Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.749
Filtrar
1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210169, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491591

RESUMO

Minerals are required in small amounts to sustain metabolic activity in animals, but mineral deficiencies can also lead to metabolic bottlenecks and mineral excesses can induce toxicity. For these reasons, we could reasonably expect that micronutrients are actively regulated around nutritional optima. Honeybees have co-evolved with flowering plants such that their main sources of nutrients are floral pollen and nectar. Like other insects, honeybees balance their intake of multiple macronutrients during food consumption using a combination of pre- and post-ingestive mechanisms. How they regulate their intake of micronutrients using these mechanisms has rarely been studied. Using two-choice feeding assays, we tested whether caged and broodless young workers preferred solutions containing individual salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2) or metals (FeCl3, CuCl2, ZnCl2, MnCl2) in a concentration-dependent manner. We found that young adult workers could only self-select and optimize their dietary intake around specific concentrations of sodium, iron and copper. Bees largely avoided high concentration mineral solutions to minimize toxicity. These experiments demonstrate the limits of the regulation of intake of micronutrients in honeybees. This is the first study to compare this form of behaviour in one organism for eight different micronutrients. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Animais , Abelhas , Comportamento Alimentar , Micronutrientes , Minerais
2.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003984, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over 250 million children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not reach their full developmental potential. Poor maternal diet, anemia, and micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy are associated with suboptimal neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. However, the effect of prenatal macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation on child development in LMIC settings remains unclear due to limited evidence from randomized trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 3-arm cluster-randomized trial (n = 53 clusters) that evaluated the efficacy of (1) prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS; n = 18 clusters) and (2) lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS; n = 18 clusters) as compared to (3) routine iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation (n = 17 clusters) among pregnant women in the rural district of Madarounfa, Niger, from March 2015 to August 2019 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02145000). Children were followed until 2 years of age, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID-III) were administered to children every 3 months from 6 to 24 months of age. Maternal report of WHO gross motor milestone achievement was assessed monthly from 3 to 24 months of age. An intention-to-treat analysis was followed. Child BSID-III data were available for 559, 492, and 581 singleton children in the MMS, LNS, and IFA groups, respectively. Child WHO motor milestone data were available for 691, 781, and 753 singleton children in the MMS, LNS, and IFA groups, respectively. Prenatal MMS had no effect on child BSID-III cognitive (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.21; 95% CI: -0.20, 0.62; p = 0.32), language (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30, 0.61; p = 0.50) or motor scores (SMD: 0.18; 95% CI: -0.39, 0.74; p = 0.54) or on time to achievement of the WHO gross motor milestones as compared to IFA. Prenatal LNS had no effect on child BSID-III cognitive (SMD: 0.17; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.49; p = 0.29), language (SMD: 0.11; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.44; p = 0.53) or motor scores (SMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.46, 0.37; p = 0.85) at the 24-month endline visit as compared to IFA. However, the trajectory of BSID-III cognitive scores during the first 2 years of life differed between the groups with children in the LNS group having higher cognitive scores at 18 and 21 months (approximately 0.35 SD) as compared to the IFA group (p-value for difference in trajectory <0.001). Children whose mothers received LNS also had earlier achievement of sitting alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.24; p = 0.01) and walking alone (1.52; 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.03; p = 0.004) as compared to IFA, but there was no effect on time to achievement of other motor milestones. A limitation of our study is that we assessed child development up to 2 years of age, and, therefore, we may have not captured effects that are easier to detect or emerge at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: There was no benefit of prenatal MMS on child development outcomes up to 2 years of age as compared to IFA. There was evidence of an apparent positive effect of prenatal LNS on cognitive development trajectory and time to achievement of selected gross motor milestones. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02145000.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Micronutrientes , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Níger , Gravidez
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 849752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493529

RESUMO

The innate immune system can limit the growth of invading pathogens by depleting micronutrients at a cellular and tissue level. However, it is not known whether nutrient depletion mechanisms discriminate between living pathogens (which require nutrients) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (which do not). We stimulated SHK-1 cells with different PAMPs (outer membrane vesicles of Piscirickettsia salmonis "OMVs", protein extract of P. salmonis "TP" and lipopolysaccharides of P. salmonis "LPS") isolated from P. salmonis and evaluated transcriptional changes in nutritional immunity associated genes. Our experimental treatments were: Control (SHK-1 stimulated with bacterial culture medium), OMVs (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of outer membrane vesicles), TP (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of total protein extract) and LPS (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of lipopolysaccharides). Cells were sampled at 15-, 30-, 60- and 120-minutes post-stimulation. We detected increased transcription of zip8, zip14, irp1, irp2 and tfr1 in all three experimental conditions and increased transcription of dmt1 in cells stimulated with OMVs and TP, but not LPS. Additionally, we observed generally increased transcription of ireg-1, il-6, hamp, irp1, ft-h and ft-m in all three experimental conditions, but we also detected decreased transcription of these markers in cells stimulated with TP and LPS at specific time points. Our results demonstrate that SHK-1 cells stimulated with P. salmonis PAMPs increase transcription of markers involved in the transport, uptake, storage and regulation of micronutrients such as iron, manganese and zinc.


Assuntos
Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Salmão , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos , Micronutrientes , Piscirickettsia
4.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(3): e137-e141, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533127

RESUMO

Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. Although it is currently rare, risk groups in the pediatric population are described in the bibliography, including patients with eating disorders. We report the case of an 11-year-old male adolescent who developed the disease due to a selective eating habit, without fruits or vegetables. The objective of this report is to highlight the importance of complete food anamnesis in consultation with the health team, which allows to suspect and detect early and timely micronutrient deficiency disorders such as scurvy.


El escorbuto es una enfermedad producida por déficit de vitamina C. Si bien en la actualidad es poco frecuente, la bibliografía describe grupos de riesgo en la población pediátrica, dentro de los que se encuentran los pacientes con alteraciones alimentarias. Se reporta el caso de un adolescente varón, de 11 años de edad, que desarrolló la enfermedad por un hábito alimentario selectivo, sin ingesta de frutas ni verduras. El objetivo del reporte es resaltar la importancia de la anamnesis alimentaria completa en la consulta con el equipo de salud, que permita sospechar y detectar de manera temprana y oportuna trastornos por déficit de micronutrientes como el escorbuto. Palabras clave: escorbuto, vitamina C, deficiencia de ácido ascórbico, micronutrientes.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Escorbuto , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Fatores de Risco , Escorbuto/diagnóstico , Escorbuto/etiologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 922, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lebanon, an Eastern Mediterranean country, is witnessing a remarkable nutrition transition, and the diets of school-aged children may be amongst those most affected. However, limited studies have examined the food consumption patterns and nutrient adequacy in this age group. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the dietary intakes of school-aged children in Lebanon and assess their adherence to nutrition guidelines and recommendations. METHODS: This study used data for 4-13 y-old children (n = 711) from a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014-2015 on a representative sample of Lebanese households with children. Dietary intake was assessed using single 24-h recall method. Estimated food group and nutrient intakes were compared to dietary recommendations and age-specific dietary reference intakes (DRI), including Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR). Food group, energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intakes were presented for all children in the sample and stratified by age (4-8 y and 9-13 y) and sex. RESULTS: Mean energy intake of 4-13-year-old children was 1804 kcal/d. Almost half of the energy was provided by carbohydrates while 12% of children had protein intakes below EAR. Approximately three-quarters of children (4-13 y) exceeded the AMDR for total fat and saturated fats, and a similar proportion over consumed added sugars. The main sources of energy intake (EI) among children were the sweets, sweetened beverages and desserts followed by grains and mixed dishes. No significant differences were noted in %EI from different food groups, by sex, in either age groups. The highest adherence of children to food group recommendations was observed for the grains' food group (47.2-54.4%EI), while the lowest adherence was found for vegetables (3.1-14.1%EI). A high prevalence of vitamin and mineral inadequacies was noted amongst 4-13 y old children for key micronutrients, including vitamin D (99%), calcium (81%), and vitamin A (69.5%). Risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes was significantly increased among the older age group (p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes of school-aged children in Lebanon reflect suboptimal nutrition. Educational and public health interventions are needed to promote healthier diets among children and prevent micronutrient deficiencies during this critical phase.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Líbano , Micronutrientes , Inquéritos Nutricionais
6.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 34, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first study on dietary intakes of infants and young children in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, a region that is currently witnessing the nutrition transition. It aims at characterizing food consumption patterns amongst 0-4 year old children in Lebanon, evaluating their macro- and micronutrient intakes and assessing adherence to dietary recommendations. METHODS: Based on a national cross-sectional survey in 2012 (n = 866), the study collected data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, and one 24-hour dietary recall was administered. Nutrient intakes were compared with reference values: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR). RESULTS: Milk was the highest contributor to energy intake (EI) in infants (95.8 and 56.5% in 0-5.9 months and 6-11.9 months old infants, respectively), while its intake was lower among toddlers and preschoolers (35.4 and 15.1%, respectively). In contrast, intakes of sweets and sweetened beverages were the highest in preschoolers compared to younger children, contributing 18.5% EI in preschoolers. Compared to dietary guidelines, the lowest dietary adherence was found for vegetables (17.8-20.7%) and fruits (14.4-34.3%). Protein intake was within the recommendations for the vast majority of children. Although total fat intake was lower in toddlers and preschoolers compared to infants, more than 40% of toddlers and preschoolers exceeded the AMDR for fat and 87.3% of preschoolers exceeded the upper limit for saturated fat. Only 3.6% of toddlers and 11.5% of preschoolers exceeded the AI level for dietary fiber. Micronutrient intake assessment showed that mean intakes in infants exceeded the AI for all micronutrients, except for vitamin D and magnesium. In toddlers, vitamin D and calcium were below the EAR among 84.7, and 44.6%, respectively. In preschoolers, most of the children (91.9%) had inadequate intakes of vitamin D, and a third had inadequate intakes of folate, calcium and vitamin A. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified priority issues for nutrition intervention in infants and young children in Lebanon. Concerted multi-stakeholder efforts are needed to instill heathier food consumption and nutrient intake patterns early in life.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Ingestão de Alimentos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano , Micronutrientes , Necessidades Nutricionais , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
7.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 21(3): 2520-2559, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430763

RESUMO

Camel milk consists of an essential macro/micronutrient for human nutrition in the arid and urban regions. This review study aimed to use meta-analysis statistical techniques for assessment and correction of publication bias, exploration of heterogeneity between studies, and detailed assessment of the effect of a comprehensive set of moderators including breed, season, country, year of publication, and the interaction between composition elements. This could provide a single synthesis of the camel milk composition to warrant strong generalizability of results, examine variability between available studies, and analyze differences in camel milk composition among different exposures. Such a finding will aid future researchers and health professionals in acquiring a more precise understanding of camel milk composition and drawing more clinical implications. Six searching databases and bibliographic were used including PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Springer, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 1980 to December 2021. The DerSimonian-Laird estimator was used to create the current random-effects meta-analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis included a total of 7298 camel milk samples from 23 countries. This review comprises 79 studies published in the English language on or after 1980, including a subgroup of 117 analyses consisting of seasons, sub-breeds, and countries. The contents of macro/micronutrients in camel milk were identified as follows: protein, 3.17%; fat, 3.47%; lactose, 4.28%; ash, 0.78%; and total solids, 11.31%; calcium, 112.93 mg/100 g; iron, 0.45 mg/100 g; potassium, 116.13 mg/100 g; magnesium, 9.65 mg/100 g; sodium, 53.10 mg/100 g; zinc, 1.68 mg/100 g; vitamin C, 5.38 mg/100 g; vitamin A, 0.36 mg/100 g; vitamin B1 ,0.05 mg/100 g; vitamin B2 , 0.13 mg/100 g; vitamin B3 , 0.51 mg/100 g; vitamin B6 , 0.09 mg/100 g; and vitamin B12 , 0.0039 mg/100 g. Our meta-regression analysis found that fat and total solids were statistically significant moderators of protein; moreover, total solids content is a statistically significant moderator of fat. Discrepancies observed in camel milk profiles are dependent upon several factors, including number of included studies, number of samples, different analytical techniques, feeding patterns, camel's breeds, geographical locations, and seasonal variations.


Assuntos
Camelus , Leite , Animais , Micronutrientes , Estações do Ano , Vitaminas
8.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 21(3): 2772-2819, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384290

RESUMO

Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient whose deficiency is still a major health concern in many regions of the world. It plays an essential role in human growth and development, immunity, and vision, but may also help prevent several other chronic diseases. The total amount of vitamin A in the human diet often falls below the recommended dietary allowance of approximately 900-1000 µ $ \umu $ g/day for a healthy adult. Moreover, a significant proportion of vitamin A may be degraded during food processing, storage, and distribution, thereby reducing its bioactivity. Finally, the vitamin A in some foods has a relatively low bioavailability, which further reduces its efficacy. The World Health Organization has recommended fortification of foods and beverages as a safe and cost-effective means of addressing vitamin A deficiency. However, there are several factors that must be overcome before effective fortified foods can be developed, including the low solubility, chemical stability, and bioavailability of this oil-soluble vitamin. Consequently, strategies are required to evenly disperse the vitamin throughout food matrices, to inhibit its chemical degradation, to avoid any adverse interactions with any other food components, to ensure the food is palatable, and to increase its bioavailability. In this review article, we discuss the chemical, physical, and nutritional attributes of vitamin A, its main dietary sources, the factors contributing to its current deficiency, and various strategies to address these deficiencies, including diet diversification, biofortification, and food fortification.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina A , Vitamina A , Adulto , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Deficiência de Vitamina A/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013463, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is an important micronutrient deficiency contributing to the global burden of disease, and particularly affects children, premenopausal women, and people in low-resource settings. Anaemia is a possible consequence of iron deficiency, although clinical and functional manifestations of anemia can occur without iron deficiency (e.g. from other nutritional deficiencies, inflammation, and parasitic infections). Direct nutritional interventions, such as large-scale food fortification, can improve micronutrient status, especially in vulnerable populations. Given the highly successful delivery of iodine through salt iodisation, fortifying salt with iodine and iron has been proposed as a method for preventing iron deficiency anaemia. Further investigation of the effect of double-fortified salt (i.e. with iron and iodine) on iron deficiency and related outcomes is warranted.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of double-fortified salt (DFS) compared to iodised salt (IS) on measures of iron and iodine status in all age groups. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases, and two trial registries up to April 2021. We also searched relevant websites, reference lists, and contacted the authors of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), and controlled before-after (CBA) studies, comparing DFS with IS on measures of iron and iodine status were eligible, irrespective of language or publication status. Study reports published as abstracts were also eligible. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors applied the study selection criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors rated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. When necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We assessed RCTs, cRCTs and CBA studies using the Cochrane RoB 1 tool and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) tool across the following domains: random sequence generation; allocation concealment; blinding of participants and personnel; blinding of outcome assessment; incomplete outcome data; selective reporting; and other potential sources of bias due to similar baseline characteristics, similar baseline outcome assessments, and declarations of conflicts of interest and funding sources. We also assessed cRCTs for recruitment bias, baseline imbalance, loss of clusters, incorrect analysis, and comparability with individually randomised studies. We assigned studies an overall risk of bias judgement (low risk, high risk, or unclear).  MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 studies (7 RCTs, 7 cRCTs, 4 CBA studies), involving over 8800 individuals from five countries. One study did not contribute to analyses. All studies used IS as the comparator and measured and reported outcomes at study endpoint.  With regards to risk of bias, five RCTs had unclear risk of bias, with some concerns in random sequence generation and allocation concealment, while we assessed two RCTs to have a high risk of bias overall, whereby high risk was noted in at least one or more domain(s). Of the seven cRCTs, we assessed six at high risk of bias overall, with one or more domain(s) judged as high risk and one cRCT had an unclear risk of bias with concerns around allocation and blinding. The four CBA studies had high or unclear risk of bias for most domains. The RCT evidence suggested that, compared to IS, DFS may slightly improve haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 0.43 g/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.63; 13 studies, 4564 participants; low-certainty evidence), but DFS may reduce urinary iodine concentration compared to IS (MD -96.86 µg/L, 95% CI -164.99 to -28.73; 7 studies, 1594 participants; low-certainty evidence), although both salts increased mean urinary iodine concentration above the cut-off deficiency. For CBA studies, we found DFS made no difference in haemoglobin concentration (MD 0.26 g/dL, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.63; 4 studies, 1397 participants) or urinary iodine concentration (MD -17.27 µg/L, 95% CI -49.27 to 14.73; 3 studies, 1127 participants). No studies measured blood pressure. For secondary outcomes reported in RCTs, DFS may result in little to no difference in ferritin concentration (MD -3.94 µg/L, 95% CI -20.65 to 12.77; 5 studies, 1419 participants; low-certainty evidence) or transferrin receptor concentration (MD -4.68 mg/L, 95% CI -11.67 to 2.31; 5 studies, 1256 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to IS. However, DFS may reduce zinc protoporphyrin concentration (MD -27.26 µmol/mol, 95% CI -47.49 to -7.03; 3 studies, 921 participants; low-certainty evidence) and result in a slight increase in body iron stores (MD 1.77 mg/kg, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.74; 4 studies, 847 participants; low-certainty evidence). In terms of prevalence of anaemia, DFS may reduce the risk of anaemia by 21% (risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.94; P = 0.007; 8 studies, 2593 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Likewise, DFS may reduce the risk of iron deficiency anaemia by 65% (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.52; 5 studies, 1209 participants; low-certainty evidence).  Four studies measured salt intake at endline, although only one study reported this for both groups. Two studies reported prevalence of goitre, while one CBA study measured and reported serum iron concentration. One study reported adverse effects. No studies measured hepcidin concentration. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest DFS may have a small positive impact on haemoglobin concentration and the prevalence of anaemia compared to IS, particularly when considering efficacy studies. Future research should prioritise studies that incorporate robust study designs and outcome measures (e.g. anaemia, iron status measures) to better understand the effect of DFS provision to a free-living population (non-research population), where there could be an added cost to purchase double-fortified salt. Adequately measuring salt intake, both at baseline and endline, and adjusting for inflammation will be important to understanding the true effect on measures of iron status.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Iodo , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Ferro , Micronutrientes , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition is an important public health problem. Animal protein provides essential amino acids in a more adequate pattern than plant-based protein. However, the production of sufficient animal-sourced protein to feed the growing world population is a serious challenge. This review aims to explore the evidence on the use of edible insects as an alternative source of protein and micronutrients in complementary foods for children and their potential to address childhood malnutrition. METHODS: Searches were conducted in two electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane. The reference lists of included studies were also searched. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this review. All insect-enriched formulations (e.g., biscuits, cereals, porridge, paste, etc.) exceeded the daily recommended amount of protein and fat for children's complementary foods and showed good acceptability. Only two studies assessed the efficacy of insect-enriched foods on nutritional indicators and found no effect on the reduction of stunting and wasting. However, one study found improvements in the haemoglobin levels and fewer cases of anaemia in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Insect-enriched complementary foods for children are safe, acceptable and have the potential to tackle micronutrient deficiencies. More studies are needed to examine their effect on nutritional status in children.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Desnutrição , Animais , Criança , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional
11.
Appetite ; 174: 106055, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447161

RESUMO

Many reports show that non-human animals have the ability to select foods based on their micronutrient composition. However, it is unclear whether humans also have this ability, and researchers have lacked appropriate methods to investigate this question. In response to this challenge, we developed an approach that derives evidence from patterns of choices across a range of food images. In two studies (Study 1, N = 45; Study 2, N = 83) adults selected one of two pairs of fruits and vegetables in a series of trials (N = 210). Consistent with variety seeking, they preferred 'varied' over 'monotonous' pairs (same-food pairs were less attractive). However, and even after controlling for explicit nutritional knowledge (Study 2) and food energy density (Study 1 and 2), we observed a significant tendency to select pairings that offered: i) greater total micronutrient intake and ii) greater 'micronutrient complementarity' (MC), i.e., a broader range of micronutrients. In a separate analysis, a similar pattern was observed in two-component meals (e.g., steak and fries) drawn from a large national nutrition survey in the UK (1086 records). Specifically, the MC of these meals was greater than would be predicted by chance (p < .0001) and when a meal provided an excess of micronutrients (>100% daily recommended amount) then this occurred less often than by chance (p < .0001), i.e., 'micronutrient redundancy' was avoided. Together, this work provides new evidence that micronutrient composition influences food choice (a form of 'nutritional wisdom') and it raises questions about whether nutritional requirements are otherwise met through dietary 'variety seeking'. In turn, it also exposes the potential for a complexity in human dietary decision making that has not been recognised previously.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Refeições , Necessidades Nutricionais
12.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458160

RESUMO

There is well-established evidence for low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets in the management of chronic health conditions in adults. The natural next step is to understand the potential risks and benefits of LCHF diets for children, where they may have useful applications for general health and a variety of chronic health conditions. It is vital that any diet delivers sufficient micronutrients and energy to ensure health, wellbeing, and growth. This descriptive study assesses the nutrient and energy status of LCHF sample meal plans for children. We designed four meal plans for hypothetical weight-stable male and female children (11 years) and adolescents (16 years). Carbohydrates were limited to ≤80 g, protein was set at 15-25% of the total energy, and fat supplied the remaining calories. Using FoodWorks dietary analysis software, data were assessed against the national Australian/New Zealand nutrient reference value (NRV) thresholds for children and adolescents. All meal plans exceeded the minimum NRV thresholds for all micronutrients; protein slightly exceeded the AMDR recommendations by up to three percentage points. This study demonstrates that LCHF meal plans can be energy-, protein-, and micronutrient-replete for children and adolescents. As with any dietary approach, well-formulated meals and careful planning are key to achieving the optimal nutrient status.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Refeições , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(6): 2025-2035, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are common among patients with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. They are associated with a pro-inflammatory status and co-morbidities. However, no studies have specifically investigated MNDs in Spondyloarthritis (SpA). This paper aimed at analyzing the occurrence of anemia and deficiencies of ferritin (Fe), vitamin D [25(OH)D], vitamin B12 (B12), and folic acid (FA) in SpA patients. The interplay of MNDs with age, gender, and metabolic abnormalities was also explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MNDs were evaluated in 220 SpA outpatients (137 females and 83 age-matched males) with psoriatic arthritis (PsA, n=110) and non-psoriatic SpA (n=110). Metabolic parameters were analyzed. Disease activity was assessed by either Disease Activity in PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) or Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score with C-Reactive Protein (ASDAS-CRP) as appropriate, while the functional status was evaluated using Health Assessment Questionnaire modified for SpA (HAQ-S). RESULTS: Anemia occurred in 13.6% of subjects of the study cohort and almost wholly in females (p=0.004). Females showed higher Fe deficiency (p=0.04) and lower Fe levels (p=0.0003) than males. Hemoglobin (Hb) resulted inversely related to age and CRP (p=0.01 and p=0.008) in male group. The 25(OH)D deficiency (≤20 ng/ml) was present in 23.2% of the cohort with a higher prevalence in males than females (p=0.02): moreover, 25(OH)D inversely correlated with disease duration (p=0.02) in males. The B12 deficiency (≤200 pmol/l) was rare (13.2%), while FA ≤4 ng/ml was frequent (22%) and associated with B12 deficiency in 31% of cases. SpA patients in moderate/high disease activity had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (p=0.04) and HAQ-S (p<0.0001), as well as lower Hb (p=0.02), and Fe (p=0.03) than patients in remission/low disease activity (LDA). In patients with extra-articular manifestations, female sex was prevalent (F:M=2) and B12 levels were lower than in patients without (p=0.005). Interestingly, 25(OH)D was lower (p=0.04) and both BMI and HAQ-S (p=0.036 and p=0.01) were higher in patients without extra-articular involvement than patients with. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings documented a relevant prevalence of MNDs in SpA patients, and its strict interplay with gender and metabolic abnormalities by highlighting the role of MNDs in inflammatory-dependent dysmetabolism in SpA.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica , Espondilartrite , Espondilite Anquilosante , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Fenótipo
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5604, 2022 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379868

RESUMO

Yellow gypsum (YG), a synthetic product from Linz-Donawitz slag containing high iron (Fe) (5.41%), zinc (Zn) (0.37%) and silicon (Si) (3.41%) can be used as a source of these nutrients along with calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S) for groundnut production. Three field experiments were conducted to know the effect of different rates (500 and 625 kg YG ha-1) and time of application (basal alone and basal + split) of YG on growth, yield and economic returns of groundnut, and micronutrient and Si availability and their uptake in comparison with basal application of 500 kg natural gypsum (NG) ha-1. Basal alone and basal + split application of YG significantly increased the growth, yield and economic returns of groundnut. Further, it increased the soil pH, availability of micronutrients, Si and their uptake by haulm and kernel of groundnut over NG. Irrespective of the location, YG application recorded higher plant available nutrient (PAN) coefficient of micronutrients, while NG application recorded higher PAN recovery coefficient of Si. Basal + split application of YG resulted in better growth and yield of groundnut than basal application of YG. In conclusion, YG can be a potential alternative for NG as a source of Fe, Zn and Si along with Ca and S for groundnut production.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Solo , Sulfato de Cálcio , Micronutrientes , Zinco
15.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458234

RESUMO

Pernicious anemia is still a neglected disorder in many medical contexts and is underdiagnosed in many patients. Pernicious anemia is linked to but different from autoimmune gastritis. Pernicious anemia occurs in a later stage of autoimmune atrophic gastritis when gastric intrinsic factor deficiency and consequent vitamin B12 deficiency may occur. The multifaceted nature of pernicious anemia is related to the important role of cobalamin, which, when deficient, may lead to several dysfunctions, and thus, the proteiform clinical presentations of pernicious anemia. Indeed, pernicious anemia may lead to potentially serious long-term complications related to micronutrient deficiencies and their consequences and the development of gastric cancer and type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors. When not recognized in a timely manner or when pernicious anemia is diagnosed with delay, these complications may be potentially life-threatening and sometimes irreversible. The current review aimed to focus on epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentations of pernicious anemia in an attempt to look beyond borders of medical specialties. It aimed to focus on micronutrient deficiencies besides the well-known vitamin B12 deficiency, the diagnostic approach for pernicious anemia, its long-term complications and optimal clinical management, and endoscopic surveillance of patients with pernicious anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa , Gastrite , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Anemia Perniciosa/diagnóstico , Gastrite/complicações , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Vitamina B 12 , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Vitaminas
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6774, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474082

RESUMO

Citrate (Cit) and Deferoxamine B (DFOB) are two important organic ligands coexisting in soils with distinct different affinities for metal ions. It has been theorized that siderophores and weak organic ligands play a synergistic role during the transport of micronutrients in the rhizosphere, but the geochemical controls of this process remain unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that gradients in pH and ion strength regulate and enable the cooperation. To this end, first we use potentiometric titrations to identify the dominant Zn(II)-Cit and Zn(II)-DFOB complexes and to determine their ionic strength dependent stability constants between 0 and 1 mol dm-3. We parametrise the Extended Debye-Hückel (EDH) equation and determine accurate intrinsic association constants (logß0) for the formation of the complexes present. The speciation model developed confirms the presence of [Zn(Cit)]-, [Zn(HCit)], [Zn2(Cit)2(OH)2]4-, and [Zn(Cit)2]4-, with [Zn(Cit)]- and [Zn2(Cit)2(OH)2]4- the dominant species in the pH range relevant to rhizosphere. We propose the existence of a new [Zn(Cit)(OH)3]4- complex above pH 10. We also verify the existence of two hexadentate Zn(II)-DFOB species, i.e., [Zn(DFOB)]- and [Zn(HDFOB)], and of one tetradentate species [Zn(H2DFOB)]+. Second, we identify the pH and ionic strength dependent ligand exchange points (LEP) of Zn with citrate and DFOB and the stability windows for Zn(II)-Cit and Zn(II)-DFOB complexes in NaCl and rice soil solutions. We find that the LEPs fall within the pH and ionic strength gradients expected in rhizospheres and that the stability windows for Zn(II)-citrate and Zn(II)-DFOB, i.e., low and high affinity ligands, can be distinctly set off. This suggests that pH and ion strength gradients allow for Zn(II) complexes with citrate and DFOB to dominate in different parts of the rhizosphere and this explains why mixtures of low and high affinity ligands increase leaching of micronutrients in soils. Speciation models of soil solutions using newly determined association constants demonstrate that the presence of dissolved organic matter and inorganic ligands (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate, or chlorides) do neither affect the position of the LEP nor the width of the stability windows significantly. In conclusion, we demonstrate that cooperative and synergistic ligand interaction between low and high affinity ligands is a valid mechanism for controlling zinc transport in the rhizosphere and possibly in other environmental reservoirs such as in the phycosphere. Multiple production of weak and strong ligands is therefore a valid strategy of plants and other soil organisms to improve access to micronutrients.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Sideróforos , Citratos , Ácido Cítrico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Micronutrientes , Concentração Osmolar , Solo/química , Zinco/química
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(15): 17783-17793, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393856

RESUMO

Advanced intelligent systems for delivery of pesticides or fertilizers require formulations that allow for long-term efficacy. In this work, a metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid was developed for long-term pest management and micronutrient supply. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 was fabricated for crop micronutrients (Zn2+) supply and insecticide dinotefuran (DNF) encapsulation. Polymethylmethacrylate was polymerized in situ to impart the MOF hybrid with sustained cargo delivery. Then, zein was introduced to facilitate protease-triggered cargo release associated with the microenvironment of pests and targeted release. The resulting MOF hybrid exhibited stimulus-responsive, slow-release behaviors. Sustained DNF delivery was achieved over a period of at least 32 days in soil. Compared with that of free DNF, the UV resistance of DNF in the MOF hybrid increased by nearly 10 times, and the insecticidal efficiency increased 33.3% with leaching treatment and 40.1% after incubating in a greenhouse for 14 days. This MOF hybrid provides a controlled, targeted, and sustained delivery formulation for long-term pest management and crop micronutrient supply and has huge application prospects in sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Oligoelementos , Fertilizantes , Micronutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Controle de Pragas
18.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405960

RESUMO

Information on dietary adequacy is needed to assess food and nutrition security in a modern society, especially in the transition towards climate-friendly food systems. In this study, differences in the nutritional adequacy of diets among Finnish adults were evaluated in population groups of different education, income and urbanisation levels. The study used data from the FinDiet 2017 Survey (n = 1655, 18-74 years). Modelled usual intakes of foods and nutrients were evaluated relative to food-based dietary guidelines issued by the National Nutrition Council of Finland (FNNC) and with respect to nutrient adequacy following the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and FNNC. For about half of the nutrients studied, intakes were found to be adequate. Intakes of protein, fat, saturated fatty acids and salt were estimated to be high. By contrast, inadequate intakes were seen in folate and vitamins A, D, B1, B2 and C in almost all groups studied. Groups with a higher education and income, groups that lived in urban areas and, in particular, women adhered more closely to recommended food consumption and nutrient intakes than others. However, major challenges posed by the Finnish diet are common to all groups studied, and only certain dietary features evaluated in view of nutritional adequacy are associated with socioeconomic differences.


Assuntos
Dieta , Micronutrientes , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406005

RESUMO

In host organisms with normal micronutrient status, nutritional immunity is a strongly regulated response aiming at decreasing the progression and severity of infections. Zinc deficiency may disturb this balance, impairing immune responses to infections, which may indirectly increase infection-related anemia. Since zinc deficiency may associate directly with anemia, the role of infections is often overlooked. Herein, we investigated the participation of infections (or inflammation) in the causal pathway between zinc deficiency and anemia. This transversal study, conducted in 2015 in Bengo-Angola, enrolled 852 under-3-year-old children. Logistic regression models were used to investigate interaction and mediation effects, and significance was confirmed by the Sobel test. In sum, 6.8% of children had zinc deficiency, 45.9% had anemia, and 15.6% had at least one intestinal/urogenital parasite. Furthermore, we found (1) no evidence that inflammation mediates or interacts with zinc deficiency to cause anemia, and (2) zinc deficiency interacts with infections, significantly increasing the odds of anemia (OR: 13.26, p = 0.022). This interaction was stronger among children with iron deficiency anemia (OR: 46.66, p = 0.003). Our results suggest that zinc deficiency may impair the immune response to infections and/or that intestinal parasites could have developed mechanisms to avoid zinc-limited environments. Further studies are needed to corroborate these suggestions.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Desnutrição , Parasitos , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Angola , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Desnutrição/complicações , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Zinco
20.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406028

RESUMO

Ultraprocessed products (UPPs), associated with obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), are becoming predominant on the global market and a target for market-driven fortification initiatives. The aim of this article is to describe the implications of adding micronutrients to UPPs with excessive amounts of critical nutrients associated with NCDs and provide recommendations for legislation and policies. UPPs with added micronutrients such as breakfast cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, powder beverages, fruit juices, sauces, and bouillon cubes, among others, are commonly available and heavily promoted in Latin American countries. Misleading advertising of UPPs with added micronutrients and with excessive content of sugar, fat, and salt might increase the consumption of such products, giving them a "health halo effect" that leads consumers to overestimate their nutritional quality and healthfulness. Although international collections of standards such as the Codex Alimentarius provide some guidelines on this matter, countries need to implement national legislations, through a food systems approach, to regulate the marketing and labeling of UPPs. Lastly, there is still the need to foster research to close knowledge gaps and help countries to guide the process of food fortification strategies from a regulatory standpoint.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes , Bebidas , América Latina , Valor Nutritivo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...