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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107108, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509092

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that smoking is a self-regulatory strategy to relieve negative affect and that metacognitions about smoking may play a role in addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present research was designed to examine the direct and indirect roles of emotion dysregulation and negative affect in predicting urge to smoke and nicotine dependence via metacognitions about smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 450 nicotine-dependent men completed measures of urge to smoke, nicotine dependence, metacognitions about smoking, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation. The results showed that both emotion dysregulation and negative affect had indirect effects on urge to smoke via positive metacognitions about smoking as well as on nicotine dependence via negative metacognitions about smoking. The findings suggest that metacognitions about smoking have different roles in different patterns of nicotine use so that positive and negative metacognitions have important roles respectively in urge to smoke and nicotine dependence in smokers with high emotion dysregulation and negative affect. This study also adds to the literature on the metacognitive theoretical framework of addictive behaviors supporting the use of Metacognitive Therapy interventions in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Tabagismo , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105257, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425400

RESUMO

Mind wandering is a ubiquitous experience during adulthood and has received significant scholarly attention in recent years. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the phenomenon in children. Building on recent work, the current study examined the frequency and validity of children's reports of mind wandering while completing a minimalistic task previously unused in past child research-the Metronome Response Task (MRT) [Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (2013), Vol. 39, pp. 1-5]. Furthermore, the current study examined how parent reports of executive dysfunction in daily life relate to children's reports of mind wandering and behavioral performance in the MRT. A total of 81 children aged 7-9 years completed the MRT, the demands of which simply involved pressing a key on a computer keyboard in concert with the unwavering tones of a metronome. Sporadic experience-sampling probes gauged whether children were on-task or mind wandering. Parents also reported on their children's day-to-day difficulties with executive functioning across several domains. A series of multilevel models revealed that children reported being on-task more frequently then mind wandering and that children were more variable and less synchronous in their keypresses preceding reports of mind wandering than preceding reports of being on task. In addition, parent-reported difficulties with behavioral regulation predicted higher rates of mind wandering, whereas both behavioral dysregulation and metacognitive difficulties predicted lower MRT performance. These findings suggest that children are able to reliably report on their experiences of mind wandering in boredom-inducing contexts and advance our understanding of the factors underlying children's experience of mind wandering under real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Atenção , Metacognição , Adulto , Criança , Função Executiva , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
3.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 954-959, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706468

RESUMO

Online gaming has become an important practice for several audiences in the last decade. Video games like Fortnite and League of Legends are played by millions of people daily, raising concerns about both addiction and disruptive attitudes. Several analytical instruments have been deployed for exploring this phenomenon, including the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale (MOGS). MOGS measures the role of metacognitions toward online gaming, echoing the increasing importance of such a construct in media consumption and perception. This article presents the highlights of a study involving 690 American gamers aimed at two purposes. First, the MOGS was validated for with U.S. gamers, who represent a leading niche in the current digital entertainment and were not involved with the original MOGS development. Second, the three subscales of MOGS were analyzed as mediators of the relationship between hours spent playing online gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). The results from Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested the MOGS has promising reliability and validity for use with U.S. gamers. The results also indicated that three subscales of the MOGS partially mediated the relationship between hours spent on playing online gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Metacognição , Jogos de Vídeo , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13048, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606130

RESUMO

When, how, and why students use conceptual knowledge during math problem solving is not well understood. We propose that when solving routine problems, students are more likely to recruit conceptual knowledge if their procedural knowledge is weak than if it is strong, and that in this context, metacognitive processes, specifically feelings of doubt, mediate interactions between procedural and conceptual knowledge. To test these hypotheses, in two studies (Ns = 64 and 138), university students solved fraction and decimal arithmetic problems while thinking aloud; verbal protocols and written work were coded for overt uses of conceptual knowledge and displays of doubt. Consistent with the hypotheses, use of conceptual knowledge during calculation was not significantly positively associated with accuracy, but was positively associated with displays of doubt, which were negatively associated with accuracy. In Study 1, participants also explained solutions to rational arithmetic problems; using conceptual knowledge in this context was positively correlated with calculation accuracy, but only among participants who did not use conceptual knowledge during calculation, suggesting that the correlation did not reflect "online" effects of using conceptual knowledge. In Study 2, participants also completed a nonroutine problem-solving task; displays of doubt on this task were positively associated with accuracy, suggesting that metacognitive processes play different roles when solving routine and nonroutine problems. We discuss implications of the results regarding interactions between procedural knowledge, conceptual knowledge, and metacognitive processes in math problem solving.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Humanos , Conhecimento , Matemática , Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes
5.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 788-798, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613932

RESUMO

Background and aims: In the current study we have sought to clarify the contribution of metacognitions concerning smartphone use relative to smartphone use expectancies in the relationship between well-established predisposing psychological factors and problematic smartphone use (PSU). We tested a model where psychological distress, impulsivity, and proneness to boredom predict metacognitions about smartphone use and smartphone use expectancies, which in turn predict PSU. Methods: A sample of 535 participants (F = 71.2%; mean age = 27.38 ± 9.05 years) was recruited. Results: The model accounted for 64% of the PSU variance and showed good fit indices (χ 2 = 16.01, df = 13, P = 0.24; RMSEA [90%CI] = 0.02 [0-0.05], CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.03). We found that: (i) when it comes to psychological distress and boredom proneness, negative metacognitions, and both positive and negative expectancies play a mediating role in the association with PSU, with negative metacognitions showing a dominant role; (ii) there is no overlap between positive expectancies and positive metacognitions, especially when it comes to smartphone use as a means for socializing; (iii) impulsivity did not show a significant effect on PSU Direct effects of the predictors on PSU were not found. Discussion and conclusions: The current study found additional support for applying metacognitive theory to the understanding of PSU and highlight the dominant role of negative metacognitions about smartphone in predicting PSU.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Metacognição , Modelos Psicológicos , Smartphone , Adulto , Tédio , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(4): ar60, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605666

RESUMO

College students' performance in introductory-level biology course work is an important predictor of ongoing persistence in the major. This study reports on a researcher-educator partnership that designed and compared two cocurricular workshops. Seventeen laboratory sections of an undergraduate biology course were randomly assigned to one of two educational interventions during the regularly scheduled lab class section after students had completed and received the results for the first exam. The baseline Metacognition intervention was an hourlong workshop focused on effective learning strategies and self-awareness in the learning process; the extended Metacognition plus Time Management (Metacognition+TM) intervention included the aforementioned workshop plus a second hourlong workshop on time management and procrastination. Based on three exams and self-report surveys administered before the intervention and at the end of the semester, students who participated in the Metacognition+TM intervention experienced greater increases in their exam scores and degree commitment than those in the baseline intervention. Additionally, group status moderated the effect of the intervention, as the Metacognition+TM intervention was especially effective in increasing use of time management tools by students from minoritized groups.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Metacognição , Biologia/educação , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
7.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(4): 902-907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618628

RESUMO

Although active learning is highly recognized and recommended in the educational community, instructors are still struggling with how to incorporate active learning tools into writing courses. This study aims to 1) describe specific challenges encountered in the course of Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory-Critical Thinking through Writing (BIOL3810-CTW); 2) introduce the active learning approaches and metacognition integrated into this writing-intensive course; 3) demonstrate the effectiveness of these active learning approaches in engaging students in classes; and 4) share the principles of integrating active learning activities into writing courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and beyond.


Assuntos
Currículo , Metacognição , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Redação
8.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1297-1317, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591573

RESUMO

Growth in working memory capacity, the number of items kept active in mind, is thought to be an important aspect of childhood cognitive development. Here, we focused on participants' awareness of the contents of their working memory, or meta-working memory, which seems important because people can put cognitive abilities to best use only if they are aware of their limitations. In two experiments on the development of meta-working memory in children between 6 and 13 years old and adults, participants were to remember arrays of colored squares and to indicate if a probe item was in the array. On many trials, before the probe recognition test, they reported a metajudgment, how many items they thought they remembered. We compared meta-working memory judgments to actual performance and looked for associations between these measures on individual and trial-by-trial levels. Despite much lower working memory capacity in younger children there was little change in meta-working memory judgments across age groups. Consequently, younger participants were much less realistic in their metajudgments concerning their working memory capability. Higher cognitive capacity was associated with more accurate meta-working memory judgments within an age group. Trial-by-trial tuning of metajudgments was evident only in young adults and then only for small array set sizes. In sum, meta-working memory ability is a sophisticated skill that develops with age and may be an integral aspect of the development of working memory across the school years. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Metacognição , Adolescente , Aptidão , Criança , Humanos , Julgamento , Rememoração Mental , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257547, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543341

RESUMO

Previous studies found that metamemory beliefs dominate the font size effect on judgments of learning (JOLs). However, few studies have investigated whether beliefs about font size contribute to the font size effect in circumstances of multiple cues. The current study aims to fill this gap. Experiment 1 adopted a 2 (font size: 70 pt vs. 9 pt) * 2 (word frequency (WF): high vs. low) within-subjects design. The results showed that beliefs about font size did not mediate the font size effect on JOLs when multiple cues (font size and WF) were simultaneously provided. Experiment 2 further explored whether WF moderates the contribution of beliefs about font size to the font size effect, in which a 2 (font size: 70 pt vs. 9 pt, as a within-subjects factor) * 2 (WF: high vs. low, as a between-subjects factor) mixed design was used. The results showed that the contribution of beliefs about font size to the font size effect was present in a pure list of low-frequency words, but absent in a pure list of high-frequency words. Lastly, a meta-analysis showed evidence supporting the proposal that the contribution of beliefs about font size to the font size effect on JOLs is moderated by WF. Even though numerous studies suggested beliefs about font size play a dominant role in the font size effect on JOLs, the current study provides new evidence suggesting that such contribution is conditional. Theoretical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção de Tamanho/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Metacognição , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biol Psychol ; 165: 108190, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547398

RESUMO

Interoception and homeostatic/allostatic control are intertwined branches of closed-loop brain-body interactions (BBI). Given their importance in mental and psychosomatic disorders, establishing computational assays of BBI represents a clinically important but methodologically challenging endeavor. This technical note presents a novel approach, derived from a generic computational model of homeostatic/allostatic control that underpins (meta)cognitive theories of affective and psychosomatic disorders. This model views homeostatic setpoints as probability distributions ("homeostatic beliefs") whose parameters determine regulatory efforts and change dynamically under allostatic predictions. In particular, changes in homeostatic belief precision, triggered by anticipated threats to homeostasis, are thought to alter cerebral regulation of bodily states. Here, we present statistical procedures for inferring homeostatic belief precision from measured bodily states and/or regulatory (action) signals. We analyze the inference problem, derive two alternative estimators of homeostatic belief precision, and apply our method to simulated data. Our proposed approach may prove useful for assessing BBI in individual subjects.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Metacognição , Encéfalo , Homeostase , Humanos , Probabilidade
11.
Nurse Educ Today ; 107: 105153, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning Strategy (GRPQS) restructures the classroom context from a passive into an engaging environment, where the students are empowered to actively participating in their learning process. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of GRPQS on the pediatric nursing students' self-esteem and metacognitive awareness. DESIGN: A Quasi-experimental, pre-posttest, two groups research was carried out at University of Bahrain. A sample of 89 out of 112 pediatric nursing-students were divided into two groups. METHOD: Through GRPQS, the students mutually generated and responded to questions, activated their critical thinking, elicited ideas, and shared learning experiences within the team and the teachers act as facilitators. RESULTS: It is revealed that 75% of the students in the study group developed high self-esteem after their engagement in the GRPQS compared to only 48.8% among those in the control one. Students who practiced GRPQS showed an improvement in their knowledge about cognition. As the mean score of students in the study group is increased from 2.16 ± 0.45 to 2.89 + 0.35 for the procedural knowledge, from 2.33 ± 0.56 to 2.86 ± 0.41 for declarative and from 2.18 + 0.53 to 3.09 ± 0.29 for the conditional knowledge (p < 0.001 for each). Concerning the regulation of cognition, the mean score of the planning dimension was improved from2.21 ± 0.46 to 3.10 ± 0.31 among the students in the study group. Moreover, it is clear that applying GRPQS in the lectures helped in improving the students' information management strategies, comprehension monitoring, debugging strategies and evaluation (p < 0.001 for each) compared to the control group p = 0.169, p = 0.009, p = 0.117 and 0.887 respectively). CONCLUSION: The application of GRPQS provided an interactive and engaging learning experience that helped the students to develop the habit of organizing, judging, and summarizing information as well as focusing on the significant portions of the learning materials. Moreover, exchanging questions between the nursing students was effective in enhancing their self-esteem and metacognitive awareness. Hence, incorporating this innovative pedogeological approach in the nursing curricula is recommended.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criança , Currículo , Humanos , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Pensamento
12.
Biol Psychol ; 165: 108185, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487805

RESUMO

The study of the brain's processing of sensory inputs from within the body ('interoception') has been gaining rapid popularity in neuroscience, where interoceptive disturbances are thought to exist across a wide range of chronic physiological and psychological conditions. Here we present a task and analysis procedure to quantify specific dimensions of breathing-related interoception, including interoceptive sensitivity, decision bias, metacognitive bias, and metacognitive performance. Two major developments address some of the challenges presented by low trial numbers in interoceptive experiments: (i) a novel adaptive algorithm to maintain task performance at 70-75% accuracy; (ii) an extended hierarchical metacognitive model to estimate regression parameters linking metacognitive performance to relevant (e.g. clinical) variables. We demonstrate the utility of the task and analysis developments, using both simulated data and three empirical datasets. This methodology represents an important step towards accurately quantifying interoceptive dimensions from a simple experimental procedure that is compatible with clinical settings.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Metacognição , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Respiração , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
14.
Conscious Cogn ; 95: 103196, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481178

RESUMO

We recently found a positive relationship between estimates of metacognitive efficiency and metacognitive bias. However, this relationship was only examined on a within-subject level and required binarizing the confidence scale, a technique that introduces methodological difficulties. Here we examined the robustness of the positive relationship between estimates of metacognitive efficiency and metacognitive bias by conducting two different types of analyses. First, we developed a new within-subject analysis technique where the original n-point confidence scale is transformed into two different (n-1)-point scales in a way that mimics a naturalistic change in confidence. Second, we examined the across-subject correlation between metacognitive efficiency and metacognitive bias. Importantly, for both types of analyses, we not only established the direction of the effect but also computed effect sizes. We applied both techniques to the data from three tasks from the Confidence Database (N > 400 in each). We found that both approaches revealed a small to medium positive relationship between metacognitive efficiency and metacognitive bias. These results demonstrate that the positive relationship between metacognitive efficiency and metacognitive bias is robust across several analysis techniques and datasets, and have important implications for future research.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Humanos
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(7): 436-446, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334187

RESUMO

Metacognition is the ability to reflect on our own cognition and mental states. It is a critical aspect of human subjective experience and operates across many hierarchical levels of abstraction-encompassing local confidence in isolated decisions and global self-beliefs about our abilities and skills. Alterations in metacognition are considered foundational to neurologic and psychiatric disorders, but research has mostly focused on local metacognitive computations, missing out on the role of global aspects of metacognition. Here, we first review current behavioral and neural metrics of local metacognition that lay the foundation for this research. We then address the neurocognitive underpinnings of global metacognition uncovered by recent studies. Finally, we outline a theoretical framework in which higher hierarchical levels of metacognition may help identify the role of maladaptive metacognitive evaluation in mental health conditions, particularly when combined with transdiagnostic methods.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Metacognição , Cognição , Humanos , Saúde Mental
16.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107041, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359017

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last ten years, several studies investigating the role of metacognitions in addictive behaviors, including technological addictions, have been published. Problematic Smartphone use has been conceptualized as a behavioural addiction and a psychometrically sound self-report measure to assess metacognitions about PSU has been recently published. The objective of this study was to evaluate some psychometric properties (e.g., factor structure, reliability, and validity) of the Chinese Metacognitions about Smartphone Use Questionnaire (Chinese MSUQ). METHODS: A sample of 698 undergraduates (F = 54.70%, mean age = 19.89 ±â€¯1.38 years) were enrolled in China. An exploratory factor analysis was first performed in a randomly allocated subsample of 349 participants. A confirmatory factor analysis was then computed on a second subsample of 349 participants to test its fitting with the identified factor structure. Internal consistency and predictive validity were verified. RESULTS: The result of exploratory factor analysis showed a 2-factor structure, which consists of positive metacognitions concerning emotional and cognitive regulation and social advantages of smartphone use (MSUQ-PM) and negative metacognitions about uncontrollability and cognitive harm of smartphone use (MSUQ-NM). The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 2-factor structure of Chinese MSUQ had appropriate fit. Cronbach's Alphas ranged from 0.90 to 0.92. Additionally, regression analysis showed that MSUQ-PM and MSUQ-NM positively predicted PSU. Notably, MSUQ-NM is a stronger predictor of PSU compared with MSUQ-PM, with a rescaled importance of 86.36%. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese MSUQ has appropriate psychometric properties, suggesting it is a reliable instrument to assess metacognitions about smartphone use in the Chinese context.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Adolescente , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Smartphone , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Conscious Cogn ; 94: 103191, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388407

RESUMO

It is well established that anxiety influences a range of cognitive processes such as cognitive control or decision-making. What is less known is how anxiety influences the metacognitive evaluations individuals make about their own performance. The present study explored the importance of task-relatedness in the relation between anxiety and metacognitive awareness. More specifically, we hypothesized that induced anxiety would affect metacognitive performance in opposite directions depending solely on whether the threat is perceived as related or unrelated to the performance. We conducted two experiments to test this hypothesis. In both studies, electric shocks were administered randomly, regardless of participant's performance. In experiment 1, participants were informed that the shocks would be administered randomly, unrelated to performance. In experiment 2, participants were told that their metacognitive performance would influence the administration of the electric shocks (i.e. fewer electric shocks with better metacognitive performance). Our predictions were confirmed. Threat perceived as unrelated to metacognitive performance (Experiment 1) decreased metacognitive performance. Threat believed to be related to metacognitive performance resulted in improved performance (Experiment 2). These findings confirm that induced anxiety exerts a strong influence on metacognitive awareness while sparing first-order task performance. We furthermore demonstrate that the perceived relatedness of the anxiety determines whether metacognitive performance decreases or improves performance under threat.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos
18.
Conscious Cogn ; 94: 103181, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418637

RESUMO

According to the doxastic model, delusions are beliefs. In the metacognitive model, delusions are imaginings mistaken for beliefs. I argue that endorsement of false second-order beliefs could also create unpleasant dissonance, that mentally healthy people often endorse irrational or conflicting beliefs, and that the lack of delusion-motivated action can be explained by the influence of nonbelief factors on action. The two-factor doxastic model posits irrationality as necessary, and one metric of rationality many scholars employ is whether a response is easily understood by folk psychology. A precedent for folk-psychological acceptance of contextually bizarre beliefs as a result of personal experience can already be found in the lack of imaginative resistance encountered not in response to the impossibilities portrayed in speculative fiction, but in response to the characters' ability to incorporate these occurrences into their mental frameworks, despite them often being at odds with these characters' bedrock understanding of the world.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Metacognição , Delusões , Humanos
19.
J Clin Psychol ; 77(8): 1798-1806, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Difficulties forming an integrated sense of oneself, others, and one's place in the community have been observed to pose a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). This has promoted the development of metacognitive approaches to psychotherapy that seek to assist persons in making sense of and managing their psychosocial challenges. One of these approaches, Metacognitive Reflection Insight Therapy (MERIT), has begun to be more broadly explored among adults with schizophrenia. Persons with other forms of SSD, including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), also experience difficulties forming an integrated sense of themselves and others and could potentially be amenable to MERIT. METHODS: To explore this possibility, this study reports the application of MERIT to an adult with SPD in a unique cultural context. RESULTS: Evidence of acceptability and meaningful resultant clinical gains are described. CONCLUSIONS: Taken as a whole, this study provides a rich illustration of how metacognition can be successfully targeted by MERIT in forms of SSD potentially less severe than schizophrenia, including SPD in a unique cultural setting.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Terapia Psicanalítica , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cognition ; 216: 104864, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339907

RESUMO

How does orienting attention in space affect the quality of our confidence judgments? Orienting attention to a particular location is known to boost visual performance, but the deployment of attention is far from being instantaneous. Whether observers are able to monitor the time needed for attention to deploy remains largely unknown. To address this question, we adapted a "Wundt clocks" paradigm, asking observers (N=140) to reproduce the phase of a rotating clock at the time of an attentional cue, and to evaluate their confidence in their responses. Attention affected the latency between objective and perceived events: the average reported phase was delayed in accordance with the known latencies of voluntary and involuntary attention. Yet, we found that confidence remains oblivious to these attention-induced perceptual delays, like a 'metacognitive blind spot'. In addition, we observed weaker metacognition specifically during the deployment of voluntary attention, suggesting a tight relationship between the attentional and metacognitive systems. While previous work has considered how visual confidence adjusts to fully attended versus unattended locations, our study demonstrates that the very process of orienting attention in space can alter metacognition.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Cegueira , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Julgamento , Estimulação Luminosa
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