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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150095, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509829

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been regarded as emerging environmental contaminants. The profile of resistome (collection of all ARGs) in drinking water and its fate during drinking water treatment remain unclear. This study applied metagenomic assembly combined with network analysis to decipher the profile, mobility, host, and pathogenicity of resistomes in two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), each applying conventional treatment and advanced treatment of ozonation followed by biological activated carbon filtration. In source waters and effluents of each treatment process collected from both DWTPs, 215 ARGs belonging to 20 types were detected with total concentration ranging from 6.30 ± 1.83 to 5.20 ± 0.26 × 104 copies/mL. Both the conventional and advanced DWTPs were revealed to effectively reduce the concentration of total ARGs, with the average removal efficiency of 3.61-log10 and 2.21-log10, respectively. Multiple statistical analyses (including network analysis) indicated drinking water resistome correlated tightly with mobile gene elements (MGEs) and bacterial community, with the latter acting as the premier driver of resistome alteration in DWTPs. Further analysis of ARG-carrying contigs (ACCs) assembled from drinking water metagenomes (i) tracked down potential bacterial hosts of ARGs (e.g., Proteobacteria phylum as the major pool of resistome), (ii) provided co-localization information of ARGs and MGEs (e.g., MacB-E7196 plasmid1), and (iii) identified ARG-carrying human pathogens (e.g., Enterococcus faecium and Ralstonia pickettii). This work firstly determined the concentration, mobility incidence, and pathogenicity incidence of DWTP resistomes, based on which the actual health risk regarding antibiotic resistance could be quantitatively assessed in further study, providing a useful direction for decision-making concerning the risk control of ARGs in DWTPs.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Metagenoma , Antibacterianos/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Metagenômica , Virulência
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150136, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818799

RESUMO

Arid zones contain a diverse set of microbes capable of survival under dry conditions, some of which can form relationships with plants under drought stress conditions to improve plant health. We studied squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) root microbiome under historically arid and humid sites, both in situ and performing a common garden experiment. Plants were grown in soils from sites with different drought levels, using in situ collected soils as the microbial source. We described and analyzed bacterial diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (N = 48) from the soil, rhizosphere, and endosphere. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum present in humid and arid samples, while Actinobacteriota abundance was higher in arid ones. The ß-diversity analyses showed split microbiomes between arid and humid microbiomes, and aridity and soil pH levels could explain it. These differences between humid and arid microbiomes were maintained in the common garden experiment, showing that it is possible to transplant in situ diversity to the greenhouse. We detected a total of 1009 bacterial genera; 199 exclusively associated with roots under arid conditions. By 16S and shotgun metagenomics, we identified dry-associated taxa such as Cellvibrio, Ensifer adhaerens, and Streptomyces flavovariabilis. With shotgun metagenomic sequencing of rhizospheres (N = 6), we identified 2969 protein families in the squash core metagenome and found an increased number of exclusively protein families from arid (924) than humid samples (158). We found arid conditions enriched genes involved in protein degradation and folding, oxidative stress, compatible solute synthesis, and ion pumps associated with osmotic regulation. Plant phenotyping allowed us to correlate bacterial communities with plant growth. Our study revealed that it is possible to evaluate microbiome diversity ex-situ and identify critical species and genes involved in plant-microbe interactions in historically arid locations.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Microbiota , Rhizobiaceae , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259712, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the need for rapid novel diagnostic strategies. Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) may allow for the detection of pathogens that can be missed in targeted assays. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of nanopore-based Sequence-Independent Single Primer Amplification (SISPA) for the detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed mNGS on clinical samples and designed a diagnostic classifier that corrects for barcode crosstalk between specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on genome assemblies. RESULTS: Our assay yielded 100% specificity overall and 95.2% sensitivity for specimens with a RT-PCR cycle threshold value less than 30. We assembled 10 complete, and one near-complete genomes from 20 specimens that were classified as positive by mNGS. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 10/11 specimens from British Columbia had a closest relative to another British Columbian specimen. We found 100% concordance between phylogenetic lineage assignment and Variant of Concern (VOC) PCR results. Our assay was able to distinguish between the Alpha and Gamma variants, which was not possible with the current standard VOC PCR being used in British Columbia. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports future work examining the broader feasibility of nanopore mNGS as a diagnostic strategy for the detection and characterization of viral pathogens.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Metagenoma , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 81, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795298

RESUMO

The oral microbiome has been connected with lung health and may be of significance in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 tests provide the opportunity to leverage stored samples for assessing the oral microbiome. However, these collection kits have not been tested for their accuracy in measuring the oral microbiome. Saliva is highly enriched with human DNA and reducing it prior to shotgun sequencing may increase the depth of bacterial reads. We examined both the effect of saliva collection method and sequence processing on measurement of microbiome depth and diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. We collected 56 samples from 22 subjects. Each subject provided saliva samples with and without preservative, and a subset provided a second set of samples the following day. 16S rRNA gene (V4) sequencing was performed on all samples, and shotgun metagenomics was performed on a subset of samples collected with preservative with and without human DNA depletion before sequencing. We observed that the beta diversity distances within subjects over time was smaller than between unrelated subjects, and distances within subjects were smaller in samples collected with preservative. Samples collected with preservative had higher alpha diversity measuring both richness and evenness. Human DNA depletion before extraction and shotgun sequencing yielded higher total and relative reads mapping to bacterial sequences. We conclude that collecting saliva with preservative may provide more consistent measures of the oral microbiome and depleting human DNA increases yield of bacterial sequences.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , COVID-19/genética , DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 849, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome assembly of viruses with high mutation rates, such as Norovirus and other RNA viruses, or from metagenome samples, poses a challenge for the scientific community due to the coexistence of several viral quasispecies and strains. Furthermore, there is no standard method for obtaining whole-genome sequences in non-related patients. After polyA RNA isolation and sequencing in eight patients with acute gastroenteritis, we evaluated two de Bruijn graph assemblers (SPAdes and MEGAHIT), combined with four different and common pre-assembly strategies, and compared those yielding whole genome Norovirus contigs. RESULTS: Reference-genome guided strategies with both host and target virus did not present any advantages compared to the assembly of non-filtered data in the case of SPAdes, and in the case of MEGAHIT, only host genome filtering presented improvements. MEGAHIT performed better than SPAdes in most samples, reaching complete genome sequences in most of them for all the strategies employed. Read binning with CD-HIT improved assembly when paired with different analysis strategies, and more notably in the case of SPAdes. CONCLUSIONS: Not all metagenome assemblies are equal and the choice in the workflow depends on the species studied and the prior steps to analysis. We may need different approaches even for samples treated equally due to the presence of high intra host variability. We tested and compared different workflows for the accurate assembly of Norovirus genomes and established their assembly capacities for this purpose.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Norovirus , Algoritmos , Benchmarking , Humanos , Metagenômica , Norovirus/genética , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 734416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760716

RESUMO

Microbiome data are becoming increasingly available in large health cohorts, yet metabolomics data are still scant. While many studies generate microbiome data, they lack matched metabolomics data or have considerable missing proportions of metabolites. Since metabolomics is key to understanding microbial and general biological activities, the possibility of imputing individual metabolites or inferring metabolomics pathways from microbial taxonomy or metagenomics is intriguing. Importantly, current metabolomics profiling methods such as the HMP Unified Metabolic Analysis Network (HUMAnN) have unknown accuracy and are limited in their ability to predict individual metabolites. To address this gap, we developed a novel metabolite prediction method, and we present its application and evaluation in an oral microbiome study. The new method for predicting metabolites using microbiome data (ENVIM) is based on the elastic net model (ENM). ENVIM introduces an extra step to ENM to consider variable importance (VI) scores, and thus, achieves better prediction power. We investigate the metabolite prediction performance of ENVIM using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data in a supragingival biofilm multi-omics dataset of 289 children ages 3-5 who were participants of a community-based study of early childhood oral health (ZOE 2.0) in North Carolina, United States. We further validate ENVIM in two additional publicly available multi-omics datasets generated from studies of gut health. We select gene family sets based on variable importance scores and modify the existing ENM strategy used in the MelonnPan prediction software to accommodate the unique features of microbiome and metabolome data. We evaluate metagenomic and metatranscriptomic predictors and compare the prediction performance of ENVIM to the standard ENM employed in MelonnPan. The newly developed ENVIM method showed superior metabolite predictive accuracy than MelonnPan when trained with metatranscriptomics data only, metagenomics data only, or both. Better metabolite prediction is achieved in the gut microbiome compared with the oral microbiome setting. We report the best-predictable compounds in all these three datasets from two different body sites. For example, the metabolites trehalose, maltose, stachyose, and ribose are all well predicted by the supragingival microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(11): 3717-3733, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841779

RESUMO

The research on the relationship between gut microbiota and human health continues to be a hot topic in the field of life science. Culture independent 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing is the current main research method. However, with the reduction of sequencing cost and the maturity of data analysis methods, shotgun metagenome sequencing is gradually becoming an important method for the study of gut microbiome due to its advantages of obtaining more information. With the support from the human microbiome project, 30 805 metagenome samples were sequenced in the United States. By searching NCBI PubMed and SRA databases, it was found that 72 studies collecting about 10 000 Chinese intestinal samples were used for metagenome sequencing. To date, only 56 studies were published, including 16 related to metabolic diseases, 16 related to infectious and immune diseases, and 12 related to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The samples were mainly collected in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai and other cosmopolitan cities, where great differences exist in sequencing platforms and methods. The outcome of most studies are based on correlation analysis, which has little practical value in guiding the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases. Standardizing sampling methods, sequencing platform and data analysis process, and carrying out multi center parallel research will contribute to data integration and comparative analysis. Moreover, insights into the functional verification and molecular mechanism by using the combination of transcriptomics, proteomics and culturomics will enable the gut microbiota research to better serve the clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , China , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estados Unidos
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 713, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion in horses leads to economic and welfare losses to the equine industry. Most cases of equine abortions are sporadic, and the cause is often unknown. This study aimed to detect potential abortigenic pathogens in equine abortion cases in Australia using metagenomic deep sequencing methods. RESULTS: After sequencing and analysis, a total of 68 and 86 phyla were detected in the material originating from 49 equine abortion samples and 8 samples from normal deliveries, respectively. Most phyla were present in both groups, with the exception of Chlamydiae that were only present in abortion samples. Around 2886 genera were present in the abortion samples and samples from normal deliveries at a cut off value of 0.001% of relative abundance. Significant differences in species diversity between aborted and normal tissues was observed. Several potential abortigenic pathogens were identified at a high level of relative abundance in a number of the abortion cases, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pantoea agglomerans, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Chlamydia psittaci. CONCLUSIONS: This work revealed the presence of several potentially abortigenic pathogens in aborted specimens. No novel potential abortigenic agents were detected. The ability to screen samples for multiple pathogens that may not have been specifically targeted broadens the frontiers of diagnostic potential. The future use of metagenomic approaches for diagnostic purposes is likely to be facilitated by further improvements in deep sequencing technologies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Metagenômica , Acinetobacter , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Feto , Cavalos , Metagenoma , Gravidez
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 202, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obtaining high-quality (HQ) reference genomes from microbial communities is crucial for understanding the phylogeny and function of uncultured microbes in complex microbial ecosystems. Despite improvements in bioinformatic approaches to generate curated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), existing metagenome binners obtain population consensus genomes but they are nowhere comparable to genomes sequenced from isolates in terms of strain level resolution. Here, we present a framework for the integration of single-cell genomics and metagenomics, referred to as single-cell (sc) metagenomics, to reconstruct strain-resolved genomes from microbial communities at once. RESULTS: Our sc-metagenomics integration framework, termed SMAGLinker, uses single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) generated using microfluidic technology as binning guides and integrates them with metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to recover improved draft genomes. We compared sc-metagenomics with the metagenomics-alone approach using conventional metagenome binners. The sc-metagenomics approach showed precise contig binning and higher recovery rates (>97%) of rRNA and plasmids than conventional metagenomics in genome reconstruction from the cell mock community. In human microbiota samples, sc-metagenomics recovered the largest number of genomes with a total of 103 gut microbial genomes (21 HQ, with 65 showing >90% completeness) and 45 skin microbial genomes (10 HQ, with 40 showing >90% completeness), respectively. Conventional metagenomics recovered one Staphylococcus hominis genome, whereas sc-metagenomics recovered two S. hominis genomes from identical skin microbiota sample. Single-cell sequencing revealed that these S. hominis genomes were derived from two distinct strains harboring specifically different plasmids. We found that all conventional S. hominis MAGs had a substantial lack or excess of genome sequences and contamination from other Staphylococcus species (S. epidermidis). CONCLUSIONS: SMAGLinker enabled us to obtain strain-resolved genomes in the mock community and human microbiota samples by assigning metagenomic sequences correctly and covering both highly conserved genes such as rRNA genes and unique extrachromosomal elements, including plasmids. SMAGLinker will provide HQ genomes that are difficult to obtain using metagenomics alone and will facilitate the understanding of microbial ecosystems by elucidating detailed metabolic pathways and horizontal gene transfer networks. SMAGLinker is available at https://github.com/kojiari/smaglinker . Video abstract.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Genoma Microbiano , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia
11.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 205, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-read sequencing has shown its tremendous potential to address genome assembly challenges, e.g., achieving the first telomere-to-telomere assembly of a gapless human chromosome. However, many issues remain unresolved when leveraging error-prone long reads to characterize high-complexity metagenomes, for instance, complete/high-quality genome reconstruction from highly complex systems. RESULTS: Here, we developed an iterative haplotype-resolved hierarchical clustering-based hybrid assembly (HCBHA) approach that capitalizes on a hybrid (error-prone long reads and high-accuracy short reads) sequencing strategy to reconstruct (near-) complete genomes from highly complex metagenomes. Using the HCBHA approach, we first phase short and long reads from the highly complex metagenomic dataset into different candidate bacterial haplotypes, then perform hybrid assembly of each bacterial genome individually. We reconstructed 557 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) with an average N50 of 574 Kb from a deeply sequenced, highly complex activated sludge (AS) metagenome. These high-contiguity MAGs contained 14 closed genomes and 111 high-quality (HQ) MAGs including full-length rRNA operons, which accounted for 61.1% of the microbial community. Leveraging the near-complete genomes, we also profiled the metabolic potential of the AS microbiome and identified 2153 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoded within the recovered AS MAGs. CONCLUSION: Our results established the feasibility of an iterative haplotype-resolved HCBHA approach to reconstruct (near-) complete genomes from highly complex ecosystems, providing new insights into "complete metagenomics". The retrieved high-contiguity MAGs illustrated that various biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were harbored in the AS microbiome. The high diversity of BGCs highlights the potential to discover new natural products biosynthesized by the AS microbial community, aside from the traditional function (e.g., organic carbon and nitrogen removal) in wastewater treatment. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Microbiota/genética
12.
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 505, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycan-related genes play a fundamental role in various processes for energy acquisition and homeostasis maintenance while adapting to the environment in which the organism exists; however, their role in the microbiome in the environment is unclear. METHODS: Sequence alignment was performed between known glycan-related genes and complete genomes of microorganisms, and optimal parameters for identifying glycan-related genes were determined based on the alignments. Using the constructed scheme (> 90% of identity and > 25 aa of alignment length), glycan-related genes in various environments were identified from 198 different metagenome data. RESULTS: As a result, we identified 86.73 million glycan-related genes from the metagenome data. Among the 12 environments classified in this study, the percentage of glycan-related genes was high in the human-associated environment, suggesting that these environments utilize glycan metabolism better than other environments. On the other hand, the relative abundances of both glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases surprisingly had a coverage of over 80% in all the environments. These glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were classified into two groups of (1) general enzyme families identified in various environments and (2) specific enzymes found only in certain environments. The general enzyme families were mostly from genes involved in monosaccharide metabolism, and most of the specific enzymes were polysaccharide degrading enzymes. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that environmental microorganisms could change the composition of their glycan-related genes to adapt the processes involved in acquiring energy from glycans in their environments. Our functional glyco-metagenomics approach has made it possible to clarify the relationship between the environment and genes from the perspective of carbohydrates, and the existence of glycan-related genes that exist specifically in the environment.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Polissacarídeos
14.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633370

RESUMO

A variety of biological sequence classification tasks, such as species classification, gene function classification and viral host classification, are expected processes in many metagenomic data analyses. Since metagenomic data contain a large number of novel species and genes, high-performing classification algorithms are needed in many studies. Biologists often encounter challenges in finding suitable sequence classification and annotation tools for a specific task and are often not able to construct a corresponding algorithm on their own because of a lack of the necessary mathematical and computational knowledge. Deep learning techniques have recently become a popular topic and show strong advantages in many classification tasks. To date, many highly packaged deep learning packages, which make it possible for biologists to construct deep learning frameworks according to their own needs without in-depth knowledge of the algorithm details, have been developed. In this tutorial, we provide a guideline for constructing an easy-to-use deep learning framework for sequence classification without the need for sufficient mathematical knowledge or programming skills. All the code is optimized in a virtual machine so that users can directly run the code using their own data.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
15.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696436

RESUMO

According to various estimates, only a small percentage of existing viruses have been discovered, naturally much less being represented in the genomic databases. High-throughput sequencing technologies develop rapidly, empowering large-scale screening of various biological samples for the presence of pathogen-associated nucleotide sequences, but many organisms are yet to be attributed specific loci for identification. This problem particularly impedes viral screening, due to vast heterogeneity in viral genomes. In this paper, we present a new bioinformatic pipeline, VirIdAl, for detecting and identifying viral pathogens in sequencing data. We also demonstrate the utility of the new software by applying it to viral screening of the feces of bats collected in the Moscow region, which revealed a significant variety of viruses associated with bats, insects, plants, and protozoa. The presence of alpha and beta coronavirus reads, including the MERS-like bat virus, deserves a special mention, as it once again indicates that bats are indeed reservoirs for many viral pathogens. In addition, it was shown that alignment-based methods were unable to identify the taxon for a large proportion of reads, and we additionally applied other approaches, showing that they can further reveal the presence of viral agents in sequencing data. However, the incompleteness of viral databases remains a significant problem in the studies of viral diversity, and therefore necessitates the use of combined approaches, including those based on machine learning methods.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fezes/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica/métodos , Moscou , Phycodnaviridae/classificação , Phycodnaviridae/genética , Phycodnaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(12): 2163-2174, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668097

RESUMO

Members of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' are among the most abundant microorganisms in the highly diverse microbiome of the sponge mesohyl. Genomic and phylogenetic characteristics of this proposed phylum are barely known. In this study, we analyzed metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from the coral reef excavating sponge Thoosa mismalolli from the Mexican Pacific Ocean. Two MAGs were extracted and analyzed together with 32 MAGs and single-amplified genomes (SAGs) obtained from NCBI. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 139 single-copy genes (SCG) showed two clades. Clade A (23 genomes) represented 67.7% of the total of the genomes, while clade B (11 genomes) comprised 32.3% of the genomes. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) showed values between 66 and 99% for the genomes of the proposed phylum, and the pangenome of genomes revealed a total of 37,234 genes that included 1722 core gene. The number of genes used in the phylogenetic analysis increased from 28 (previous studies) to 139 (this study), which allowed a better resolution of the phylogeny of the proposed phylum. The results supported the two previously described classes, 'Candidatus Entoporibacteria' and 'Candidatus Pelagiporibacteria', and the genomes SB0101 and SB0202 obtained in this study belong to two new species of the class 'Candidatus Entoporibacteria'. This is the first comparative study that includes MAGs from a non-sponge host (Porites lutea) to elucidate the taxonomy of the poorly known Candidatus phylum in a polyphasic approach. Finally, our study also contributes to the sponge microbiome project by reporting the first MAGs of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' isolated from the excavating sponge T. mismalolli.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Genômica , Metagenoma , Filogenia
17.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e22011, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695305

RESUMO

Patterns of diurnal activity differ substantially between individuals, with early risers and late sleepers being examples of opposite chronotypes. Growing evidence suggests that the late chronotype significantly impacts the risk of developing mood disorders, obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Despite the vast potential of utilizing chronotype information for precision medicine, those factors that shape chronotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the various chronotypes are associated with different gut microbiome compositions. Using metagenomic sequencing analysis, we established a distinct signature associated with chronotype based on two bacterial genera, Alistipes (elevated in "larks") and Lachnospira (elevated in "owls"). We identified three metabolic pathways associated with the early chronotype, and linked distinct dietary patterns with different chronotypes. Our work demonstrates an association between the gut microbiome and chronotype and may represent the first step towards developing dietary interventions aimed at ameliorating the deleterious health correlates of the late chronotype.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 10 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693512

RESUMO

Genomic methods have had a major impact in clinical microbiology in the last decades. Microbial genomes are relatively small and therefore easier to characterise than human genomes. In both bacteriology and in virology, genomic methods have largely been used for molecular epidemiology, but also for molecular resistance testing of microorganisms. Targeted sequencing of predefined or isolated microorganisms was initially a dominant method but has gradually been supplemented with metagenomic diagnostics. Metagenomics aims at mapping all microorganisms - pathogenic as well as apathogenic - in a sample without determining in advance which agent(s) the analysis is targeting. Finally, there is also an increasing interest in mapping the significance of the microbiome, i.e. normal flora, both in health and disease.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética
19.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 197, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental calculus (mineralised dental plaque) preserves many types of microfossils and biomolecules, including microbial and host DNA, and ancient calculus are thus an important source of information regarding our ancestral human oral microbiome. In this study, we taxonomically characterised the dental calculus microbiome from 20 ancient human skeletal remains originating from Trentino-South Tyrol, Italy, dating from the Neolithic (6000-3500 BCE) to the Early Middle Ages (400-1000 CE). RESULTS: We found a high abundance of the archaeal genus Methanobrevibacter in the calculus. However, only a fraction of the sequences showed high similarity to Methanobrevibacter oralis, the only described Methanobrevibacter species in the human oral microbiome so far. To further investigate the diversity of this genus, we used de novo metagenome assembly to reconstruct 11 Methanobrevibacter genomes from the ancient calculus samples. Besides the presence of M. oralis in one of the samples, our phylogenetic analysis revealed two hitherto uncharacterised and unnamed oral Methanobrevibacter species that are prevalent in ancient calculus samples sampled from a broad range of geographical locations and time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown the potential of using de novo metagenomic assembly on ancient samples to explore microbial diversity and evolution. Our study suggests that there has been a possible shift in the human oral microbiome member Methanobrevibacter over the last millennia. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Archaea , Metagenoma , Archaea/genética , Cálculos Dentários , Humanos , Methanobrevibacter/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia
20.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 199, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities in both natural and applied settings reliably carry out myriads of functions, yet how stable these taxonomically diverse assemblages can be and what causes them to transition between states remains poorly understood. We studied monthly activated sludge (AS) samples collected over 9 years from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant to answer how complex AS communities evolve in the long term and how the community functions change when there is a disturbance in operational parameters. RESULTS: Here, we show that a microbial community in activated sludge (AS) system fluctuated around a stable average for 3 years but was then abruptly pushed into an alternative stable state by a simple transient disturbance (bleaching). While the taxonomic composition rapidly turned into a new state following the disturbance, the metabolic profile of the community and system performance remained remarkably stable. A total of 920 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), representing approximately 70% of the community in the studied AS ecosystem, were recovered from the 97 monthly AS metagenomes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed an increased ability to aggregate in the cohorts of MAGs with correlated dynamics that are dominant after the bleaching event. Fine-scale analysis of dynamics also revealed cohorts that dominated during different periods and showed successional dynamics on seasonal and longer time scales due to temperature fluctuation and gradual changes in mean residence time in the reactor, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights that communities can assume different stable states under highly similar environmental conditions and that a specific disturbance threshold may lead to a rapid shift in community composition. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética
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