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1.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114137, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191636

RESUMO

Development of a functional gonad includes migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs), differentiations of somatic and germ cells, formation of primary follicles or spermatogenic cysts with somatic gonadal cells, development and maturation of gametes, and subsequent releasing of mature germ cells. These processes require extensive cellular and tissue remodeling, as well as broad alterations of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Metalloproteases, including MMPs (matrix metalloproteases), ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), and ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), are suggested to have critical roles in the remodeling of the ECM during gonad development. However, few research articles and reviews are available on the functions and mechanisms of metalloproteases in remodeling gonadal ECM, gonadal development, or gonadal differentiation. Moreover, most studies focused on the roles of transcription and growth factors in early gonad development and primary sex determination, leaving a significant knowledge gap on how differentially expressed metalloproteases exert effects on the ECM, cell migration, development, and survival of germ cells during the development and differentiation of ovaries or testes. We will review gonad development with focus on the evidence of metalloprotease involvements, and with an emphasis on zebrafish as a model for studying gonadal sex differentiation and metalloprotease functions.


Assuntos
Desintegrinas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Gônadas , Diferenciação Sexual , Células Germinativas , Metaloproteases
2.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110123, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115275

RESUMO

The rational design of enzymes with enhanced thermostability is efficient. Solvent-tolerant metalloprotease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PT121 presents high Z-aspartame (Z-APM) synthesis activity, but insufficient thermostability. In this study, we enhanced enzyme thermostability using a rational strategy. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was applied to rapidly identify that the D28 and D116 mutations are likely to exhibit increased thermostability, and experimentation verified that the D28N and D116N mutants were more stable than the wild-type (WT) enzyme. In particular, the Tm of the D28N and D116N mutants increased by 6.1 °C and 9.2 °C, respectively, compared with that of the WT enzyme. The half-lives of D28N and D116N at 60 °C were 1.07- and 1.8-fold higher than that of the WT, respectively. Z-APM synthetic activities of the mutants were also improved. The potential mechanism of thermostability enhancement rationalized using MD simulation indicated that increased hydrogen bond interactions and a regional hydration shell were mostly responsible for the thermostability enhancement. Our strategy could be a reference for enzyme engineering, and our mutants offer considerable value in industrial applications.


Assuntos
Metaloproteases , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Temperatura , Metaloproteases/química , Metaloproteases/genética , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Engenharia de Proteínas
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(11): 972, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400753

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Genetic studies have proved the involvement of Tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (Tsc2) in aortic aneurysm. However, the exact role of macrophage Tsc2 in the vascular system remains unclear. Here, we examined the potential function of macrophage Tsc2 in the development of aortic remodeling and aortic aneurysms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Conditional gene knockout strategy combined with histology and whole-transcriptomic analysis showed that Tsc2 deficiency in macrophages aggravated the progression of aortic aneurysms along with an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metallopeptidase-9 in the angiotensin II-induced mouse model. G protein-coupled receptor 68 (Gpr68), a proton-sensing receptor for detecting the extracellular acidic pH, was identified as the most up-regulated gene in Tsc2 deficient macrophages compared with control macrophages. Additionally, Tsc2 deficient macrophages displayed higher glycolysis and glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment partially attenuated the level of Gpr68. We further demonstrated an Tsc2-Gpr68-CREB network in macrophages that regulates the inflammatory response, proteolytic degradation and vascular homeostasis. Gpr68 inhibition largely abrogated the progression of aortic aneurysms caused by Tsc2 deficiency in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal that Tsc2 deficiency in macrophages contributes to aortic aneurysm formation, at least in part, by upregulating Gpr68 expression, which subsequently drives proinflammatory processes and matrix metallopeptidase activation. The data also provide a novel therapeutic strategy to limit the progression of the aneurysm resulting from Tsc2 mutations.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico , Esclerose Tuberosa , Camundongos , Animais , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Metaloproteases , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1190, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336763

RESUMO

The mucosal adaptive immune response is dependent on the production of IgA antibodies and particularly IgA1, yet opportunistic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to specifically block this response by producing IgA1 proteases (IgA1Ps). Our lab was the first to describe the structures of a metal-dependent IgA1P (metallo-IgA1P) produced from Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae both in the absence and presence of its IgA1 substrate through cryo-EM single particle reconstructions. This prior study revealed an active-site gating mechanism reliant on substrate-induced conformational changes to the enzyme that begged the question of whether such a mechanism is conserved among the wider Gram-positive metallo-IgA1P subfamily of virulence factors. Here, we used cryo-EM to characterize the metallo-IgA1P of a more distantly related family member from Gemella haemolysans, an emerging opportunistic pathogen implicated in meningitis, endocarditis, and more recently bacteremia in the elderly. While the substrate-free structures of these two metallo-IgA1Ps exhibit differences in the relative starting positions of the domain responsible for gating substrate, the enzymes have similar domain orientations when bound to IgA1. Together with biochemical studies that indicate these metallo-IgA1Ps have similar binding affinities and activities, these data indicate that metallo-IgA1P binding requires the specific IgA1 substrate to open the enzymes for access to their active site and thus, largely conform to an "induced fit" model.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina A , Metaloproteases , Humanos , Idoso , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Streptococcus/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 636(Pt 1): 184-189, 2022 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334443

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) contributes to several aspects of inflammation and cancer pathology, including invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we expressed a recombinant fragment antigen-binding (Fab)-type anti-MMP9 antibody in Escherichia coli with high purity within five days and confirmed the nanomolar order of antigen-binding efficiency of the recombinant Fab. Moreover, we optimized the experimental time for performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and decreased the reaction time from the conventional 20.5 h to 3.5 h. The rapid and sensitive MMP9 detection system developed in this study can be applied to a range of applications, including the diagnosis of diseases with MMP9 overexpression including inflammatory and cancer-related diseases.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Metaloproteases
6.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(11): 3218-3228, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318872

RESUMO

Ectodomain shedding is a form of limited proteolysis in which a protease cleaves a transmembrane protein, releasing the extracellular domain from the cell surface. Cells use this process to regulate a wide variety of biological events. Typically, immunological detection methods are employed for the analysis of ectodomains secreted into the cultured media. In this paper, we describe a new strategy using an affinity-based protein-labeling fluorescent probe to study ectodomain shedding. We analyzed the ectodomain shedding of cell surface carbonic anhydrases (CAIX and CAXII), which are important biomarkers for tumor hypoxia. Using both chemical and genetic approaches, we identified that the ADAM17 metalloprotease is responsible for the shedding of carbonic anhydrases. Compared to current immunological methods, this protein-labeling approach not only detects ectodomain released into the culture media but also allows real-time living cell tracking and quantitative analysis of remnant proteins on the cell surface, thereby providing a more detailed insight into the mechanism of ectodomain shedding as well as protein lifetime on the cell surface.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo
7.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 78(Pt 11): 1347-1357, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322418

RESUMO

The horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus is one of few extant Limulus species, which date back to ∼250 million years ago under the conservation of a common Bauplan documented by fossil records. It possesses the only proteolytic blood-coagulation and innate immunity system outside vertebrates and is a model organism for the study of the evolution and function of peptidases. The astacins are a family of metallopeptidases that share a central ∼200-residue catalytic domain (CD), which is found in >1000 species across holozoans and, sporadically, bacteria. Here, the zymogen of an astacin from L. polyphemus was crystallized and its structure was solved. A 34-residue, mostly unstructured pro-peptide (PP) traverses, and thus blocks, the active-site cleft of the CD in the opposite direction to a substrate. A central `PP motif' (F35-E-G-D-I39) adopts a loop structure which positions Asp38 to bind the catalytic metal, replacing the solvent molecule required for catalysis in the mature enzyme according to an `aspartate-switch' mechanism. Maturation cleavage of the PP liberates the cleft and causes the rearrangement of an `activation segment'. Moreover, the mature N-terminus is repositioned to penetrate the CD moiety and is anchored to a buried `family-specific' glutamate. Overall, this mechanism of latency is reminiscent of that of the other three astacins with known zymogenic and mature structures, namely crayfish astacin, human meprin ß and bacterial myroilysin, but each shows specific structural characteristics. Remarkably, myroilysin lacks the PP motif and employs a cysteine instead of the aspartate to block the catalytic metal.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico , Metaloproteases , Animais , Humanos , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Precursores Enzimáticos/química , Domínio Catalítico , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355986

RESUMO

Envenomation by elapid snakes primarily results in neurotoxic symptoms and, consequently, are the primary focus of therapeutic research concerning such venoms. However, mounting evidence suggests these venoms can additionally cause coagulopathic symptoms, as demonstrated by some Asian elapids and African spitting cobras. This study sought to investigate the coagulopathic potential of venoms from medically important elapids of the genera Naja (true cobras), Hemachatus (rinkhals), and Dendroaspis (mambas). Crude venoms were bioassayed for coagulant effects using a plasma coagulation assay before RPLC/MS was used to separate and identify venom toxins in parallel with a nanofractionation module. Subsequently, coagulation bioassays were performed on the nanofractionated toxins, along with in-solution tryptic digestion and proteomics analysis. These experiments were then repeated on both crude venoms and on the nanofractionated venom toxins with the addition of either the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor varespladib or the snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) inhibitor marimastat. Our results demonstrate that various African elapid venoms have an anticoagulant effect, and that this activity is significantly reduced for cobra venoms by the addition of varespladib, though this inhibitor had no effect against anticoagulation caused by mamba venoms. Marimastat showed limited capacity to reduce anticoagulation in elapids, affecting only N. haje and H. haemachatus venom at higher doses. Proteomic analysis of nanofractionated toxins revealed that the anticoagulant toxins in cobra venoms were both acidic and basic PLA2s, while the causative toxins in mamba venoms remain uncertain. This implies that while PLA2 inhibitors such as varespladib and metalloproteinase inhibitors such as marimastat are viable candidates for novel snakebite treatments, they are not likely to be effective against mamba envenomings.


Assuntos
Dendroaspis , Animais , Anticoagulantes/toxicidade , Proteômica , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Elapidae , Venenos de Serpentes , Fosfolipases A2/toxicidade , Bioensaio , Metaloproteases , Antivenenos/farmacologia
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355974

RESUMO

Increasing concern about the use of animal models has stimulated the development of in vitro cell culture models for analysis of the biological effects of snake venoms. However, the complexity of animal venoms and the extreme synergy of the venom components during envenomation calls for critical review and analysis. The epithelium is a primary target for injected viper venom's toxic substances, and therefore, is a focus in modern toxinology. We used the Vero epithelial cell line as a model to compare the actions of a crude Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (Levantine viper) venom with the actions of the same venom with two key enzymatic components inhibited (specifically, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and metalloproteinases) in the bioenergetic cellular response, i.e., oxygen uptake and reactive oxygen species generation. In addition to the rate of free-radical oxidation and lipid peroxidation, we measured real-time mitochondrial respiration (based on the oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (based on the extracellular acidification rate) using a Seahorse analyzer. Our data show that viper venom drives an increase in both glycolysis and respiration in Vero cells, while the blockage of PLA2 or/and metalloproteinases affects only the rates of the oxidative phosphorylation. PLA2-blocking in venom also increases cytotoxic activity and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. These data show that certain components of the venom may have a different effect within the venom cocktail other than the purified enzymes due to the synergy of the venom components.


Assuntos
Venenos de Víboras , Viperidae , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Venenos de Víboras/toxicidade , Células Vero , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Viperidae/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/toxicidade , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356016

RESUMO

BmooMPα-I has kininogenase activity, cleaving kininogen releasing bradykinin and can hydrolyze angiotensin I at post-proline and aspartic acid positions, generating an inactive peptide. We evaluated the antihypertensive activity of BmooMPα-I in a model of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C). Wistar rats were divided into groups: Sham, who underwent sham surgery, and 2K1C, who suffered stenosis of the right renal artery. In the second week of hypertension, we started treatment (Vehicle, BmooMPα-I and Losartan) for two weeks. We performed an electrocardiogram and blood and heart collection in the fourth week of hypertension. The 2K1C BmooMPα-I showed a reduction in blood pressure (systolic pressure: 131 ± 2 mmHg; diastolic pressure: 84 ± 2 mmHg versus 174 ± 3 mmHg; 97 ± 4 mmHg, 2K1C Vehicle, p < 0.05), improvement in electrocardiographic parameters (Heart Rate: 297 ± 4 bpm; QRS: 42 ± 0.1 ms; QT: 92 ± 1 ms versus 332 ± 6 bpm; 48 ± 0.2 ms; 122 ± 1 ms, 2K1C Vehicle, p < 0.05), without changing the hematological profile (platelets: 758 ± 67; leukocytes: 3980 ± 326 versus 758 ± 75; 4400 ± 800, 2K1C Vehicle, p > 0.05), with reversal of hypertrophy (left ventricular area: 12.1 ± 0.3; left ventricle wall thickness: 2.5 ± 0.2; septum wall thickness: 2.3 ± 0.06 versus 10.5 ± 0.3; 2.7 ± 0.2; 2.5 ± 0.04, 2K1C Vehicle, p < 0.05) and fibrosis (3.9 ± 0.2 versus 7.4 ± 0.7, 2K1C Vehicle, p < 0.05). We concluded that BmooMPα-I improved blood pressure levels and cardiac remodeling, having a cardioprotective effect.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Hipertensão Renovascular , Animais , Ratos , Pressão Sanguínea , Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão Renovascular/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteases/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Remodelação Ventricular
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6178, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261433

RESUMO

The zinc-dependent metalloprotease meprin α is predominantly expressed in the brush border membrane of proximal tubules in the kidney and enterocytes in the small intestine and colon. In normal tissue homeostasis meprin α performs key roles in inflammation, immunity, and extracellular matrix remodelling. Dysregulated meprin α is associated with acute kidney injury, sepsis, urinary tract infection, metastatic colorectal carcinoma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Accordingly, meprin α is the target of drug discovery programs. In contrast to meprin ß, meprin α is secreted into the extracellular space, whereupon it oligomerises to form giant assemblies and is the largest extracellular protease identified to date (~6 MDa). Here, using cryo-electron microscopy, we determine the high-resolution structure of the zymogen and mature form of meprin α, as well as the structure of the active form in complex with a prototype small molecule inhibitor and human fetuin-B. Our data reveal that meprin α forms a giant, flexible, left-handed helical assembly of roughly 22 nm in diameter. We find that oligomerisation improves proteolytic and thermal stability but does not impact substrate specificity or enzymatic activity. Furthermore, structural comparison with meprin ß reveal unique features of the active site of meprin α, and helical assembly more broadly.


Assuntos
Fetuína-B , Metaloendopeptidases , Humanos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases , Precursores Enzimáticos , Zinco
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17481, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261541

RESUMO

Wound healing is a crucial process for maintaining the function of human skin as a protective barrier to pathogens and other external stress factors. Hydrogels-in combination with antimicrobials-are often used, as moist wound care has been widely accepted as standard therapy. Recently, we reported about immune response-modulatory effects of an octenidine-based hydrogel, however little is known about the mechanism of action of other hydrogels including antiseptic molecules or chlorine-based and chlorine-releasing agents, respectively. The aim of this study was the comparative assessment of commercially available wound gels (octenilin®, Prontosan®, Lavanid®, Betadona®, ActiMaris®, Microdacyn60®, VeriforteTMmed) with regard to their effects on the secretion of distinct cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), matrix-metalloproteinases as well as their potential to cause alterations in skin structure and apoptosis. Hence, tape-stripped human ex vivo skin biopsies were treated topically with wound gels and cultured for 48 h. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and an enzyme activity assay of culture supernatants revealed that octenilin® demonstrates significantly broader anti-inflammatory and protease-inhibitory capacities than other wound gels. Further, haematoxylin & eosin as well as caspase-3 staining of treated biopsies showed that octenilin® does not alter skin morphology and shows the least interfering effect on human epidermal cells compared to untreated controls. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates totally different effects for several commercially available hydrogels in our wound model, which gives also new insight into their tissue compatibility and mode of action.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Interleucina-10 , Humanos , Caspase 3 , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Cloro , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Citocinas , Imunidade , Metaloproteases
13.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231044

RESUMO

Disruption of mitochondrial structure/function is well-recognized to be a determinant of cell death in cardiomyocytes subjected to lethal episodes of ischemia-reperfusion (IR). However, the precise mitochondrial event(s) that precipitate lethal IR injury remain incompletely resolved. Using the in vitro HL-1 cardiomyocyte model, our aims were to establish whether: (1) proteolytic processing of optic atrophy protein-1 (OPA1), the inner mitochondrial membrane protein responsible for maintaining cristae junction integrity, plays a causal, mechanistic role in determining cardiomyocyte fate in cells subjected to lethal IR injury; and (2) preservation of OPA1 may contribute to the well-documented cardioprotection achieved with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and remote ischemic conditioning. We report that HL-1 cells subjected to 2.5 h of simulated ischemia displayed increased activity of OMA1 (the metalloprotease responsible for proteolytic processing of OPA1) during the initial 45 min following reoxygenation. This was accompanied by processing of mitochondrial OPA1 (i.e., cleavage to yield short-OPA1 peptides) and release of short-OPA1 into the cytosol. However, siRNA-mediated knockdown of OPA1 content did not exacerbate lethal IR injury, and did not attenuate the cardioprotection seen with IPC and a remote preconditioning stimulus, achieved by transfer of 'reperfusate' medium (TRM-IPC) in this cell culture model. Taken together, our results do not support the concept that maintenance of OPA1 integrity plays a mechanistic role in determining cell fate in the HL-1 cardiomyocyte model of lethal IR injury, or that preservation of OPA1 underlies the cardioprotection seen with ischemic conditioning.


Assuntos
Atrofia Óptica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Morte Celular , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Atrofia Óptica/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(12): 241, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271946

RESUMO

Vibrio mimicus is a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis in humans. This pathogen produces an enterotoxic hemolysin called V. mimicus hemolysin (VMH), which is secreted extracellularly as an inactive 80-kDa protoxin and converted to a 66-kDa mature toxin through cleavage between Arg151 and Ser152. The 56-kDa serine protease termed V. mimicus trypsin-like protease (VmtA) is known to mediate this maturating process. However, some strains including strain ES-20 does not possess the vmtA gene. In the present study, the vmtA-negative strains were found to have a replaced gene that encodes a 43-kDa (403 aa) precursor of a serine protease designated by VmtX (V. mimicus trypsin-like protease X). To examine whether VmtX is also involved in the maturation of VMH, VmtX was isolated from the culture supernatant of V. mimicus strain NRE-20, a metalloprotease-negative mutant constructed from strain ES-20. Concretely, the culture supernatant was fractionated with 70% saturated ammonium sulfate and subjected to affinity column chromatography using a HiTrap Benzamidine FF column. The analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the proteins in the obtained VmtX preparation indicated that the 39-kDa protein was active VmtX consisting of 371 aa (Ile33-Ser403). The VmtX preparation was found to activate pro-VMH through generation of the 66-kDa protein. Additionally, treatment of the VmtX preparation with serine protease inhibitors, such as leupeptin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, significantly suppressed the activities to hydrolyze the specific peptide substrate and to synthesize the 66-kDa toxin. These findings indicate that VmtX is the second protease that mediats the maturation of VMH.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Vibrio , Humanos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Leupeptinas , Sulfato de Amônio , Tripsina , Fluoreto de Fenilmetilsulfonil , Metaloproteases , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase , Benzamidinas , Vibrio/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010640, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191034

RESUMO

Colonization of host phagocytic cells by Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes involves several parasite effectors, including the zinc-dependent metalloprotease GP63. The major mode of action of this virulence factor entails the cleavage/degradation of host cell proteins. Given the potent proteolytic activity of GP63, identification of its substrates requires the adequate preparation of cell lysates to prevent artefactual degradation during cell processing. In the present study, we re-examined the cleavage/degradation of reported GP63 substrates when GP63 activity was efficiently neutralized during the preparation of cell lysates. To this end, we infected bone marrow-derived macrophages with either wild type, Δgp63, and Δgp63+GP63 L. major metacyclic promastigotes for various time points. We prepared cell lysates in the absence or presence of the zinc-metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline and examined the levels and integrity of ten previously reported host cell GP63 substrates. Inhibition of GP63 activity with 1,10-phenanthroline during the processing of macrophages prevented the cleavage/degradation of several previously described GP63 targets, including PTP-PEST, mTOR, p65RelA, c-Jun, VAMP3, and NLRP3. Conversely, we confirmed that SHP-1, Synaptotagmin XI, VAMP8, and Syntaxin-5 are bona fide GP63 substrates. These results point to the importance of efficiently inhibiting GP63 activity during the preparation of Leishmania-infected host cell lysates. In addition, our results indicate that the role of GP63 in Leishmania pathogenesis must be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 12 , Leishmania/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 12/metabolismo , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Sinaptotagminas , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência , Zinco/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293502

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently involved in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway infections. Biofilm, motility, production of toxins and the invasion of host cells are different factors that increase P. aeruginosa's virulence. The sessile phenotype offers protection to bacterial cells and resistance to antimicrobials and host immune attacks. Motility also contributes to bacterial colonization of surfaces and, consequently, to biofilm formation. Furthermore, the ability to adhere is the prelude for the internalization into lung cells, a common immune evasion mechanism used by most intracellular bacteria, such as P. aeruginosa. In previous studies we evaluated the activity of metalloprotease serratiopeptidase (SPEP) in impairing virulence-related properties in Gram-positive bacteria. This work aimed to investigate SPEP's effects on different physiological aspects related to the virulence of P. aeruginosa isolated from CF patients, such as biofilm production, pyoverdine and pyocyanin production and invasion in alveolar epithelial cells. Obtained results showed that SPEP was able to impair the attachment to inert surfaces as well as adhesion/invasion of eukaryotic cells. Conversely, SPEP's effect on pyocyanin and pyoverdine production was strongly strain-dependent, with an increase and/or a decrease of their production. Moreover, SPEP seemed to increase swarming motility and staphylolytic protease production. Our results suggest that a large number of clinical strains should be studied in-depth before drawing definitive conclusions. Why different strains sometimes react in opposing ways to a specific treatment is of great interest and will be the object of future studies. Therefore, SPEP affects P. aeruginosa's physiology by differently acting on several bacterial factors related to its virulence.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Piocianina , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Biofilmes , Metaloproteases
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293503

RESUMO

Hypoxia, a condition of low oxygenation frequently found in triple-negative breast tumors (TNBC), promotes extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion and favors cell invasion, a complex process in which cell morphology is altered, dynamic focal adhesion spots are created, and ECM is remodeled. Here, we investigated the invasive properties triggered by TNBC-derived hypoxic small EV (SEVh) in vitro in cells cultured under hypoxic (1% O2) and normoxic (20% O2) conditions, using phenotypical and proteomic approaches. SEVh characterization demonstrated increased protein abundance and diversity over normoxic SEV (SEVn), with enrichment in pro-invasive pathways. In normoxic cells, SEVh promotes invasive behavior through pro-migratory morphology, invadopodia development, ECM degradation, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secretion. The proteome profiling of 20% O2-cultured cells exposed to SEVh determined enrichment in metabolic processes and cell cycles, modulating cell health to escape apoptotic pathways. In hypoxia, SEVh was responsible for proteolytic and catabolic pathway inducement, interfering with integrin availability and gelatinase expression. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of hypoxic signaling via SEV in tumors for the early establishment of metastasis.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Proteômica , Proteoma , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Integrinas , Oxigênio , Gelatinases , Metaloproteases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
18.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298858

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most hazardous viruses, which causes huge economic losses in the cattle industry around the world. In recent years, there has been a continuous increase in the diversity of pestivirus worldwide. As a member of the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family, BVDV has a wide range of host animals including cattle, goat, sheep, pig, camel and other cloven-hoofed animals, and it has multi-tissue tropism as well. The recognition of their permissive cells by viruses via interaction with the cellular receptors is a prerequisite for successful infection. So far, little is known about the cellular receptors essential for BVDV entry and their detailed functions during BVDV infection. Thus, discovery of the cellular receptors involved in the entry of BVDV and other pestiviruses is significant for development of the novel intervention. The viral envelope glycoprotein Erns and E2 are crucial determinants of the cellular tropism of BVDV. The cellular proteins bound with Erns and E2 potentially participate in BVDV entry, and their abundance might determine the cellular tropism of BVDV. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the cellular molecules have been described for BVDV entry, such as, complement regulatory protein 46 (CD46), heparan sulfate (HS), the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). Furthermore, we focus on their implications of the recently identified cellular receptors for pestiviruses in BVDV life cycle. This knowledge provides a theoretical basis for BVDV prevention and treatment by targeting the cellular receptors essential for BVDV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Pestivirus , Bovinos , Animais , Suínos , Ovinos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Desintegrinas , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Heparitina Sulfato , Lipoproteínas LDL , Metaloproteases , Tropismo
19.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298651

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 cell-cell fusion and syncytiation is an emerging pathomechanism in COVID-19, but the precise factors contributing to the process remain ill-defined. In this study, we show that metalloproteases promote SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced syncytiation in the absence of established serine proteases using in vitro cell-cell fusion assays. We also show that metalloproteases promote S2'-activation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and that metalloprotease inhibition significantly reduces the syncytiation of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In the presence of serine proteases, however, metalloprotease inhibition does not reduce spike protein-induced syncytiation and a combination of metalloprotease and serine protease inhibition is necessitated. Moreover, we show that the spike protein induces metalloprotease-dependent ectodomain shedding of the ACE2 receptor and that ACE2 shedding contributes to spike protein-induced syncytiation. These observations suggest a benefit to the incorporation of pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases into treatment strategies for patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Fusão Celular , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases , Serina Proteases
20.
Biomacromolecules ; 23(11): 4909-4923, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269900

RESUMO

Proteases, especially MMPs, are attractive biomarkers given their central role in both physiological and pathological processes. Distinguishing MMP activity with degradable substrates, however, is a difficult task due to overlapping substrate specificity profiles. Here, we developed a system of peptomers (peptide-peptoid hybrids) to probe the impact of non-natural residues on MMP specificity for an MMP peptide consensus sequence. Peptoids are non-natural, N-substituted glycines with a large side-chain diversity. Given the presence of a hallmark proline residue in the P3 position of MMP consensus sequences, we hypothesized that peptoids may offer N-substituted alternatives to generate differential interactions with MMPs. To investigate this hypothesis, peptomer substrates were exposed to five different MMPs, as well as bacterial collagenase, and monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the rate of cleavage and the composition of degraded fragments, respectively. We found that peptoid residues are well tolerated in the P3 and P3' substrate sites and that the identity of the peptoid in these sites displays a moderate influence on the rate of cleavage. However, peptoid residues were even better tolerated in the P1 substrate site where activity was more strongly correlated with side-chain identity than side-chain position. All MMPs explored demonstrated similar trends in specificity for the peptomers but exhibited different degrees of variability in proteolytic rate. These kinetic profiles served as "fingerprints" for the proteases and yielded separation by multivariate data analysis. To further demonstrate the practical application of this tunability in degradation kinetics, peptomer substrates were tethered into hydrogels and released over distinct timescales. Overall, this work represents a significant step toward the design of probes that maximize differential MMP behavior and presents design rules to tune degradation kinetics with peptoid substitutions, which has promising implications for diagnostic and prognostic applications using array-based sensors.


Assuntos
Peptoides , Peptoides/química , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
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