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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141460

RESUMO

Children are highly vulnerable to chemical exposure. Thus, metal and metalloid in infant formulas are a concern, although studies in this regard are still relatively scarce. Thus, the presence of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, tin, mercury, lead, and uranium was investigated in infant formulas marketed in Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) and Target Cancer Risk (TCR) were calculated in to assess the potential risk of toxicity for children who consume these products continuously. Aluminum ranging from 0.432 ± 0.049 to 1.241 ± 0.113 mg·kg-1, arsenic from 0.012 ± 0.009 to 0.034 ± 0.006 mg·kg-1, and tin from 0.007 ± 0.003 to 0.095 ± 0.024 mg·kg-1 were the major elements, while cadmium and uranium were present at the lowest concentrations. According to the THQ, arsenic contents in infant formulas showed a THQ > 1, indicating potential health risk concerns for newborns or children. Minimal carcinogenic risks were observed for the elements considered carcinogenic. Metabolic and nutritional interactions are also discussed. This study indicates the need to improve infant formula surveillance concerning contamination by potentially toxic and carcinogenic elements.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Neoplasias , Urânio , Alumínio/análise , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cádmio/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Recém-Nascido , Mercúrio/análise , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Medição de Risco , Estanho/análise , Urânio/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113828, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068755

RESUMO

We assessed the extent of pollution in an essential public water supply reservoir (southeastern Brazil). An environmental monitoring study was performed at the Billings Reservoir (at the water catchment site) to assess the water quality in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed, quantifying the total cyanobacteria and the cyanotoxins microcystins (MCs) and saxitoxins (SXTs), as well as their possible ecological risk to the aquatic environment. We also determined metals and metalloids (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Sb) and fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli). Monthly samplings were performed for 2017, 2018, and 2019 (totaling 36 sampling campaigns). Metals, metalloids, and E. coli values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian legislation. High concentrations of total cyanobacteria (3.07 × 104 - 3.23 × 105 cells/mL), microcystin variants MC-LR (0.67-23.63 µg/L), MC-LA (0.03-8.66 µg/L), MC-RR (0.56-7.92 µg/L), and MC-YR (0.04-1.24 µg/L), as well as the saxitoxins GTX2 (0.18-5.37 µg/L), GTX3 (0.13-4.40 µg/L), and STX (0.12-2.92 µg/L) were detected. From an ecotoxicological point of view, the estimated values for the risk quotient (RQ) for microcystins and saxitoxins were largely greater than 1, indicating a high risk to aquatic life. Therefore, further efforts need to be made to delay the eutrophication of the reservoir.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Metaloides , Toxinas de Cianobactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Microcistinas/análise , Medição de Risco , Saxitoxina , Qualidade da Água
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13379-13390, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074134

RESUMO

The evaluation of the poisoning effect of complex components in practical gas on DCM (dichloromethane) catalytic ozonation is of great significance for enhancing the technique's environmental flexibility. Herein, Ca, Pb, As, and NO/SO2 were selected as a typical alkaline-earth metal, heavy metal, metalloid, and acid gas, respectively, to evaluate their interferences on catalytic behaviors and surface properties of an optimized urchin-like CuMn catalyst. Ca/Pb loading weakens the formation of oxygen vacancies, oxygen mobility, and acidity due to the fusion of Mn-Ca/Pb-O, leading to their inferior catalytic performance with poor CO2 selectivity and mineralization rate. Noticeably, the presence of As induces excessively strong acidity, facilitating the inevitable formation of byproducts. Catalytic co-ozonation of NO/DCM is achieved with stoichiometric ozone addition. Unfortunately, SO2 introduction brings irreversible deactivation due to strong competition adsorption and the loss of active sites. Unexpectedly, Ca loading protects active sites from an attack by SO2. The formation of unstable sulfites and the released Mn-O structure offset the negative effect from SO2. Overall, the catalytic ozonation of DCM exhibits a distinctive priority in the antipoisoning of metals with the maintenance of DCM conversion. The construction of more stable acid sites should be the future direction of catalyst design; otherwise, catalytic ozonation should be arranged together with post heavy metal capture and a deacidification system.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Ozônio , Dióxido de Carbono , Catálise , Chumbo , Cloreto de Metileno , Ozônio/química , Sulfitos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 649, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931840

RESUMO

Home and community composting are key strategies for local organic waste management. The quality and safety of industrial composts are controlled, but those of home and community composts are not, and this could make them unsafe for use in kitchen gardens. Home (n = 20) and community (n = 41) composts, from urban and suburban areas including mildly Pb-contaminated allotment gardens, were analyzed for quality and safety regarding trace metals and metalloids (TMM) using mid-infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (FT-MIR) and portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. Home composts had a significantly higher Pb content (98 mg.kg-1 ± 10 mg.kg-1) than community composts (21 mg.kg-1 ± 2 mg.kg-1). Numerous home composts (85%) and a few community composts (17%) exceeded the organic farming thresholds for Pb (45 mg.kg-1) and Zn (100 mg.kg-1). The high mineral matter content and the relative abundance of chemical functions attributable to silicates (up to 35%) highly paralleled with TMM contents, mostly concentrated in the fine fraction. Co-inertia analysis highlighted strong and significant links between TMM contents and the whole chemical signature delivered by FT-MIR spectrometry. Pb-contaminated soil could be carried into home compost by green waste or by voluntary addition. Covariance analyses indicated that mineral matter and chemical functions only partly explained the variability in Pb content, suggesting a more complex combination of drivers. Community composting appears as a suitable local solution resulting in high-quality compost that complies with European organic farming regulations, while home composting from allotment gardens should be seriously evaluated to comply with such safety requirements.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157863, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934033

RESUMO

The cycling of Fe/S is often related to the formation and fate of schwertmannite which is particularly suitable as a scavenger for heavy metals and metalloids in acid mine drainage (AMD). However, the interactions between reactivity of S(-II) and schwertmannite with structurally incorporated Cr(VI) remain elusive. This work evaluated dissolution experiments in combination with XRD, SEM, FTIR, TEM, and XPS characterization to provide detailed information regarding the transformation of schwertmannite induced by S(-II) following changes in pH, Cr loading, and S(-II) concentration. Our results found that the presence of sulfide significantly decreased the stabilization of schwertmannite under acidic conditions. The reactivity of the three schwertmannite samples depended on the contents of Cr(VI) that were structurally incorporated and followed the order Sch > 0.13Cr-Sch > 0.17Cr-Sch. High S(-II) concentrations and low Cr doping favored the release of Fe and SO42- from schwertmannite. Attenuation of Cr mobility occurred via elevating the S(-II) concentrations and pH values resulting in Cr concentrations spanning ∼1.39 to ∼0.10 mg L-1 and ∼1.58 to ∼0.12 mg L-1 for 0.13Cr-Sch and 0.17Cr-Sch, respectively. Combining the results of characterization, goethite was the dominant end product constituted secondary phase together with sulfide minerals (FeS, FeS2), iron oxides (Fe3O4, Fe2O3), and CrFe minerals on the bulk mineral surface. The substituted Cr significantly inhibited the reductive transformation of schwertmannite by sulfide and led to the formation of lepidocrocite. Thus, we concluded that a three-stage transformation mechanistic pathway governed partial conversion of schwertmannite to goethite. This finding provides new understanding of the biogeochemical processes of iron minerals affected by reducing substances that control the transport and fate of immobilizing contaminants in an AMD-polluted area.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Minerais , Cromo/química , Compostos Férricos , Ferro/química , Compostos de Ferro , Óxidos , Sulfetos
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 168: 113360, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964836

RESUMO

Our recent studies suggest that arsenite stimulates the crosstalk between the inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) via a mechanism dependent on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductin1α (ERO1α) up-regulation. Under these conditions, the fraction of Ca2+ released by the RyR via an ERO1α-dependent mechanism was promptly cleared by the mitochondria and critically mediated O2-. formation, responsible for the triggering of time-dependent events associated with strand scission of genomic DNA and delayed mitochondrial apoptosis. We herein report that, in differentiated C2C12 cells, this sequence of events can be intercepted by genetic deletion of ERO1α as well as by EN460, an inhibitor of ERO1α activity. Similar results were obtained for the early effects mediated by arsenite in proliferating U937 cells, in which however the long-term studies were hampered by the intrinsic toxicity of the inhibitor. It was then interesting to observe that ISRIB, an inhibitor of p-eIF2 alpha, was in both cell types devoid of intrinsic toxicity and able to suppress ERO1α expression and the resulting downstream effects leading to arsenite geno- and cyto-toxicity. We therefore conclude that pharmacological inhibition of ERO1α activity, or expression, effectively counteracts the deleterious effects induced by the metalloid via a mechanism associated with prevention of mitochondrial O2-. formation.


Assuntos
Arsenitos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaloides , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inositol , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
7.
Small ; 18(38): e2203554, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35989100

RESUMO

Antimonene and bismuthene are promising members of the 2D pnictogen family with their tunable band gaps, high electronic conductivity, and ambient stability, making them suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, semi-metal to semiconductor transition occurs only in the mono/bilayer regime, limiting their applications. Covalent functionalization is a versatile method for tuning materials' chemical, electronic, and optical properties and can be explored for tuning the properties of pnictogens. In this work, emissions in liquid exfoliated antimonene and bismuthene are observed at ≈2.23 and ≈2.33 eV, respectively. Covalent functionalization of antimonene and bismuthene with p-nitrobenzene diazonium salt proceeds with the transfer of lone pairs from Sb/Bi to the diazonium salt, introducing organic moieties on the surface attached predominantly via Sb/BiC bonds. Consequently, Sb/Bi signatures in Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectra are blue-shifted, implying lattice distortion and charge transfer. Interestingly, emission can be tailored upon functionalization to 2.18 and 2.27 eV for antimonene and bismuthene respectively, and this opens the possibility of tuning the properties of pnictogens and related materials. This is the first report on covalent functionalization of antimonene and bismuthene. It sheds light on the reaction mechanism on pnictogen surfaces and demonstrates tunability of optical property and surface passivation.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Semicondutores , Eletrônica , Nitrobenzenos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 847: 157512, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872194

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can encode resistance traits in bacteria are found across the environment. While it is often difficult to discern their origin, their prevalence and diversity depends on many factors, one of which is their exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTE, i.e., metals and metalloids) in soils. Here, we investigated how ambient ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) relate to the relative bioavailability of different PTEs (total versus exchangeable and carbonate-bound PTE) in rural and urban soils in northeast England. The average relative abundances of ARGs in rural sites varied over a 3-log range (7.24 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 genes/16S rRNA), and relative ARG abundances in urban sites varied by four orders of magnitude (1.75 × 10-6 to 2.85 × 10-2 genes/16S rRNA). While beta-lactam and aminoglycoside resistance genes dominated rural and urban sites, respectively, non-specific ARGs, also called multidrug-resistance genes, were significantly more abundant in urban sites (p < 0.05). Urban sites also had higher concentrations of total and exchangeable forms of PTE than rural sites, whereas rural sites were higher in carbonate-bound forms. Significant positive Spearman correlations between PTEs, ARGs and MGEs were apparent, especially with bioavailable PTE fractions and at urban sites. This study found significant positive correlations between ARGs and beryllium (Be), which has not previously been reported. Overall, our results show that PTE bioavailability is important in explaining the relative selection of ARGs in soil settings and must be considered in future co-selection and ARG exposure studies.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Solo , Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Berílio , Disponibilidade Biológica , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , beta-Lactamas
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(39): 58590-58606, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781664

RESUMO

Plants need to survive with changing environmental conditions, be it different accessibility to water or nutrients, or attack by insects or pathogens. Few of these changes, especially heavy metal stress, can become more stressful and needed strong countermeasures to ensure survival of plants. Priming, a pre-sowing hydration treatment, involves pre-exposure of plants to an eliciting component which enhance the plant's tolerance to later stress events. By considering the role of micronutrients in aiding plants to cope up under adverse conditions, this review addresses various aspects of micronutrient seed priming in attenuating heavy metal stress. Priming using micronutrients is an adaptive strategy that boosts the defensive capacity of the plant by accumulating several active or inactive signaling proteins, which hold considerable importance in signal amplification against the triggered stimulus. Priming induced 'defence memory' persists in both present generation and its progeny. Therefore, it is considered a promising approach by seed technologist for commercial seed lots to enhance the vigour in terms of seed germination potential, productivity and strengthening resistance response against metalloid stress. The present review provides an overview regarding the potency of priming with micronutrient to ameliorate harmful effects of heavy metal stress, possible mechanism how attenuation is accomplished, role of priming in enhancing crop productivity and inducing defence memory against the metalloid stress stimulus.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Germinação , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Plantas , Sementes
10.
Microbiol Res ; 263: 127144, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908425

RESUMO

Studies about biodegradation potential in soils often refer to artificially contaminated and simplified systems, overlooking the complexity associated with contaminated sites in a real context. This work aims to provide a holistic view on microbiome assembly and functional diversity in the model site SIN Brescia-Caffaro (Italy), characterized by historical and uneven contamination by organic and inorganic compounds. Here, physical and chemical analyses and microbiota characterization were applied on one-hundred-twenty-seven soil samples to unravel the environmental factors driving bacterial community assembly and biodegradation potential in three former agricultural fields. Chemical analyses showed a patchy distribution of metals, metalloids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and allowed soil categorization according to depth and area of collections. Likewise, the bacterial community structure, described by molecular fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene analyses, was significantly different according to collection site and depth. Pollutant concentrations (i.e., hexachloro-biphenyls, arsenic and mercury), nitrogen content and parameters related to soil texture were identified as main drivers of microbiota assembly, being significantly correlated to bacterial community composition. Moreover, bacteria putatively involved in the aerobic degradation of PCBs were enriched over the total bacterial community in topsoils, where the highest activity was recorded using fluorescein hydrolysis as proxy. Metataxonomic analyses revealed the presence of bacteria having metabolic pathways related to PCB degradation and tolerance to heavy metals and metalloids in the topsoil samples collected in all areas. Overall, the provided dissection of soil microbiota structure and its degradation potential in the SIN Brescia-Caffaro can contribute to target specific areas for rhizoremediation implementation. Metagenomics studies could be implemented in the future to understand if specific degradative pathways are present in historically polluted sites characterized by the co-occurrence of multiple classes of contaminants.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metaloides/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(27): e2202811, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871554

RESUMO

Ammonia recently has gained increasing attention as a carrier for the efficient and safe usage of hydrogen to further advance the hydrogen economy. However, there is a pressing need to develop new ammonia synthesis techniques to overcome the problem of intense energy consumption associated with the widely used Haber-Bosch process. Chemical looping ammonia synthesis (CLAS) is a promising approach to tackle this problem, but the ideal redox materials to drive these chemical looping processes are yet to be discovered. Here, by mining the well-established MP database, the reaction free energies for CLAS involving 1699 bicationic inorganic redox pairs are screened to comprehensively investigate their potentials as efficient redox materials in four different CLAS schemes. A state-of-the-art machine learning strategy is further deployed to significantly widen the chemical space for discovering the promising redox materials from more than half a million candidates. Most importantly, using the three-step H2 O-CL as an example, a new metric is introduced to determine bicationic redox pairs that are "cooperatively enhanced" compared to their corresponding monocationic counterparts. It is found that bicationic compounds containing a combination of alkali/alkaline-earth metals and transition metal (TM)/post-TM/metalloid elements are compounds that are particularly promising in this respect.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Elementos de Transição , Álcalis , Amônia/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Hidrogênio/química , Metais Alcalinoterrosos , Oxirredução
12.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 8201972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668868

RESUMO

Recently, soils heavy metals pollution and health risks researches in oasis are few, and in this study, the Aibi lake basin-a typical oasis-was chosen as the research area, and then, we evaluated the pollution status and sources identification and analyzed the health risks of ten heavy metals in the soils. Results showed that (1) the average (range) values for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were (6.500-48.040) 20.011, (0.0002-0.088) 0.035, (0.060-18.150) 5.994, (24.160-106.400) 53.557, (3.460-58.760) 16.981, (0.0002-0.099) 0.042, (195.310-842.850) 483.311, (0.960-70.100) 14.235, (0.180-25.390) 8.086, and (22.340-156.250) 61.334 mg/kg, respectively, and we can get except for As, the maximum values of other nine elements all within the limited values provided by the soil environmental quality risk control standard of China. (2) Health risk evaluation showed that the total exposure amount for ADIing for children and adults was 0.001067998 and 0.000344707, ADIinh for children and adults was 9.69977E-08 and 7.95869E-08, ADIderm for children and adults was 8.52275E-06 and 2.09927E-06, and the order of exploring ways is ADIing > ADIinh > ADIderm. (3) The multivariate statistical analysis and PMF results showed that Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn primarily come from the natural background and man-made sources; Cd primarily comes from man-made sources; As and Hg come from natural background sources and industry sources. The results can provide reference values for heavy metals pollution prevention and the protection of the environment in the Aibi lake basin and as well as central Asia.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Cádmio , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Lagos , Chumbo , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742553

RESUMO

As there is some evidence that the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is partially attributable to environmental exposure to some metals and metalloids, we examined an association between AD and arsenic, chromium, and selenium in 53 AD patients and 217 controls. Urinary arsenic, blood chromium, and selenium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Logistic regression models calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate AD association with arsenic, chromium, and selenium. In AD patients, urinary arsenic and blood chromium were significantly higher, while blood selenium was significantly lower compared to controls. Increased blood selenium was related to a significant decrease in the odds of AD after adjustment for risk factors. Blood selenium per 1 kg × 10-9/m3 × 10-4 increment was associated with 1.4 times lower risk of AD (OR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.58-0.87). A significant increase in the odds of AD associated with increased blood chromium was also seen in the adjusted model: the OR per 1 kg × 10-9/m3 × 10-3 chromium increment was 2.39 (95% CI 1.32-4.31). The association of urinary arsenic with the risk of AD was not significant. The data obtained provide evidence that selenium reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease, while chromium increases it.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Arsênio , Metaloides , Selênio , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Humanos , Metais/análise , Selênio/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742647

RESUMO

Exposure to heavy metals could lead to adverse health effects by oxidative reactions or inflammation. Some essential elements are known as reactors of anti-inflammatory enzymes or coenzymes. The relationship between tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and heavy metal exposures was reported. However, the interaction between toxic metals and essential elements in the inflammatory response remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the association between arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in blood and TNF-α as well as kidney function. We enrolled 421 workers and measured the levels of these seven metals/metalloids and TNF-α in blood; kidney function was calculated by CKD-EPI equation. We applied weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression and group WQS regression to assess the effects of metal/metalloid mixtures to TNF-α and kidney function. We also approached the relationship between metals/metalloids and TNF-α by generalized additive models (GAM). The relationship of the exposure-response curve between Pb level and TNF-α in serum was found significantly non-linear after adjusting covariates (p < 0.001). Within the multiple-metal model, Pb, As, and Zn were associated with increased TNF-α levels with effects dedicated to the mixture of 50%, 31%, and 15%, respectively. Grouped WQS revealed that the essential metal group showed a significantly negative association with TNF-α and kidney function. The toxic metal group found significantly positive associations with TNF-α, serum creatinine, and WBC but not for eGFR. These results suggested Pb, As, Zn, Se, and mixtures may act on TNF-α even through interactive mechanisms. Our findings offer insights into what primary components of metal mixtures affect inflammation and kidney function during co-exposure to metals; however, the mechanisms still need further research.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Selênio , Arsênio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Zinco/toxicidade
15.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 3): 135196, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659937

RESUMO

Heavy metal/metalloids (HMs) are among the primary soil pollutants that limit crop production worldwide. Plants grown in HM contaminated soils exhibit reduced growth and development, resulting in a decrease in crop production. The exposure to HMs induces plant oxidative stress due to the formation of free radicals, which alter plant morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels. When exposed to HM toxicity, plants evolve sophisticated physiological and cellular defense strategies, such as sequestration and transportation of metals, to ensure their survival. Plants also have developed efficient strategies by activating signaling pathways, which induce the expression of HM transporters. Plants either avoid the uptake of HMs from the soil or activate the detoxifying mechanism to tolerate HM stress, which involves the production of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. The metal-binding proteins including phytochelatins and metallothioneins also participate in metal detoxification. Furthermore, phytohormones and their signaling pathways also help to regulate cellular activities to counteract HM stress. The excessive levels of HMs in the soil can contribute to plant morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular alterations, which have a detrimental effect on the quality and productivity of crops. To maintain the commercial value of fruits and vegetables, various measures should be considered to remove HMs from the metal-polluted soils. Bioremediation is a promising approach that involves the use of tolerant microorganisms and plants to manage HMs pollution. The understanding of HM toxicity, signaling pathways, and tolerance mechanisms will facilitate the development of new crop varieties that help in improving phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metaloides/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 167: 113249, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728725

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between smoking and essential metal (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, Zn) and metalloid (Se) levels in hair and serum of adult women using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 344 women 20-70 years old including 199 smokers and 145 non-smoking women were enrolled. Serum Cu, Fe, and Zn levels in smoking women were found to be 6%, 8%, and 3% lower of levels in non-smokers, respectively. In contrast, circulating Mn, V, and especially Cr concentrations in smoking women exceeded the respective values in non-smoking women by 5%, 14%, and 54%. Hair Fe and Se levels in smoking women were 17% and 23% lower as compared to non-smoking controls, respectively. In multiple regression models, smoking severity was inversely associated with serum and hair Se concentrations, whereas the relationship to serum and hair Cr was positive. In addition, serum Zn and hair Fe levels were found to be inversely associated with the number of cigarettes per day. These findings hypothesize that health hazards of smoking may be at least in part be mediated by alteration in essential metal and metalloid metabolism.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Metais/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise , Adulto Jovem
17.
Physiol Plant ; 174(3): e13687, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514154

RESUMO

Metalloids in plants have diverse physiological effects. From being essential to beneficial to toxic, they have significant effects on many physiological processes, influencing crop yield and quality. Aquaporins are a group of membrane channels that have several physiological substrates along with water. Metalloids have emerged as one of their important substrates and they are found to have a substantial role in regulating plant metalloid homeostasis. The present review comprehensively details the multiple isoforms of aquaporins having specificity for metalloids and being responsible for their influx, distribution or efflux. In addition, it also highlights the usage of aquaporin-mediated transport as a selection marker in toxic screens and as tracer elements for closely related metalloids. Therefore, aquaporins, with their imperative contribution to the regulation of plant growth, development and physiological processes, need more research to unravel the metalloid trafficking mechanisms and their future applications.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Metaloides , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Metaloides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Adv Mater ; 34(28): e2202714, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522047

RESUMO

In nature, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes containing heme iron centers with an axial thiolate ligand (FeN4 -S), which are among the most finely developed catalysts by natural selection. However, the exceptional ORR activity and selectivity of CYP enzymes originate from their non-rigid and self-adaptive coordination network with molecular ligands, which sacrifices the stability of the active motifs under electrochemical reaction conditions. Here, a design strategy to circumvent this dilemma by incorporating Fe-N4 motifs into carbon matrices instead of the protein scaffold and replacing the axial molecular thiolate ligand with a stable tellurium cluster (Ten ) is demonstrated. Theoretical calculations indicate a moderate interaction between Fe 3d and Te 5p orbitals once n > 2, allowing the FeTe bond to dynamically change its strength to adaptively facilitate the intermediate steps during the ORR process, which renders FeN4 -Ten active sites with superior ORR activity. This adaptive behavior mimics the conformational dynamics of an enzyme during the reaction, but retains the stability nature as a heterogeneous catalyst. The experiments validate that the as-designed catalyst with a characterized FeN4 -Ten structure outperforms the commercial Pt/C catalyst both on activity and stability.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Telúrio , Ligantes , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química
19.
Environ Int ; 165: 107313, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635964

RESUMO

The main objective of this research was to conduct a dose-response modeling between the internal dose of measured blood Cd, As, Hg, Ni, and Cr and hormonal response of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The study included 207 male participants from subjects of 5 different cohorts (patients with prostate, testicular, and pancreatic cancer, patients suffering from various thyroid and metabolic disorders, as well as healthy volunteers), enrolled from January 2019 to May 2021 at the Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade, Serbia. Benchmark dose-response modeling analysis was performed with the PROAST software version 70.1, showing the hormone levels as quantal data. The averaging technique was applied to compute the Benchmark dose (BMD) interval (BMDI), with benchmark response set at 10%. Dose-response relationships between metal/metalloid blood concentration and serum hormone levels were confirmed for all the investigated metals/metalloid and hormones. The narrowest BMDI was found for Cd-testosterone and Hg-LH pairs, indicative of high confidence in these estimates. Although further research is needed, the observed findings demonstrate that the BMD approach may prove to be significant in the dose-response modeling of human data.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metaloides , Benchmarking , Cádmio , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante , Masculino , Testosterona
20.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119524, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636716

RESUMO

Current synthesis routes of bismuth oxide nanosheets (BiONS) are relatively complicated, requiring the use of halogens or metalloids. Herein, a facile method to synthesize BiONS without the addition of halogens or other metalloids was developed. The synthesized BiONS were identified to have flake-shaped structures (300-1000 nm in width) with the thickness of 6-10 nm, which were predominantly made of ß-Bi2O3. Such BiONS were applied to modify the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes (BiONS-SPCEs) for the development of a robust palladium (Pd2+) sensor. After optimizing the electrochemical parameters of the sensor, it was found that the linear sensor response range and limit of detection for Pd2+ were 40-400 and 1.4 ppb, respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pd2+-sensor was validated in the competing environment of other metal and metalloid ions. Real samples collected during a Pd recovery process from pharmaceutical wastewater were used to verify the application of BiONS-SPCEs in control of palladium recovery process. The quantitative results of post recovery palladium concentrations obtained using BiONS-SPCEs in treated pharmaceutical wastewater samples were in good agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Thus, such Pd2+-sensor provided the possibility of on-site process control of complex industrial samples for obtaining near-instant information that would lead to better management of resources used in the process, and same time assure environmental standards for both recovered products and processed discharge.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Paládio , Bismuto/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Halogênios , Paládio/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias
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