inglaterra , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Mesopotâmia , Monges/história , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(11): 635, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338406

RESUMO

Airborne pollen distribution in Mardin city was measured volumetrically during three consecutive years, 2014-2016. Three thousand eight hundred fifty-seven pollen grains as a mean value belonging to 44 taxa were recorded annually during the study period, and pollen grains from woody plant taxa had the more substantial atmospheric contribution with 62.66% and with 23 taxa. Despite the differences between years, the highest pollen concentration was recorded in April. The main pollen producers of the pollen spectrum were Cupressaceae (27.79%), Poaceae (21.21%), Platanus (10.29%), Morus (6.19%), Olea europaea (5.01%), Quercus (4.91%), Pinus (3.84%), and Amaranthaceae (3.73%) and almost all dominant pollen types in the city atmosphere were previously stated to be allergic. The atmospheric sampling data was characterized by the high presence of woody plants in spring, as well as the high presentation of herbaceous plants in late spring to early winter. The main pollen season (MPS) and durations of dominated pollen types were analyzed and mostly found a little bit earlier or parallel with similar studies in Mediterranean basin, but found earlier than the east. Statistical analyses were performed to compare years with each other and for correlating daily pollen concentrations of dominated pollen types concurrent with the data of meteorological parameters; a number of significant correlations were found.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alérgenos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pólen , Atmosfera/análise , Humanos , Mesopotâmia , Olea , Pinus , Poaceae , Quercus , Estações do Ano , Turquia
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 166(4): 861-874, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13 C and δ15 N) were used to reconstruct the history of subsistence strategies in the middle Euphrates valley, NE Syria, in six temporal subsets dating from the Early Bronze Age (c. 2300 BCE) to the Modern period (19th/20th century CE). The study aims to demonstrate that changes in political and social organization over time, for which the archaeological record suggests different goals of land use and modes of production, register through dietary patterns that are reflected in isotopic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 173 dentin samples were taken from human individuals buried at three sites (Tell Ashara, Tell Masaikh and Gebel Mashtale) together with 15 animal bone samples. Distribution of the δ13 C and δ15 N values in collagen was interpreted in diachronic perspective, and with regard to lifetime shifts between childhood and adolescence. RESULTS: Diachronically, isotope signatures indicate a clear decrease in δ15 N values accompanied by a small shift in δ13 C values between the Old Babylonian (c. 1800-1600 BCE) and the Neo-Assyrian (c. 850-600 BCE) subsets. A major shift in δ13 C values occurred between the Early Islamic (c. 600-1200 CE) and Modern (c. 1800-1950) periods. Ontogenetic changes only occur in a few individuals, but these suggest change of residence between childhood and adolescence. DISCUSSION: The depletion in 15 N from the Neo-Assyrian period onwards is best explained in terms of a shift from intensive to extensive farming, triggered by the fall of regional city-states after the Old Babylonian period and the formation of large supra-regional polities in the Neo-Assyrian period and later. The enrichment in 13 C during the Modern period was most likely the effect of more widely utilizing the dry steppes, abundant in C4 plants, as pasture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Criança , Dentina/química , Dieta/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Mesopotâmia/etnologia , Síria/etnologia
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 166(1): 196-207, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: North Mesopotamia has witnessed dramatic social change during the Holocene, but the impact of these events on its demographic history is poorly understood. Here, we study this question by analysing genetic data from the recently excavated Late Iron Age settlement of Çemialo Sirti in Batman, southeast Turkey. Archaeological and radiocarbon evidence indicate that the site was inhabited during the second and first millennia BCE. Çemialo Sirti reveals nomadic items of the Early Iron Age, as well as items associated with the Late Achaemenid and subsequent Hellenistic Periods. We compare Çemialo Sirti mitochondrial DNA profiles with earlier and later populations from west Eurasia to describe genetic continuity patterns in the region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 Çemialo Sirti individuals' remains were studied. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to obtain mitochondrial DNA HVRI-HVRII sequences. We studied haplotype diversity and pairwise genetic distances using FST , comparing the Çemialo Sirti population with ancient and modern-day populations from west Eurasia. Coalescent simulations were carried out to test continuity for specific population comparisons. RESULTS: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 12 Çemialo Sirti individuals reveal high haplotype diversity in this population, conspicuously higher than early Holocene west Eurasian populations, which supports the notion of increasing population admixture in west Eurasia through the Holocene. In its mtDNA composition, Çemialo Sirti shows highest affinity to Neolithic north Syria and Neolithic Anatolia among ancient populations studied, and to modern-day southwest Asian populations. Based on population genetic simulations we cannot reject continuity between Neolithic and Iron Age, or between Iron Age and present-day populations of the region. DISCUSSION: Despite the region's complex sociopolitical history and indication for increased genetic diversity over time, we find no evidence for sharp shifts in north Mesopotamian maternal genetic composition within the last 10,000 years.


Assuntos
/genética , DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Adulto , Arqueologia , Feminino , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Mesopotâmia/etnologia , /genética
18.
Med Arch ; 72(6): 449-452, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814779

RESUMO

Introduction: More than 6000 years ago, the cradle of civilization, Mesopotamia, grew-up in what is known today as Iraq. The history of cerebrovascular diseases in Mesopotamia is insufficient to supply scholar needs. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight some remarkable points in the history of what we may coin as "stroke medicine" during the ancient Mesopotamian eras and to explore the knowledge and expertise of ancient healers. The neo-Sumerian period (2112-2004 BCE) documented, through clay tablets, many medical records about two kinds of medical specialists; the asipu (exorcists) and the asu (physician-priests). Methods and findings: The information herein was gathered through literature review using online resources, such as NCBI, Google Scholar, PubMed, UCLA, and HINARI. Initially, most of the knowledge we have got was acquired mainly from two well-known transliterated cuneiform texts. Both tablets had clearly addressed stroke. One tablet, part of the "diagnostic" series is currently in the Louvre Museum in Paris, while the other one is in the British Museum in London and is part of the "therapeutic" series. The Mesopotamians had noticed and documented vascular disorders of the brain and some pertinent diseases. The asu and the asipu demonstrated an observational knowledge of anatomy and but no knowledge of the nervous system, the concept of pathology, or physiology as we call them today. Not all paralysis cases were viewed as a curse or an impact incurred by a supernatural deity. Physical treatment was mentioned to the patients. The familial occurrence of stroke was a well-known trait in that ancient period. Conclusion: This descriptive review tells us that the history of stroke in the medical practice was well-encountered in the first half of the second millennium BCE and that physicians were keen observers to describe stroke presentation and prognosis.


Assuntos
Medicina Arábica/história , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Mesopotâmia , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187408, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099847

RESUMO

Widely considered as one of the cradles of human civilization, Mesopotamia is largely situated in the Republic of Iraq, which is also the birthplace of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. These lands were subsequently ruled by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongolians, Ottomans and finally British prior to the independence. As a direct consequence of this rich history, the contemporary Iraqi population comprises a true mosaic of different ethnicities, which includes Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, and Yazidis among others. As such, the genetics of the contemporary Iraqi populations are of anthropological and forensic interest. In an effort to contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis of this ethnic diversity, a total of 500 samples were collected from Northern Iraqi volunteers belonging to five major ethnic groups, namely: Arabs (n = 102), Kurds (n = 104), Turkmens (n = 102), Yazidis (n = 106) and Syriacs (n = 86). 17-loci Y-STR analyses were carried out using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler system, and subsequently in silico haplogroup assignments were made to gain insights from a molecular anthropology perspective. Systematic comparisons of the paternal lineages of these five Northern Iraqi ethnic groups, not only among themselves but also in the context of the larger genetic landscape of the Near East and beyond, were then made through the use of two different genetic distance metric measures and the associated data visualization methods. Taken together, results from the current study suggested the presence of intricate Y-chromosomal lineage patterns among the five ethic groups analyzed, wherein both interconnectivity and independent microvariation were observed in parallel, albeit in a differential manner. Notably, the novel Y-STR data on Turkmens, Syriacs and Yazidis from Northern Iraq constitute the first of its kind in the literature. Data presented herein is expected to contribute to further population and forensic investigations in Northern Iraq in particular and the Near East in general.


Assuntos
/genética , Mosaicismo , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Humanos , Masculino , Mesopotâmia/etnologia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
20.
Nat Plants ; 3: 17076, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581507

RESUMO

This study sheds light on the agricultural economy that underpinned the emergence of the first urban centres in northern Mesopotamia. Using δ13C and δ15N values of crop remains from the sites of Tell Sabi Abyad, Tell Zeidan, Hamoukar, Tell Brak and Tell Leilan (6500-2000 cal bc), we reveal that labour-intensive practices such as manuring/middening and water management formed an integral part of the agricultural strategy from the seventh millennium bc. Increased agricultural production to support growing urban populations was achieved by cultivation of larger areas of land, entailing lower manure/midden inputs per unit area-extensification. Our findings paint a nuanced picture of the role of agricultural production in new forms of political centralization. The shift towards lower-input farming most plausibly developed gradually at a household level, but the increased importance of land-based wealth constituted a key potential source of political power, providing the possibility for greater bureaucratic control and contributing to the wider societal changes that accompanied urbanization.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Cidades/história , Urbanização/história , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Produtos Agrícolas/química , História Antiga , Humanos , Mesopotâmia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Datação Radiométrica
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