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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6003, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650064

RESUMO

Cells replicate and segregate their DNA with precision. Previous studies showed that these regulated cell-cycle processes were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and that their core molecular parts are conserved across eukaryotes. However, some metamonad parasites have secondarily lost components of the DNA processing and segregation apparatuses. To clarify the evolutionary history of these systems in these unusual eukaryotes, we generated a genome assembly for the free-living metamonad Carpediemonas membranifera and carried out a comparative genomics analysis. Here, we show that parasitic and free-living metamonads harbor an incomplete set of proteins for processing and segregating DNA. Unexpectedly, Carpediemonas species are further streamlined, lacking the origin recognition complex, Cdc6 and most structural kinetochore subunits. Carpediemonas species are thus the first known eukaryotes that appear to lack this suite of conserved complexes, suggesting that they likely rely on yet-to-be-discovered or alternative mechanisms to carry out these fundamental processes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/genética , Genoma , Genômica , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Microbiologia , Parasitos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo
2.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(16)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410377

RESUMO

The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has forced universities to find new ways to conduct learning and teaching, as traditional face-to-face teaching has been prevented or restricted to an absolute minimum in many instances. Therefore, we redesigned and taught second-year veterinary student microbiology laboratory exercises (labs) with a hybrid learning approach. For this, a novel 'remote partner' model was implemented in which students present on-site in the laboratory worked synchronously pairwise with their remote partner present online. A student feedback survey revealed that in this remote partner model, both on-site and online participation in the labs were experienced as being useful in improving their laboratory skills. The students' overall performance in hands-on microbiological laboratory skills and safe working practices was similar in the hybrid learning approach (the 2021 class) and in the traditional on-site participation approach (the 2018-20 classes). This study suggests that the remote partner model is an effective way to acquire microbiological laboratory skills. This learning approach can be used in the non-pandemic future and/or also be applied to other fields.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Microbiologia/educação , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Educação em Veterinária/organização & administração , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Ensino
3.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(16)2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410390

RESUMO

The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has had significant impacts upon higher education teaching. Clinical microbiology teaching is primarily focused on a combination of practical skill development and didactic delivery of content. In the pandemic, the absence of in-person teaching has led to educators adapting in-person content for online platforms and delivery. This commentary covers alternative innovative and engaging teaching approaches to deliver clinical microbiology content during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância , Microbiologia/educação , Ensino , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Educação à Distância/métodos , Humanos
4.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200458

RESUMO

Bacteriophages are promising tools for the detection of fecal pollution in different environments, and particularly for viral pathogen risk assessment. Having similar morphological and biological characteristics, bacteriophages mimic the fate and transport of enteric viruses. Enteric bacteriophages, especially phages infecting Escherichia coli (coliphages), have been proposed as alternatives or complements to fecal indicator bacteria. Here, we provide a general overview of the potential use of enteric bacteriophages as fecal and viral indicators in different environments, as well as the available methods for their detection and enumeration, and the regulations for their application.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Indicadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Fezes/virologia , Microbiologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas
5.
J Basic Microbiol ; 61(7): 593, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197650
6.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(13)2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223871

RESUMO

In pharmaceutical studies, a course of bacteriology based on case studies provided by the teacher was transformed in a course based on a combination of student/teacher co-creation of cases and peer reviewing. Our objectives were to describe the perception of students about the new format and to assess the impact of changing on the learning outcomes. For teaching evaluation, we used a questionnaire and focus groups. The assessment of learning outcome was performed by comparing the students' scores in final tests with the previous and the revised course formats. The students embraced the creation of cases in small groups with the teacher. In addition, they reported a perception of weakened hierarchy between the teacher and themselves, an increase of their self-confidence and a better ability to transfer their learning to their professional activities in community pharmacies. Lastly, their opinion about the transferability of this format in other disciplines were divided.


Assuntos
Microbiologia/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Faculdades de Farmácia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12017, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103568

RESUMO

Clavibacter is an agriculturally important bacterial genus comprising nine host-specific species/subspecies including C. nebraskensis (Cn), which causes Goss's wilt and blight of maize. A robust, simple, and field-deployable method is required to specifically detect Cn in infected plants and distinguish it from other Clavibacter species for quarantine purposes and timely disease management. A multiplex Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) coupled with a Lateral Flow Device (LFD) was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of Clavibacter and Cn directly from infected host. Unique and conserved genomic regions, the ABC transporter ATP-binding protein CDS/ABC-transporter permease and the MFS transporter gene, were used to design primers/probes for specific detection of genus Clavibacter and Cn, respectively. The assay was evaluated using 52 strains, representing all nine species/subspecies of Clavibacter, other closely related bacterial species, and naturally- and artificially-infected plant samples; no false positives or negatives were detected. The RPA reactions were also incubated in a closed hand at body temperature; results were again specific. The assay does not require DNA isolation and can be directly performed using host sap. The detection limit of 10 pg (~ 3000 copies) and 100 fg (~ 30 copies) was determined for Clavibacter- and Cn-specific primers/probes, respectively. The detection limit for Cn-specific primer/probe set was decreased to 1 pg (~ 300 copies) when 1 µL of host sap was added into the RPA reaction containing tenfold serially diluted genomic DNA; though no effect was observed on Clavibacter-specific primer/probe set. The assay is accurate and has applications at point-of-need diagnostics. This is the first multiplex RPA assay for any plant pathogen.


Assuntos
Clavibacter/genética , Genômica , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Temperatura Corporal , Simulação por Computador , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Limite de Detecção , Microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Recombinases/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 615-618, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082568

RESUMO

This interview was conducted by Atiya Henry, Commissioning Editor of Future Microbiology. Joseph M Blondeau, MSc, PhD, RSM(CCM), SM(AAM), SM(ASCP), FCCP is a Clinical Microbiologist and Head of Clinical Microbiology at Royal University Hospital (Saskatoon Health Region) and the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. He is also the Provincial Clinical Lead for Microbiology in Saskatchewan, Canada. He holds a Masters of Sciences in Microbiology from Dalhousie University (1985) and a Doctor of Philosophy in Medical Microbiology from the University of Manitoba (1989). Following completion of his PhD, he completed an 1-month post-doctoral training in an infectious diseases research laboratory at Dalhousie University and following which he completed a 2-year post-doctoral residency training program in Clinical Microbiology, also at Dalhousie University. He holds appointments as a Clinical Associate Professor of Pathology, Adjunct Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Clinical Associate Professor of Ophthalmology. He teaches to undergraduate and graduate students in the areas of microbiology, infectious diseases, antimicrobial agents and pharmacology. Dr Blondeau's main research interests are in the area of antimicrobial agents and antimicrobial resistance, clinical microbiology and clinical outcomes associated with antimicrobial therapy in both human and veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Clínica , Microbiologia , Medicina Clínica/história , Medicina Clínica/tendências , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Laboratórios , Microbiologia/história , Microbiologia/tendências
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128782

RESUMO

The Journal of Medical Microbiology has a global presence with an international Editorial Board. Asian countries such as PR China, India and Iran are prolific in the submission of manuscripts. Overall, the acceptance rate has been highest for European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia, and lowest for African, Asian and Latin American (LATAM) countries. The creation of regional Editors to assist the authors from these countries would serve the scientific community.


Assuntos
Políticas Editoriais , Internacionalidade , Microbiologia , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares , Sociedades Científicas , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111118

RESUMO

Unicellular microscopic organisms living in aqueous environments outnumber all other creatures on Earth. A large proportion of them are able to self-propel in fluids with a vast diversity of swimming gaits and motility patterns. In this paper we present a biophysical survey of the available experimental data produced to date on the characteristics of motile behaviour in unicellular microswimmers. We assemble from the available literature empirical data on the motility of four broad categories of organisms: bacteria (and archaea), flagellated eukaryotes, spermatozoa and ciliates. Whenever possible, we gather the following biological, morphological, kinematic and dynamical parameters: species, geometry and size of the organisms, swimming speeds, actuation frequencies, actuation amplitudes, number of flagella and properties of the surrounding fluid. We then organise the data using the established fluid mechanics principles for propulsion at low Reynolds number. Specifically, we use theoretical biophysical models for the locomotion of cells within the same taxonomic groups of organisms as a means of rationalising the raw material we have assembled, while demonstrating the variability for organisms of different species within the same group. The material gathered in our work is an attempt to summarise the available experimental data in the field, providing a convenient and practical reference point for future studies.


Assuntos
Microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Flagelos , Locomoção , Natação
11.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946411

RESUMO

This Special Issue celebrates viruses of microbes: those viruses that infect archaea, bacteria and microbial eukaryotes [...].


Assuntos
Archaea/virologia , Bactérias/virologia , Eucariotos/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbiologia
16.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 132(1): 1-8, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895083

RESUMO

The concept of a gene has been developed a lot since the Mendelian era owing to the rapid progress in molecular biology and informatics. To explore the nature of life, varieties of biological tools have been continuously established. Many achievements have been made to clarify the relationships between genotypes and phenotypes. However, it is still not completely clear that how traits of an organism are encoded by its genome. In this review, we will summarize and discuss representative works in systematical functional genomic studies in microbes. By analyzing their developmental progressions and limitations, we may have chances to design more powerful means to decipher the code of life.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Genômica , Microbiologia
19.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(3): 513-517, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630385

RESUMO

Metchnikoff's essay, Intestinal Bacteriotherapy, was written when the study of microbiology was still in its infancy and few intestinal diseases had been ascribed to a specific bacterial infection. Metchnikoff offered perceptive ideas that have become standard in today's science. This Historical Perspectives commentary examines how Metchnikoff's article influenced our field. An accompanying editorial by Siamon Gordon explores this topic further and describes the relevance of Metchnikoff's work to the current Covid-19 infection. We also include a translation of this fundamental article by Metchnikoff, as presented by Claudine Neyen.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbiologia/história , Animais , COVID-19 , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2246: 301-316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576998

RESUMO

This overview addresses fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a diagnostic microbiology setting with its associated problems and pitfalls and how to control them, but also the advantages and opportunities the method offers. This article focuses mainly on diagnostic FISH assays on tissue sections and on techniques and experiences in our laboratory. FISH in a routine diagnostic setting in microbiology requires strict quality control measures to ensure consistent high-quality and reliable assay results. Here, for the first time, we define quality control requirements for microbiological diagnostic FISH applications and discuss their impact and possible future developments of the FISH technique for infection diagnostics. We focus on diagnosis of biofilm-associated infections including infective endocarditis, oral biofilms, and device-associated infections as well as infections due to fastidious or yet uncultured microorganisms like Treponema spp., Tropheryma whipplei, Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii, or Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Fluorescência , Microbiologia , Controle de Qualidade
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