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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e206, 2022 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172760

RESUMO

Bruineberg and colleagues criticisms' have been received but downplayed in the free energy principle (FEP) literature. We strengthen their points, arguing that Friston blanket discovery, even if tractable, requires a full formal description of the system of interest at the outset. Hence, blanket metaphysics is futile, and we postulate that researchers should turn back to heuristic uses of Pearl blankets.


Assuntos
Heurística , Metafísica , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Humanos
2.
Cogn Sci ; 46(7): e13166, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731904

RESUMO

People hold intuitive theories of the physical world, such as theories of matter, energy, and motion, in the sense that they have a coherent conceptual structure supporting a network of beliefs about the domain. It is not yet clear whether people can also be said to hold a shared intuitive theory of time. Yet, philosophical debates about the metaphysical nature of time often revolve around the idea that people hold one or more "common sense" assumptions about time: that there is an objective "now"; that the past, present, and future are fundamentally different in nature; and that time passes or flows. We empirically explored the question of whether people indeed share some or all of these assumptions by asking adults to what extent they agreed with a set of brief statements about time. Across two analyses, subsets of people's beliefs about time were found consistently to covary in ways that suggested stable underlying conceptual dimensions related to aspects of the "common sense" assumptions described by philosophers. However, distinct subsets of participants showed three mutually incompatible profiles of response, the most frequent of which did not closely match all of philosophers' claims about common sense time. These exploratory studies provide a useful starting point in attempts to characterize intuitive theories of time.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Adulto , Humanos
3.
Bioethics ; 36(7): 783-793, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527699

RESUMO

The rich moral diversity of academic bioethics poses a paradox for the practice of giving moral recommendations in secular clinical ethics: How are ethicists to provide moral guidance in a pluralistic society? The field has responded to this challenge with a "procedural approach," but defining this term stirs debate. Some have championed a contentless proceduralism, where ethicists work only to help negotiate resolutions among stakeholders without making any moral recommendations. Others have defended a moral proceduralism by claiming that ethicists should make moral recommendations that are grounded in bioethical consensus (e.g., relevant law, policy, professional consensus statements, and bioethics literature), which is secured using moral principles such as respect for persons or justice. In contrast, we develop a moral-metaphysical proceduralism by identifying many metaphysical commitments in points of secular bioethical consensus. The moral-metaphysical view of secular clinical ethics is important because it challenges the discipline to accept the substantive philosophical foundations required to support giving moral recommendations in a pluralistic context, which may lead to further insights about the nature of the field.


Assuntos
Bioética , Princípios Morais , Diversidade Cultural , Eticistas , Ética , Ética Clínica , Humanos , Metafísica
4.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 93: 149-162, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460925

RESUMO

R. J. Boscovich (1711-1787) is best known for his unified theory of natural phenomena of 1758, based on the notion of centrally interacting point-particles. While addressing contemporaneous scientific questions, his natural philosophy also systematically integrated many methodological and metaphysical ideas related to the pursuits of natural philosophy. One such excursion is Boscovich's treatment of what we today consider physical symmetries. In this paper I suggest a comprehensive interpretation of his comments on physical symmetries. I give special emphasis to Boscovich's notable inclusion of a re-scaling transformation among better known symmetries of Newtonian physics and show that it instantiates a generalization of standard dynamical symmetries. My interpretation shows that Boscovich's position results not only from his theory of matter (or basic ontology) but also from his explicit metaphysics and epistemology of space and time and his views on nomological possibility.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Filosofia , Conhecimento , Filosofia/história , Física , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 91: 41-48, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844136

RESUMO

The Information-Theoretic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from (Bub & Pitowsky, 2010) has been criticized in two ways related to the ontological picture it supplies. This paper explores whether Ontic Structural Realism can supplement the metaphysics of ITIQM in a way that would satisfy its critics. The many similarities between the two views are detailed. And it is argued that the ITIQM view ca. 2010 does seem to be compatible with OSR, but as the view evolved in Bub's Bananaworld (2016), its fundamental metaphysical commitments shifted, making it a less clean fit with OSR.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Física
6.
J Med Philos ; 47(2): 210-229, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655215

RESUMO

This essay draws on classical Confucian intellectual resources to argue that the person who emerges from a head transplant would be neither the person who provided the head, nor the person who provided the body, but a new, different person. We construct two types of argument to support this conclusion: one is based on the classical Confucian metaphysics of human life as qi activity; the other is grounded in the Confucian view of personal identity as being inseparable from one's familial relations. These Confucian ideas provide a reasonable alternative to the currently dominant view that one's personal identity "follows" one's head. Together, these arguments imply that head transplantation is ethically inappropriate.


Assuntos
Confucionismo , Metafísica , Humanos
7.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e47630, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1365271

RESUMO

RESUMO O texto, resultado de um estudo teórico, reflete sobre o potencial do pensamento do filósofo Martin Heidegger no que se refere às possibilidades nele contidas de reexperimentar o fundo a partir do qual os nossos empreendimentos teóricos e práticos se constituem. A ênfase recai sobre a desconstrução e fecundidade nela presente para a psicologia e para outras ciências humanas. Situaremos o problema, apresentaremos em traços gerais o seu pensamento e apontaremos alguns desafios que representam indícios de uma terapia para as explicações, teorias e práticas de cuidado com o ser humano. Esse movimento para dentro do ambiente não tematizado onde vivemos e pensamos, mas que é a condição de possibilidade deste mesmo ambiente, se constitui como acesso à condição humana, na direção da proximidade com o inaugural. E permite a compreensão e liberação do ser humano para além dos projetos ônticos, resultando em terapia das terapias especializadas, em terapia da condição humana no mundo.


RESUMEN El texto, resultado de un estudio teorético, refleja sobre el potencial del pensamiento del filósofo Martin Heidegger en lo que se refiere a las posibilidades en él contenidas de reexperimentar el fondo desde donde se desarrollan nuestros emprendimientos teóricos y prácticos. El énfasis recae sobre la deconstrucción y la fecundidad en ella presente para la psicología y para otras ciencias humanas. Situaremos el problema, presentaremos en trazos generales su pensamiento y apuntaremos algunos desafíos que representan indicios de una terapia para las explicaciones, teorías y prácticas de cuidado con el ser humano. Este movimiento hacia el ambiente no tematizado donde vivimos y pensamos, pero que es la condición de posibilidad de este mismo ambiente, se constituye como acceso a la condición humana, en la dirección de la cercanía con lo inaugural. Y permite una comprensión y liberación del ser humano más allá de los proyectos ónticos, resultando en una terapia de las terapias especializadas, en una terapia de la condición humana en el mundo.


ABSTRACT The text, result of a theoretical study, reflects on the potential of the philosopher Martin Heidegger's thinking about the possibilities contained therein to re-experience the background from where our theoretical and practical undertakings are constituted. The emphasis lies on deconstruction and fecundity present in it for psychology and other human sciences. We will situate the problem, present in general outlines his thinking and present some challenges that represent indications of a therapyfor the explanations, theories and practices of care for the human being. This movement into the non-thematized environment where we live and think, but which is the condition of possibility of the same environment, is constituted as access to the human condition, in the direction of proximity to the inaugural. And it allows an understanding and liberation of the human being beyond ontic projects, resulting in a therapy of specialized therapies, a therapy of the human condition in the world.


Assuntos
Terapêutica , Atividades Humanas/psicologia , Metafísica , Filosofia , Ciência/educação , Pensamento , Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Ciências Humanas/psicologia , Idioma
8.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 90: 235-246, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740147

RESUMO

This paper develops quantum state individualism, a fundamental ontology for what is usually known as 'orthodox quantum mechanics.' The central import of this ontology is that allows for a systematic evaluation of some of the main conclusions of the recent literature on quantum metaphysical indeterminacy. In particular, quantum state individualism supports the 'gappy' version of Jessica Wilson's determinable-based account of metaphysical indeterminacy; it implies that fundamental reality is perfectly precise; and third, it provides a non-disjunctive definition of determinables and thereby shields Wilson's account against the charge that it requires either a departure from classical logic or a revision of the quantum formalism.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Física , Lógica
9.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 90: 168-183, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695624

RESUMO

The paper takes up Bell's (1987) "Everett (?) theory" and develops it further. The resulting theory is about the system of all particles in the universe, each located in ordinary, 3-dimensional space. This many-particle system as a whole performs random jumps through 3N-dimensional configuration space - hence "Tychistic Bohmian Mechanics" (TBM). The distribution of its spontaneous localisations in configuration space is given by the Born Rule probability measure for the universal wavefunction. Contra Bell, the theory is argued to satisfy the minimal desiderata for a Bohmian theory within the Primitive Ontology framework (for which we offer a metaphysically more perspicuous formulation than is customary). TBM's formalism is that of ordinary Bohmian Mechanics (BM), without the postulate of continuous particle trajectories and their deterministic dynamics. This "rump formalism" receives, however, a different interpretation. We defend TBM as an empirically adequate and coherent quantum theory. Objections voiced by Bell and Maudlin are rebutted. The "for all practical purposes"-classical, Everettian worlds (i.e. quasi-classical histories) exist sequentially in TBM (rather than simultaneously, as in the Everett interpretation). In a temporally coarse-grained sense, they quasi-persist. By contrast, the individual particles themselves cease to persist.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Teoria Quântica , Probabilidade
10.
J Bioeth Inq ; 18(4): 655-669, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674154

RESUMO

Elucidating a metaphysics of medicine is vital for framing a coherent medical ethics. In this paper, I examine the historical case of Avicenna, the eleventh century physician-philosopher. Avicenna radicalizes the dissective power of reason using a logicized Aristotelian metaphysics to clarify concepts at the metaphysical level, which I call his anatomy of being. One of the practical consequences of Avicenna's metaphysics is a dehumanizing eschatology of death. I outline the main elements of Avicenna's thought that constitute his anatomy of being. Through an examination of his logic, metaphysics, and psychology, I show how Avicenna develops a dissective logic. I conclude that one's epistemology, as a method of knowing, entails a metaphysics, and, in turn, results in an ethical stance to the object of knowledge. For Avicenna, mental dissective logic applied to humans results in dehumanization, thereby destroying the humanistic impulse of medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Arábica , Medicina , Dissecação , História Medieval , Humanos , Lógica , Metafísica
11.
J Clin Ethics ; 32(2): 109-113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129526

RESUMO

The recently published World Brain Death Project aims in alleviating inconsistencies in clinical guidelines and practice in the determination of death by neurologic criteria. However, critics have taken issue with a number of epistemic and metaphysical assertions that critics argue are either false, ad hoc, or confused. In this commentary, I discuss the nature of a definition of death; the plausibility of neurologic criteria as a sensible social, medical, and legal policy; and within a Rawlsian liberal framework, reasons for personal choice or accommodation among neurologic and circulatory definitions. Declaration of human death cannot rest on contested metaphysics or unmeasurable standards, instead it should be regarded as a plausible and widely accepted social construct that conforms to best available and pragmatic medical science and practice. The definition(s) and criteria should be transparent, publicly justifiable, and potentially allow for the accommodation of reasonable choice. This is an approach that situates the definition of death as a political matter. The approach anticipates that no conceptualization of death can claim universal validity, since this is a question that cannot be settled solely on biologic or scientific grounds, rather it is a matter of normative preference, socially constructed and historically contingent.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Metafísica , Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Morte , Humanos
15.
Theor Med Bioeth ; 42(1-2): 1-24, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851346

RESUMO

This paper aims to determine whether it is necessary to propose the extreme of putrefaction as the only unmistakable sign in diagnosing the death of the human organism, as David Oderberg does in a recent paper. To that end, we compare Oderberg's claims to those of other authors who align with him in espousing the so-called theory of hylomorphism but who defend either a neurological or a circulatory-respiratory criterion for death. We then establish which interpretation of biological phenomena is the most reasonable within the metaphysical framework of hylomorphism. In this regard, we hold that technology does not obscure the difference between life and death or confect metaphysically anomalous beings, such as living human bodies who are not organisms or animals of the human species who are informed by a vegetative soul, but instead demands a closer and more careful look at the "fuzzy area" between a healthy (living) organism and a decaying corpse. In the light of hylomorphism, we conclude that neurological and circulatory-respiratory criteria are not good instruments for diagnosing death, since they can offer only probabilistic prognoses of death. Of the two, brain death is further away from the moment of death as it merely predicts cardiac arrest that will likely result in death. Putrefaction, the criterion that Oderberg proposes, is at the opposite end of the fuzzy area. This is undoubtedly a true diagnosis of death, but it is not necessary to wait for putrefaction proper-a relatively late stage of decomposition-to be sure that death has already occurred. Rather, early cadaveric phenomena demonstrate that the matter composing a body is subject to the basic forces governing all matter in its environment and has thus succumbed to the universal current of entropy, meaning that the entropy-resisting activity has ceased to constitute an organismal unity. When this unity is lost, there is no possibility of return.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Metafísica , Morte , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Ann Sci ; 78(2): 133-161, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843455

RESUMO

Few texts in the history of science and philosophy have achieved the level of interpretative indeterminacy as a short manuscript tract by Isaac Newton, known as 'De gravitatione'. On the basis of some new evidence, this article argues that it is an introductory fragment of some lectures on hydrostatics delivered in the of spring 1671. Taking seriously the possibility of a pedagogical purpose, it is then argued that the famous digression on space, far from articulating a sophisticated metaphysics that may have owed something to Henry More, was a simple piece of mixed-mathematical prolegomena designed to facilitate the subsequent geometrical argumentation. In this regard, Newton was doing the same as his mentor, Isaac Barrow, had done in his own mathematical lectures; both drew heavily on the explicitly anti-metaphysical approach of Pierre Gassendi. It is shown that More himself would have almost certainly opposed Newton's approach. The excesses of metaphysical readings of Newton's intentions are challenged; there is no warrant for reading the digression as directly relevant to the Principia.


Assuntos
Metafísica/história , Física/história , História do Século XVII , Pressão Hidrostática
18.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587194

RESUMO

Proponents of Alvin Plantinga's evolutionary argument against Naturalism (EAAN) often quote Charles Darwin's 22 April 1881 letter to William Graham to imply Darwin worried that his theory of evolution committed its adherents to some sort of global skepticism. This niggling epistemic worry has, therefore, been dubbed 'Darwin's Doubt'. But this gets Darwin wrong. After combing through Darwin's correspondence and autobiographical writings, the author maintains that Darwin only worried that evolution might cause us to doubt (a) particularly abstruse metaphysical and theological beliefs, and (b) beliefs arrived at by 'intuition' rather than evidence-based reasoning. He did not worry that unguided evolution should lead us to doubt all of our beliefs in the way Plantinga and others have implied that it does.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Metafísica/história , História do Século XIX
19.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 88: 110-119, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147731

RESUMO

Niels Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics is often cast as positivist and sometimes explicitly claimed to be influenced by logical positivists due to some similarities in their thinking. While it is certainly the case that some logical positivists attempted to recruit Bohr, this paper argues that Bohr had interests of his own in the logical positivists. Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics focuses on observation, the use of classical concepts in quantum mechanics, and indeterminacy of quantum processes as opposed to uncertainty of measurement. His view thereby shares some common ground with the logical positivists' views on verification, the observation language, and anti-metaphysics. But Bohr also emphasized complementarity: that certain pairs of concepts - such as position and momentum - are mutually exclusive in quantum mechanics since they, according to Bohr, are only meaningful relative to different experimental arrangements. Bohr believed that complementary brought a general epistemological lesson for all of science that an objective description of nature is not separable from the observational and experimental conditions under which we explore nature. Motivated by the common ground between himself and logical positivism, Bohr tried to persuade the logical positivists and Carnap in particular to adopt and champion complementarity as well as part of their unity of science program. Though his efforts ultimately proved in vain, Bohr's attempts to influence logical positivism disprove the claim that his engagement with them was reluctant and purposefully limited.


Assuntos
Lógica , Física , Metafísica , Pensamento , Incerteza
20.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 86: 68-83, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965666

RESUMO

Many consider the apparent disappearance of time and change in quantum gravity the main metaphysical challenge since it seems to lead to a form of Parmenidean view according to which the physical world simply is, nothing changes, moves, becomes, happens. In this paper, I argue that the main metaphysical challenge of Rovelli's philosophical view of loop quantum gravity is to lead exactly to the opposite view, namely, a form of Heraclitean view, or rather, of radical process metaphysics according to which there is becoming (process, change, event) but not being (substance, stasis, thing). However, this does not entail that time is real. Fundamentally, time does not exist. I show how Rovelli's understanding of loop quantum gravity supports the view that there is change without time, so that the physical world can be timeless yet ever-changing. I conclude by arguing that it is such a process-oriented conception that constitutes the revolutionary metaphysical challenge and philosophical significance of loop quantum gravity, while the alleged Parmenidean view turns out to be nothing but the endpoint of a long-standing metaphysical orthodoxy.


Assuntos
Metafísica
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