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1.
Cartilage ; 13(3): 19476035221115541, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The potential chondroprotective effect of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor used to reduce pain and inflammation in knee osteoarthritis patients, is disputed. This study aimed at investigating the chondroprotective effects of celecoxib on (1) human articular cartilage explants and (2) in an in vivo osteoarthritis rat model. DESIGN: Articular cartilage explants from 16 osteoarthritis patients were cultured for 24 hours with celecoxib or vehicle. Secreted prostaglandins (prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, prostaglandin D2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentrations were determined in medium by ELISA, and protein regulation was measured with label-free proteomics. Cartilage samples from 7 of these patients were analyzed for gene expression using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the chondroprotective effect of celecoxib in vivo, 14 rats received an intra-articular injection of celecoxib or 0.9% NaCl after osteoarthritis induction by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT/pMMx model). Histopathological scoring was used to evaluate osteoarthritis severity 12 weeks after injection. RESULTS: Secretion of prostaglandins, target of Nesh-SH3 (ABI3BP), and osteonectin proteins decreased, whereas tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) increased significantly after celecoxib treatment in the human (ex vivo) explant culture. Gene expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5 (ADAMTS4/5) and metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) was significantly reduced after celecoxib treatment in human cartilage explants. Cartilage degeneration was reduced significantly in an in vivo osteoarthritis knee rat model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that celecoxib acts chondroprotective on cartilage ex vivo and a single intra-articular bolus injection has a chondroprotective effect in vivo.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Celecoxib/metabolismo , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/farmacologia , Metaloproteases/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/farmacologia , Prostaglandinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/farmacologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/uso terapêutico
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2748962, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909472

RESUMO

In order to address the global antivenom crisis, novel antivenoms need to present high therapeutic efficacy, broad neutralization ability against systemic and local damage, sufficient safety, and cost-effectiveness. Due to biological characteristics of camelid single-domain antibodies (VHH) such as high affinity, their ability to penetrate dense tissues, and facility for genetic manipulation, their application in antivenoms has expanded considerably. VHHs that are active against the metalloprotease BjussuMP-II from the snake Bothrops jararacussu were selected. After isolation of BjussuMP-II, a camelid was immunized with the purified toxin in order to construct the recombinant phage library. Following a round of biopanning, 52% of the selected clones were able to recognize BjussuMP-II in an ELISA assay. After sequencing, seven sequence profiles were identified. One selected clone (VHH61) showed cross-reactivity to B. brazili venom, but did not recognize the Crotalus and Lachesis genera, indicating specificity for the Bothrops genus. Through in vitro tests, the capacity to neutralize the toxicity triggered by BjussuMP-II was observed. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated a robust secondary structure for VHH61, and the calculated melting temperature (T M) for the clone was 56.4°C. In silico analysis, through molecular docking of anti-BjussuMP-II VHHs with metalloprotease, revealed their potential interaction with amino acids present in regions critical for the toxin's conformation and stability. The findings suggest that anti-BjussuMP-II VHHs may be beneficial in the development of next-generation antivenoms.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Bothrops/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Testes de Neutralização , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807509

RESUMO

Diosmin is widely used as a venoactive drug in the pharmacological treatment of chronic venous disorders. It exerts a strong protective effect on blood vessels via an increase in the elasticity of vessel walls and reduces the permeability of capillary walls, thereby producing an anti-edematous effect. In this paper, we investigated the effectiveness of diosmin and diosmetin in modulating the level of proinflammatory factors in human skin fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Two variants of the experiments were performed: the flavonoid was added 2 h prior to or 24 h after LPS stimulation. Our study revealed that both flavonoids reduced the levels of IL-6 and Il-1ß as well as COX-2 and PGE2 but had no impact on IL-10. However, the addition of the compounds prior to the LPS addition was more effective. Moreover, diosmetin modulated the proinflammatory factors more strongly than diosmin. Our investigations also showed that both flavonoids were potent inhibitors of elastase and collagenase activity, and no differences between the glycoside and aglycone forms were observed.


Assuntos
Diosmina , Diosmina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Metaloproteases
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1493137, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35855804

RESUMO

Objectives: The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Yi-Fei-Jian-Pi-Tang (YFJPT) has been demonstrated effective against Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19). The aim of this article is to make a thorough inquiry about its active constituent as well as mechanisms against Covid-19 via TCM network pharmacology. Methods: All the ingredients of YFJPT are obtained from the pharmacology database of the TCM system. The genes which are associated with the targets are obtained by utilizing UniProt. The herb-target network is built up by utilizing Cytoscape. The target protein-protein interaction network is built by utilizing the STRING database and Cytoscape. The critical targets of YFJPT are explored by Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Results: The outcomes show that YFJPT might has 33 therapeutic targets on Covid-19, namely, interleukin 2 (IL2), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), interleukin 4 (IL4), interferon gamma (FNG), α nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in Bcells inhibitor, alpha (NFKBIA), nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NFKB), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF1A), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), interleukin 10 (IL10), jun proto-oncogene (JUN), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), tumor protein p53 (TP53), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL6), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), RELA proto-oncogene (RELA), NF-κB subunit, caspase 8 (CASP8), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3), matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), and NFE2 like bZIP transcription factor 2 (NFE2L2). The gene enrichment analysis prompts that YFJPT most likely contributes to patients related to Covid-19 by regulating the pathways of cancers. Conclusions: That will lay a foundation for the clinical rational application and further experimental research of YFJPT.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quimiocinas , Humanos , Ligantes , Metaloproteases , Farmacologia em Rede
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886965

RESUMO

The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum infects intestinal epithelial cells and causes diarrhea in humans and young animals. Among the more than 20 genes encoding insulinase-like metalloproteinases (INS), two are paralogs with high sequence identity. In this study, one of them, INS-16 encoded by the cgd3_4270 gene, was expressed and characterized in a comparative study of its sibling, INS-15 encoded by the cgd3_4260 gene. A full-length INS-16 protein and its active domain I were expressed in Escherichia coli, and antibodies against the domain I and an INS-16-specific peptide were produced in rabbits. In the analysis of the crude extract of oocysts, a ~60 kDa fragment of INS-16 rather than the full protein was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against the specific peptide, indicating that INS-16 undergoes proteolytic cleavage before maturation. The expression of the ins-16 gene peaked at the invasion phase of in vitro C. parvum culture, with the documented expression of the protein in both sporozoites and merozoites. Localization studies with antibodies showed significant differences in the distribution of the native INS-15 and INS-16 proteins in sporozoites and merozoites. INS-16 was identified as a dense granule protein in sporozoites and macrogamonts but was mostly expressed at the apical end of merozoites. We screened 48 candidate INS-16 inhibitors from the molecular docking of INS-16. Among them, two inhibited the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC50 = 1.058 µM and 2.089 µM). The results of this study suggest that INS-16 may have important roles in the development of C. parvum and could be a valid target for the development of effective treatments.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum , Insulisina , Metaloproteases , Proteínas de Protozoários , Animais , Criptosporidiose/metabolismo , Cryptosporidium/metabolismo , Cryptosporidium parvum/metabolismo , Insulisina/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Coelhos , Esporozoítos/metabolismo
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 366: 26-32, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788045

RESUMO

Snakebite remains a worldwide public health burden and a severely neglected tropical disease. Recent research has begun to focus on the potential use of repurposed small-molecule enzyme-inhibitors as early treatments to neutralise the effects of snake venoms. Black snakes (Pseudechis spp.) are a widespread and dangerously venomous group found throughout Australia and New Guinea. Utilising validated coagulation assays, our study assessed the efficacy of two chemically different small molecule inhibitors, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor (varespladib) and a metalloproteinase inhibitor (prinomastat), in vitro neutralisation of the anticoagulant prothrombinase-inhibiting activity of venom from seven species within the Pseudechis genus (P. australis, P. butleri, P. coletti, P. guttatus, P. papuanus, P.rossignolii, P. sp (NT).). Varespladib was shown to be highly effective at neutralising this anticoagulant activity for all seven species, but with P. coletti notably less so than the others. In contrast, prinomastat showed strong neutralisation for five out of the seven species, but was ineffective at neutralising the activity of P. coletti or P. rossignolii venoms. This suggests that varespladib binds to a highly conserved site but that prinomastat binds to a more variable site. These results build upon recent literature indicating that metalloproteinase inhibitors have cross-neutralising potential towards snake venom phospholipase A2 toxins, but with higher degrees of variability that PLA2-specific inhibitors. An important caveat is that these are in vitro tests and while suggestive of potential clinical utility, in vivo animal testing and clinical trials are required as future work.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Venenos Elapídicos , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Venenos Elapídicos/metabolismo , Elapidae/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878210

RESUMO

Small RNAs (sRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding single-stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Experiments in mice and humans have revealed that a typical small RNA can affect the expression of a wide range of genes, implying that small RNAs function as global regulators. Here, we used small RNA deep sequencing to investigate how jararhagin, a metalloproteinase toxin produced from the venom of Bothrops jararaca, affected mmu-miRNAs expression in mice 2 hours (Jar 2hrs) and 24 hours (Jar 24hrs) after injection compared to PBS control. The findings revealed that seven mmu-miRNAs were substantially differentially expressed (p value (p (Corr) cut-off 0.05, fold change ≥ 2) at 2 hrs after jararhagin exposure and that the majority of them were upregulated when compared to PBS. In contrast to these findings, a comparison of Jar 24hrs vs. PBS 24hrs demonstrated that the majority of identified mmu-miRNAs were downregulated. Furthermore, the studies demonstrated that mmu-miRNAs can target the expression of several genes involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. The steady antithetical regulation of mmu-miRNAs may correlate with the expression of genes that trigger apoptosis via MAPK in the early stages, and this effect intensifies with time. The findings expand our understanding of the effects of jararhagin on local tissue lesions at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Bothrops/metabolismo , Venenos de Crotalídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878227

RESUMO

Many venomous animals express toxins that show extraordinary levels of variation both within and among species. In snakes, most studies of venom variation focus on front-fanged species in the families Viperidae and Elapidae, even though rear-fanged snakes in other families vary along the same ecological axes important to venom evolution. Here we characterized venom gland transcriptomes from 19 snakes across two dipsadine rear-fanged genera (Leptodeira and Helicops, Colubridae) and two front-fanged genera (Bothrops, Viperidae; Micrurus, Elapidae). We compared patterns of composition, variation, and diversity in venom transcripts within and among all four genera. Venom gland transcriptomes of rear-fanged Helicops and Leptodeira and front-fanged Micrurus are each dominated by expression of single toxin families (C-type lectins, snake venom metalloproteinase, and phospholipase A2, respectively), unlike highly diverse front-fanged Bothrops venoms. In addition, expression patterns of congeners are much more similar to each other than they are to species from other genera. These results illustrate the repeatability of simple venom profiles in rear-fanged snakes and the potential for relatively constrained venom composition within genera.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Toxinas Biológicas , Viperidae , Animais , Colubridae/genética , Colubridae/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/genética , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/genética , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Viperidae/metabolismo
10.
Mar Drugs ; 20(6)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736159

RESUMO

Fibrinolytic enzymes are important components in the treatment of thrombosis-associated disorders. A new bi-functional fibrinolytic enzyme, versiase, was identified from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor ZLH-1. The enzyme was isolated from the fungal culture through precipitation with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. Additionally, it was further purified by DEAE-based ion-exchange chromatography, with a recovery of 20.4%. The fibrinolytic enzyme presented as one band on both SDS-PAGE and fibrin-zymogram, with a molecular mass of 37.3 kDa. It was elucidated as a member of metalloprotease in M35 family by proteomic approaches. The homology-modeling analysis revealed that versiase shares significant structural homology wuth the zinc metalloendopeptidase. The enzyme displayed maximum activity at 40 °C and pH 5.0. The activity of versiase was strongly inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitors EDTA and BGTA. Furthermore, versiase hydrolyzed fibrin directly and indirectly via the activation of plasminogen, and it was able to hydrolyze the three chains (α, ß, γ) of fibrin(ogen). Additionally, versiase demonstrated promising thrombolytic and anticoagulant activities, without many side-effects noticed. In conclusion, versiase appears to be a potent fibrinolytic enzyme deserving further investigation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Proteômica , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Fibrina , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fungos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metaloproteases , Peso Molecular , Temperatura
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35743119

RESUMO

Only some human organs, including the liver, are capable of very weak self-regeneration. Some marine echinoderms are very useful for studying the self-regeneration processes of organs and tissues. For example, sea cucumbers Eupentacta fraudatrix (holothurians) demonstrate complete restoration of all organs and the body within several weeks after their division into two parts. Therefore, these cucumbers are a prospective model for studying the general mechanisms of self-regeneration. However, there is no data available yet concerning biomolecules of holothurians, which can stimulate the processes of organ and whole-body regeneration. Investigation of these restoration mechanisms is very important for modern medicine and biology because it can help to understand which hormones, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, or complexes play an essential role in self-regeneration. It is possible that stable, polyfunctional, high-molecular-weight protein complexes play an essential role in these processes. It has recently been shown that sea cucumbers Eupentacta fraudatrix contain a very stable multiprotein complex of about 2000 kDa. The first analysis of possible enzymatic activities of a stable protein complex was carried out in this work, revealing that the complex possesses several protease and DNase activities. The complex metalloprotease is activated by several metal ions (Zn2+ > Mn2+ > Mg2+). The relative contribution of metalloproteases (~63.4%), serine-like protease (~30.5%), and thiol protease (~6.1%) to the total protease activity of the complex was estimated. Metal-independent proteases of the complex hydrolyze proteins at trypsin-specific sites (after Lys and Arg). The complex contains both metal-dependent and metal-independent DNases. Mg2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ ions were found to strongly increase the DNase activity of the complex.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Desoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteólise , Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo
12.
J Diabetes ; 14(6): 394-400, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a type 1 transmembrane protein, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is responsible for the cleavage of a variety of cell surface molecules and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. It has been suggested that systemic ADAM10 concentration may potentially be used as a prognostic biomarker. Since high glucose can upregulate ADAM10 expression in vitro, we investigated whether serum levels of ADAM10 and its substrate, the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), can be influenced by type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 1091 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 358 age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Serum concentrations of ADAM10 and the soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) released by cleavage of LOX-1 by ADAM were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (ELISA). RESULTS: Serum ADAM10 was increased in subjects with diabetes compared with control (40.5 ng/mL [22.3-65.7] vs 10.3 ng/mL [7.0-17.9], respectively; P < .01); the highest levels were seen in insulin-treated subjects. On multiple linear regression analysis, glycosylated hemoglobin, age, body mass index, and insulin use were independent determinants of ADAM10 level. The increase in serum ADAM10 levels in diabetes was accompanied by changes in serum sLOX-1. Subjects with diabetes had higher serum sLOX-1 than the control (110 pg/mL [89-153] vs 104 pg/mL [85-138], respectively; P < .01), and there was a significant correlation between serum ADAM10 and sLOX-1 (r = 0.26, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentration of ADAM10 is increased in type 2 diabetes and is associated with glycemia and insulin therapy, which may potentially affect the specificity of systemic ADAM10 level as a biomarker.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulinas , Biomarcadores , Desintegrinas , Humanos , Metaloproteases , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/metabolismo
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113192, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644119

RESUMO

Jellyfish envenomation is a common medical problem in many countries. However, the myotoxicity and effector molecules of scyphozoan venoms remain uninvestigated. Here, we present the myotoxicity of nematocyst venom from Nemopilema nomurai (NnNV), a giant venomous scyphozoan from China, for the first time, using in vivo models with inhibitors. NnNV was able to induce remarkable myotoxicity including significant muscle swelling, increasing the content of CK and LDH in serum, stimulating inflammation of muscle tissue, and destroying the structure of muscle tissue. In addition, the metalloproteinase inhibitors BMT and EDTA significantly reduced the myotoxicity induced by NnNV. Moreover, BMT and EDTA could decrease the inflammatory stimulation and necrosis of muscle tissue caused by the venom. These observations suggest that the metalloproteinase components of NnNV make a considerable contribution to myotoxicity. This study contributes to understanding the effector molecules of muscle injury caused by jellyfish stings and suggests a new idea for the treatment of scyphozoan envenomation.


Assuntos
Venenos de Cnidários , Cifozoários , Animais , Venenos de Cnidários/química , Venenos de Cnidários/toxicidade , Ácido Edético , Metaloproteases , Miotoxicidade
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 125: 105912, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660839

RESUMO

Trichomoniasis is a neglected parasitic infection, with no oral therapeutic alternatives to overcome the pitfalls of currently approved drugs. In this context, the search for new anti-Trichomonas vaginalis drugs is imperative. Here we report the selective anti-T. vaginalis activity of a substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonamide derivative. Six different derivatives were evaluated for anti-T. vaginalis. In vitro and in vivo toxicity methods, association with metal ions, and investigation on the mechanism of action were performed with the most active derivative, PH 152. Cytotoxicity assays showed selectivity for the parasite and the low toxicity was confirmed in G. mellonella larvae model. The mode of action is related to iron chelation by disrupting Fe-S clusters-dependent enzyme activities in the parasite. Proteomic analysis indicated inhibition of metallopeptidases related to T. vaginalis virulence mechanisms and metabolic pathways. PH 152 presented selective trichomonacidal activity through multitarget action.


Assuntos
Trichomonas vaginalis , Quelantes de Ferro , Metaloproteases , Oxiquinolina/farmacologia , Proteômica , Trichomonas vaginalis/fisiologia
15.
J Clin Invest ; 132(14)2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700042

RESUMO

Mitochondrial stress triggers a response in the cell's mitochondria and nucleus, but how these stress responses are coordinated in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we characterize a family with myopathy caused by a dominant p.G58R mutation in the mitochondrial protein CHCHD10. To understand the disease etiology, we developed a knockin (KI) mouse model and found that mutant CHCHD10 aggregated in affected tissues, applying a toxic protein stress to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Unexpectedly, the survival of CHCHD10-KI mice depended on a protective stress response mediated by the mitochondrial metalloendopeptidase OMA1. The OMA1 stress response acted both locally within mitochondria, causing mitochondrial fragmentation, and signaled outside the mitochondria, activating the integrated stress response through cleavage of DAP3-binding cell death enhancer 1 (DELE1). We additionally identified an isoform switch in the terminal complex of the electron transport chain as a component of this response. Our results demonstrate that OMA1 was critical for neonatal survival conditionally in the setting of inner mitochondrial membrane stress, coordinating local and global stress responses to reshape the mitochondrial network and proteome.


Assuntos
Metaloproteases , Miopatias Mitocondriais , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Animais , Metaloproteases/genética , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Miopatias Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mutação , Dobramento de Proteína
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 110-114, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653825

RESUMO

Earlier it was shown that a group of extracellular low-specific metallopeptidases is present in the mammalian brain Kropotova and Mosevitsky (2016) [1]. These enzymes are weakly connected to the axonal ends of neurons. They were named Neuron bound Extracellular MetalloPeptidases (NEMP). The enzyme named NEMP3 turned out to be a unique exopeptidase that exhibits two activities: it removes the dipeptide from the N-end of the peptide, and it can also remove the tripeptide from the C-end of the peptide. Therefore, NEMP3 possesses the activities of dipeptidylaminopeptidase and of tripeptidylcarboxypeptidase. Mass spectrometry has revealed a homology of NEMP3 with DPP3 (DPP III, EC3.4.14.4), known as cytosolic dipeptidylaminopeptidase. We isolated DPP3 from rat and bovine liver and brain by the procedures used for this purpose by other authors. The effect of DPP3 on test peptides is the same as that of NEMP3. In particular, all DPP3 samples delete the tripeptide (AKF) from the C-end of the test peptide blocked at the N-end. The data obtained show that NEMP3 and DPP3 are the same protein (enzyme). Thus, DPP3 has two exopeptidase activities: the previously known activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase and the activity of tripeptidylcarboxypeptidase discovered in this study. Another discovery is the extracellular activity of DPP 3 in the mammalian brain near synapses, which controls neuropeptides. DPP3 is involved in various processes, but in many cases its role remains to be clarified. The results obtained in this study will be useful for solving these questions.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Bovinos , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Neurônios/enzimologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ratos
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 803048, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601095

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) affect most of the poor populations worldwide. The current treatment modalities include liposomal formulation or deoxycholate salt of amphotericin B, which has been associated with various complications and severe side effects. Encouraged from the recent marked antimalarial effects from plant-derived glycosides, in this study, we have exploited a green chemistry-based approach to chemically synthesize a library of diverse glycoside derivatives (Gly1-12) and evaluated their inhibitory efficacy against the AG83 strain of Leishmania donovani. Among the synthesized glycosides, the in vitro inhibitory activity of Glycoside-2 (Gly2) (1.13 µM IC50 value) on L. donovani promastigote demonstrated maximum cytotoxicity with ~94% promastigote death as compared to amphotericin B that was taken as a positive control. The antiproliferative effect of Gly2 on promastigote encouraged us to analyze the structure-activity relationship of Gly2 with Gp63, a zinc metalloprotease that majorly localizes at the surface of the promastigote and has a role in its development and multiplication. The result demonstrated the exceptional binding affinity of Gly2 toward the catalytic domain of Gp63. These data were thereafter validated through cellular thermal shift assay in a physiologically relevant cellular environment. Mechanistically, reduced multiplication of promastigotes on treatment with Gly2 induces the destabilization of redox homeostasis in promastigotes by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS), coupled with depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Additionally, Gly2 displayed strong lethal effects on infectivity and multiplication of amastigote inside the macrophage in the amastigote-macrophage infection model in vitro as compared to amphotericin B treatment. Gp63 is also known to bestow protection against complement-mediated lysis of parasites. Interestingly, Gly2 treatment enhances the complement-mediated lysis of L. donovani promastigotes in serum physiological conditions. In addition, Gly2 was found to be equally effective against the clinical promastigote forms of PKDL strain (IC50 value of 1.97 µM); hence, it could target both VL and PKDL simultaneously. Taken together, this study reports the serendipitous discovery of Gly2 with potent antileishmanial activity and proves to be a novel chemotherapeutic prototype against VL and PKDL.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteases
18.
EMBO Rep ; 23(6): e54305, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527514

RESUMO

The severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, but host cell factors contributing to COVID-19 pathogenesis remain only partly understood. We identify the host metalloprotease ADAM17 as a facilitator of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and the metalloprotease ADAM10 as a host factor required for lung cell syncytia formation, a hallmark of COVID-19 pathology. ADAM10 and ADAM17, which are broadly expressed in the human lung, cleave the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) in vitro, indicating that ADAM10 and ADAM17 contribute to the priming of S, an essential step for viral entry and cell fusion. ADAM protease-targeted inhibitors severely impair lung cell infection by the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern alpha, beta, delta, and omicron and also reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection of primary human lung cells in a TMPRSS2 protease-independent manner. Our study establishes ADAM10 and ADAM17 as host cell factors for viral entry and syncytia formation and defines both proteases as potential targets for antiviral drug development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Proteína ADAM17 , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Fusão Celular , Humanos , Pulmão , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Metaloproteases , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563384

RESUMO

Neutrophils play a crucial role in eliminating bacteria that invade the human body; however, cathepsin G can induce biofilm formation in a non-biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis 1457 strain, suggesting that neutrophil proteases may be involved in biofilm formation. Cathepsin G, cathepsin B, proteinase-3, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from neutrophils were tested on the biofilm induction in commensal (skin isolated) and clinical non-biofilm-forming S. epidermidis isolates. From 81 isolates, 53 (74%) were aap+, icaA-, icaD- genotype, and without the capacity of biofilm formation under conditions of 1% glucose, 4% ethanol or 4% NaCl, but these 53 non-biofilm-forming isolates induced biofilm by the use of different neutrophil proteases. Of these, 62.3% induced biofilm with proteinase-3, 15% with cathepsin G, 10% with cathepsin B and 5% with MMP -9, where most of the protease-induced biofilm isolates were commensal strains (skin). In the biofilm formation kinetics analysis, the addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF; a proteinase-3 inhibitor) showed that proteinase-3 participates in the cell aggregation stage of biofilm formation. A biofilm induced with proteinase-3 and DNAse-treated significantly reduced biofilm formation at an early time (initial adhesion stage of biofilm formation) compared to untreated proteinase-3-induced biofilm (p < 0.05). A catheter inoculated with a commensal (skin) non-biofilm-forming S. epidermidis isolate treated with proteinase-3 and another one without the enzyme were inserted into the back of a mouse. After 7 days of incubation period, the catheters were recovered and the number of grown bacteria was quantified, finding a higher amount of adhered proteinase-3-treated bacteria in the catheter than non-proteinase-3-treated bacteria (p < 0.05). Commensal non-biofilm-forming S. epidermidis in the presence of neutrophil cells significantly induced the biofilm formation when multiplicity of infection (MOI) 1:0.01 (neutrophil:bacteria) was used, but the addition of a cocktail of protease inhibitors impeded biofilm formation. A neutrophil:bacteria assay did not induce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Our results suggest that neutrophils, in the presence of commensal non-biofilm-forming S. epidermidis, do not generate NETs formation. The effect of neutrophils is the production of proteases, and proteinase-3 releases bacterial DNA at the initial adhesion, favoring cell aggregation and subsequently leading to biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Animais , Biofilmes , Catepsina B , Catepsina G , Metaloproteases , Camundongos , Mieloblastina , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
20.
Toxicon ; 214: 78-90, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609828

RESUMO

Considerable heterogeneity and ontogenetic changes in venom composition have already been observed in different species of snakes within the Viperidae family. Since the venom of young and adult can cause distinct pathological effects and because the antivenom may be less effective in neutralizing envenoming by young snakes compared to adults, it is of paramount importance to understand the ontogenetic variation of snake venom. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the venom of Bothrops pauloensis snakes, searching for possible influences of ontogeny and sex in their biochemical and biological aspects. The venom of younger individuals was more complex in relation to high molecular mass proteins, with a greater abundance of metalloproteinases, while adults showed a greater abundance of medium and low molecular mass proteins, such as phospholipases A2 (PLA2), C-type lectins and serine proteases. The antivenom showed better immunorecognition towards the venom of adult snakes than younger ones, in addition to a deficiency in the recognition of medium molecular mass proteins, suggesting the need for an improvement in the antivenom. Younger snakes showed higher coagulant, caseinolytic, and hemorrhagic activity, while adult snakes showed higher L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) activity and acted faster in lethality. Differences between males and females were observed mainly in the rate of loss of coagulant activity, change in PLA2 activity and lethality action time. Furthermore, considering only the adult groups, males showed a higher LAAO and thrombin-like activity, while females showed a higher caseinolytic and hyaluronidase activity. With the results obtained in this work, it was possible to conclude that there is an ontogenetic variation in the composition and some activities of the B. pauloensis snake venom, in addition to differences between the venom of males and females, reinforcing that there is an intraspecific variation that may result in different symptoms in their envenoming and, consequently, differences in the response to treatment with the antivenom.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Animais , Antivenenos , Bothrops/metabolismo , Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Feminino , Masculino , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Proteínas , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Serpentes
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