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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) cause substantial mortality and morbidity. The present study reported and analysed the burden of LRIs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, etiology, and socio-demographic index (SDI). METHODS: The data used in this study were sourced from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019. The annual incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to LRIs were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 population, along with their 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). The average annual percent changes (AAPC) in the age-standardised incidence, death and DALYs rates were calculated using Joinpoint software and correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient) between the AAPCs and SDIs were calculated using Stata software. RESULTS: In 2019, there were 34.1 million (95% UI 31.7-36.8) incident cases of LRIs in MENA, with an age-standardised rate of 6510.2 (95% UI 6063.6-6997.8) per 100,000 population. The number of regional DALYs was 4.7 million (95% UI 3.9-5.4), with an age-standardised rate of 888.5 (95% UI 761.1-1019.9) per 100,000 population, which has decreased since 1990. Furthermore, Egypt [8150.8 (95% UI 7535.8-8783.5)] and Afghanistan [61.9 (95% UI 52.1-72.6)] had the highest age-standardised incidence and death rates, respectively. In 2019, the regional incidence and DALY rates were highest in the 1-4 age group, in both females and males. In terms of deaths, pneumococcus and H. influenza type B were the most and least common types of LRIs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the burden of LRIs generally decreased with increasing SDI. There were significant positive correlations between SDI and the AAPCs for the age-standardised incidence, death and DALY rates (p < 0.05). Over the 1990-2019 period, the regional incidence, deaths and DALYs attributable to LRIs decreased with AAPCs of - 1.19% (- 1.25 to - 1.13), - 2.47% (- 2.65 to - 2.28) and - 4.21% (- 4.43 to - 3.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The LRI-associated burden in the MENA region decreased between 1990 and 2019. SDI had a significant positive correlation with the AAPC and pneumococcus was the most common underlying cause of LRIs. Afghanistan, Yemen and Egypt had the largest burdens in 2019. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions and programs to control LRIs and their risk factors.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Infecções Respiratórias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Incidência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674375

RESUMO

As a great practice of building a community of shared future for mankind, the Belt and Road Initiative is facing geopolitical risk brought by great power games, regional conflicts and terrorism. It is an important mission of geopolitical research to scientifically deal with the geopolitical risk along the Belt and Road. This study systematically constructs the geopolitical risk assessment index system and analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution, obstacle factors and risk types of geopolitical risk of countries along the Belt and Road by using the entropy weight TOPSIS model, obstacle degree model and minimum variance method. The research results showed that: (1) From 2005 to 2020, the polarization of geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road was very significant, and the overall trend of geopolitical risk tended to deteriorate. (2) The Middle East and Eastern Europe were the most important geopolitical risk zones along the Belt and Road, and Afghanistan, Iraq, Russia and Ukraine were the main high geopolitical risk centers, with significant risk spillover effects from these centers. (3) Terrorism and close relations with the United States were the most important obstacle factors for geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road, and military intervention politics, trade dependence degree and foreign debt burden were important obstacle factors for geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road. (4) Geopolitical risk along the Belt and Road can be divided into sovereign risk dominant type, sovereign and military risk dominant type, sovereign and major power intervention risk dominant type, and sovereign and military and major power intervention risk jointly dominated type, among which sovereign and military and major power intervention risk jointly dominated type was the most important geopolitical risk type. In order to scientifically deal with geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road, it is necessary to strengthen geopolitical risk awareness, pay attention to the dominant geopolitical risk factors, strengthen the control of regional geopolitical risk spillover and formulate reasonable risk prevention and control scheme based on geopolitical risk types.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Afeganistão , China , Europa Oriental , Iraque , Oriente Médio , Ucrânia
3.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 29(2): 83-89, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597757

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia and Afghanistan were potentially exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter and other pollutants from multiple sources, including dust storms, burn pit emissions from open-air waste burning, local ambient air pollution, and a range of military service-related activities that can generate airborne exposures. These exposures, individually or in combination, can have adverse respiratory health effects. We review exposures and potential health impacts, providing a framework for evaluation. RECENT FINDINGS: Particulate matter exposures during deployment exceeded U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Epidemiologic studies and case series suggest that in postdeployment Veterans with respiratory symptoms, asthma is the most commonly diagnosed illness. Small airway abnormalities, most notably particularly constrictive bronchiolitis, have been reported in a small number of deployers, but many are left without an established diagnosis for their respiratory symptoms. The Promise to Address Comprehensive Toxics Act was enacted to provide care for conditions presumed to be related to deployment exposures. Rigorous study of long-term postdeployment health has been limited. SUMMARY: Veterans postdeployment to Southwest Asia and Afghanistan with respiratory symptoms should undergo an exposure assessment and comprehensive medical evaluation. If required, more advanced diagnostic considerations should be utilized in a setting that can provide multidisciplinary expertise and long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma , Militares , Humanos , Destacamento Militar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Oriente Médio
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 107, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a common disabling progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We aimed to report the prevalence, death and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to PD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and its 21 countries by age, sex and socio-demographic index (SDI), between 1990 and 2019. METHODS: Publicly available data on the burden of PD in the MENA countries were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 project. The results are presented with age-standardised numbers and rates per 100,000 population, along with their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). RESULTS: In 2019, PD had an age-standardised point prevalence of 82.6 per 100,000 population in MENA and an age-standardised death rate of 5.3, which have increased from 1990 to 2019 by 15.4% and 2.3%, respectively. In 2019, the age-standardised DALY rate of PD was 84.4, which was 0.9% higher than in 1990. The highest and lowest age-standardised DALY rates of PD in 2019 were found in Qatar and Kuwait, respectively. Also in 2019, the highest number of prevalent cases and number of DALYs were found in the 75-79 age group for both sexes. In 2019, females in MENA had an overall higher DALY rate. Furthermore, from 1990 to 2019 the burden of PD generally decreased with increasing socio-economic development, up to an SDI of around 0.4, and then increased with higher levels of SDI. CONCLUSION: An upward trend was observed in the point prevalence of PD over the last three decades. This highlights the need to allocate more resources for research. Furthermore, properly equipped healthcare services are needed for the increasing number of patients with PD.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Doença de Parkinson , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Prevalência , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Fatores de Risco , Incidência
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 3, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of conventional medical therapies has proven to have many setbacks and safety concerns that need further improvement. However, herbal medicine has been used for over 2000 years, and many studies have proven the use of herbs to be effective and safe. This article discussed the efficacy of different herbal products used in the management of obesity. To evaluate the efficacy of seven herbal-based weight loss products currently available on the Palestinian market, using in vitro assays to screen for antioxidants, anti-amylase, and anti-lipase effects for each product. METHOD: Pancreatic lipase and salivary amylase inhibitory activities, as well as antioxidant analysis, were tested in vitro on a variety of herbal products. Then the IC50 was measured for each test. RESULTS: The anti-lipase assay results, IC50 values in (µg/mL) of each of the seven products (Product A, product B, product C, product D, product E, product F, and product G) were 114.78, 532.1, 60.18, 53.33, 244.9, 38.9, and 48.97, respectively. The IC50 value for orlistat (Reference) was 12.3 µg/ml. On the other hand, the IC50 value for alpha amylase inhibition of the seven products (Product A, product B, product C, product D, product E, product F, and product F) were 345.93, 13,803.84 (Inactive), 73.79, 130.91, 165.95, 28.18, and 33.11 µg/ml respectively, while acarbose (Reference) was 23.38 µg/ml. The antioxidant activity (IC50 values) for the seven products (Product A, product B, product C, product D, product E, product F, and product F) were 1258.92, 707.94, 79.43, 186.20, 164.81, 17.53, and 10.47 µg/ml respectively. While the IC50 value for Trolox was 2.70 µg/ml. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the seven products showed varied anti-lipase, anti-amylase, and antioxidant effects. However, products F and G showed superiority in all categories.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais , alfa-Amilases/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Oriente Médio , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia
8.
Genome Med ; 15(1): 5, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare diseases collectively impose a significant burden on healthcare systems, especially in underserved regions, like the Middle East, which lack access to genomic diagnostic services and the associated personalized management plans. METHODS: We established a clinical genomics and genetic counseling facility, within a multidisciplinary tertiary pediatric center, in the United Arab Emirates to locally diagnose and manage patients with rare diseases. Clinical genomic investigations included exome-based sequencing, chromosomal microarrays, and/or targeted testing. We assessed the diagnostic yield and implications for clinical management among this population. Variables were compared using the Fisher exact test. Tests were 2-tailed, and P < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We present data on 1000 patients with rare diseases (46.2% females; average age, 4.6 years) representing 47 countries primarily from the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, Africa, and Asia. The cumulative diagnostic yield was 32.5% (95% CI, 29.7-35.5%) and was higher for genomic sequencing-based testing than chromosomal microarrays (37.9% versus 17.2%, P = 0.0001) across all indications, consistent with the higher burden of single gene disorders. Of the 221 Mendelian disorders identified in this cohort, the majority (N = 184) were encountered only once, and those with recessive inheritance accounted for ~ 62% of sequencing diagnoses. Of patients with positive genetic findings (N = 325), 67.7% were less than 5 years of age, and 60% were offered modified management and/or intervention plans. Interestingly, 24% of patients with positive genetic findings received delayed diagnoses (average age, 12.4 years; range 7-37 years), most likely due to a lack of access to genomic investigations in this region. One such genetic finding ended a 15-year-long diagnostic odyssey, leading to a life-threatening diagnosis in one patient, who was then successfully treated using an experimental allogenic bone marrow transplant. Finally, we present cases with candidate genes within regions of homozygosity, likely underlying novel recessive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Early access to genomic diagnostics for patients with suspected rare disorders in the Middle East is likely to improve clinical outcomes while driving gene discovery in this genetically underrepresented population.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Doenças Raras , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/terapia , Exoma , Genômica , Oriente Médio
9.
East Mediterr Health J ; 29(1): 49-56, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710614

RESUMO

Background: Hospital preparedness enables the healthcare delivery system to save lives during emergencies that surpass the day-to-day capacity of existing response systems. The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected all aspects of life worldwide, and in the Gaza Strip particularly. Aims: We assessed the preparedness of 2 hospitals in the Gaza Strip for response to COVID-19. Methods: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 nurses and physicians between July 2020 and October 2021 at the European Gaza Hospital and the Turkish-Palestinian Friendship Hospital, 2 hospitals dedicated to the reception and care of COVID-19 patients in the Gaza Strip. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire and a checklist. The data were analysed using SPSS, version 23. Frequencies and descriptive data were used to assess the variables. Inferential statistics such as ANOVA and t-test were used to determine the significance and differences between the variables. Cronbach's alpha was 0.903. Results: The majority of the participants were nurses (77.5%) and they showed a high level of knowledge and training regarding the response to COVID-19 pandemic (73.4 %). Their perception of the preparedness of their hospitals in terms of work environment and availability of resources was average (63.6%). Around 70% perceived COVID-19 to have had a negative effect on their personal lives and work. Conclusion: The preparedness level at the 2 hospitals was unsatisfactory (55.75%). Further research is recommended to assess the level of hospital preparedness from the viewpoint of other healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Hospitais
10.
Toxicon ; 223: 107009, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586490

RESUMO

Despite the wide distribution of the Persian false-horned viper (Pseudocerastes persicus) in the Middle East, few identified bites have been reported. A 33-year-old herpetologist bitten on the hand by Pseudocerastes persicus in Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran, developed local pain and extensive swelling with mild non-specific systemic symptoms and minimal laboratory evidence of systemic envenoming.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Viperidae , Animais , Humanos , Adulto , Irã (Geográfico) , Oriente Médio , Dor , Venenos de Víboras/toxicidade , Antivenenos
11.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(4): 755-761, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566394

RESUMO

Background: In the Middle East, where most of the higher learning institutions still focus on the teacher-centred approach, implementation of this pedagogical model is an enormous task for educators. This study was designed to assess the role that the flipped classroom modality plays in the knowledge retention of medical students with a background in traditional methods of teaching and learning. Methods: This study employed a mixed study design among a sample of 3rd year medical students (n=193) in the neurosciences course block. The students were divided into two groups: experimental and control. A post-test, a questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews as research instruments were used to collect data in this study. Results: The results revealed a significant mean difference between the post-test scores in traditional (4.1±0.98) and flipped classroom (3.6±1.03) with a p-value=0.01, while no mean difference was found between male and female students (3.9±1.04, 3.9±1.02, p-value=0.77). The students appreciated the flipped classroom modality that helped with information sharing, interaction with peers and learning from others' experiences. Correspondingly, the four main characteristics of flipped classroom emerged from the thematic analysis: (1) positive perceptions of the flipped classroom, (2) challenges of the flipped classroom, (3) the effects of personal characteristics, and (4) lack of administration support. Conclusion: The performance of students was better in the traditional class than in the flipped classroom, particularly in the cognitive areas that deal with the interpretation and application of knowledge. The students taking responsibility for their own learning in this new modality and the short duration of the study might have had some influence on the study results. Future in-depth studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Currículo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Oriente Médio , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(12): 863-871, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573566

RESUMO

Background: Multiple sclerosis is a complex and intractable neurological disease associated with substantial morbidity, healthcare utilization, management cost, and loss of productivity. There has been an alarming increase in the number of multiple sclerosis cases in Arab countries in recent years, which has spurred an increase in local research. Aims: To analyse the multiple sclerosis research profile in Arab countries. Methods: A total of 781 publications focusing on multiple sclerosis research in Arab countries from 1983 to 2021 were extracted from the Web of Science database and analysed using bibliometric techniques. Results: Publication on multiple sclerosis research increased sharply in the last decade, globally and in the Arab countries. However, Arab countries have only contributed 0.8% of the overall number of publications. Keyword pattern analysis showed that magnetic resonance imaging, optical coherence tomography, expanded disability status, demyelination, and epidemiology were the major themes of multiple sclerosis research in Arab countries. Case-control, cohort, and descriptive studies were the most prevalent study designs. However, there was a notable paucity of meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and clinical trials. Conclusion: Arab countries can improve their regional expertise and add a wealth of knowledge to global multiple sclerosis resources by diversifying their current research initiatives, and tracking recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Árabes , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Bibliometria
13.
Reumatismo ; 74(3)2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580063

RESUMO

Rheumatology is a field in which diagnostic, pathophysiological, and therapeutic advancements occur daily. These developments are the result of research in basic sciences, translational sciences, and clinical sciences. Physical and financial support, provided by individuals and institutions, is essential for all types of research. The political and economic instability in the Arab world has impacted the advancement of healthcare and the output of research. This review seeks to evaluate the quantity and quality of rheumatology-related research conducted in the Arab world. This review examined the number of rheumatological clinical publications produced by Arab countries between 2017 and 2021 and cited by PubMed/MEDLINE. Publications with authors from multiple nations were disqualified. Publications were then categorized by type, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, narrative reviews, and case reports. Publications were also organized according to the regions of the Arab world: North and East Africa, the Middle East, and the Arabian Peninsula. The review also used data from the world bank to evaluate the gross domestic product (GDP) and total population of Arabian nations in order to calculate a ratio of publications to GDP and publications to population. Egypt had the highest number of publications among north and east African countries and Arab countries in general, with 261 publications, including the highest number of RCTs, which were 23. With 81 publications, Saudi Arabia had the highest number of publications on the Arabian peninsula. However, no individual country on the Arabian peninsula published an RCT. Lebanon had the most publications in the Middle East, but the majority were reviews and case reports. Tunisia had the highest ratio of publications to GDP. Notably, the number of publications increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 era in some countries. The Arab world is still able to produce clinical rheumatology publications despite its political instability and lack of resources. The influence of such publications on the daily practice of rheumatology is still debatable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reumatologia , Humanos , Mundo Árabe , Bibliometria , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
14.
Med (N Y) ; 3(12): 813-814, 2022 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495859

RESUMO

To understand disease, scientists are producing comprehensive omics datasets. However, the majority of these are Eurocentric. Recently, the inclusion of patients from Asia and the Middle East in genomic analyses uncovered unique loci linked to COVID-19 severity. This demonstrates that focusing on diversity and underrepresented populations can benefit all.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genômica , Viés , Ásia , Oriente Médio
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 847, 2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotics among students studying medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy at the Near East University in Northern Cyprus. The influence of personality characteristics on antibiotic use were also evaluated, in order to identify predictors of antibiotic misuse. METHODS: Students were enrolled in the study during the 2020-2021 academic year. Study participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire that measured their knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) towards antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. The KAP of students from the three faculties were compared using Kruskall-Wallis H statistics, Mann-Whitney U statistics, and Spearman's rho. The influence of personality traits on the propensity to use antibiotics without a prescription, as well as their attitudes and knowledge of antibiotic use and misuse, were also investigated. RESULTS: In total, 314 students completed the survey, 52% of which were female. The mean age of the students was 20.5 years. The results showed that among the different disciplines, medical students were significantly more knowledgeable about pharmacological agents, compared to dentistry and pharmacy students, while pharmacy students were more knowledgeable about the effectiveness of antibiotics against different pathogenic microorganisms. All student groups were aware of how antibiotic resistance develops and their role as healthcare personnel in implementing measures against resistance. Appropriate antibiotic use among the student community correlated with study year, highlighting the importance of knowledge and education in the prevention of antibiotic resistance. Personality traits were found to be a contributing factor in students' tendency to use antibiotics without a prescription. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the importance of conveying knowledge about antimicrobials in the education programmes of future dentists, pharmacists and physicians.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Universidades , Chipre , Oriente Médio
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 233, 2022 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574077

RESUMO

The plastic waste (PW) makes up the second largest portion of the total solid waste generated in Palestine. Hence, it is important to consider proper PW management mainly through recovery and recycling and implement appropriate strategies. This study aims to identify and evaluate the social, legal, technological, environmental, and economic strategies that can positively motivate plastic manufacturing and/or recycling companies to recover and recycle PW. A structured questionnaire was developed to address 30 plastic companies in the West Bank. The results indicate that 80% of the companies supported the social strategies that implement community awareness programs. Almost 92% of the companies agreed with legal strategies which enforce legislations to support PW recovery and recycling practices. As for technological strategies, 76% of the companies endorsed the application of modern technologies for PW management. However, only 68% of the companies accepted the environmental strategies which promote life cycle assessment and environmental awareness programs and adopted the use of recycled plastic materials in manufacturing from the context of the economic and market strategies. Palestinians are invited to implement PW recovery and recycling practices to better utilize available resources, achieve sustainable management of solid waste, and promote environmental health.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Plásticos , Árabes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Reciclagem/métodos , Oriente Médio
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has not been a review that evaluated the prevalence of multimorbidity in the Middle East. This review aims to measure the prevalence, demographic factors, and consequences of multimorbidity in the Middle East region. STUDY DESIGN: A quantitative systematic review includes cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies. METHODS: The prevalence systematic review approach from the Joanna Briggs Institute was applied. We searched PsychINFO, MEDLINE, EMCARE, CINAHL, Scopus, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Data were extracted methodically in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Studies written in English and released between 2012 and March 2022 were included. For the meta-analysis, a random-effects model was applied. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42022335534. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of eight cohort and observational studies. The number of participants varied from 354 to 796,427. Multimorbidity was present in all populations with a prevalence of 21.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.7-21.8%). CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity affects a significant section of the world's population. A uniform operationalization of multimorbidity is required in the Middle East in order to enable reliable estimates of illness burden, effective disease management, and resource distribution.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
18.
Bull Hist Med ; 96(3): 330-338, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571185

RESUMO

This themed section contributes to efforts to conceptualize medical mobility. It does so by observing medical histories within the Middle East while following concrete movements. This focus on what moves and how, rather than on largely static and fixed units of analysis on where to, is central to the studies in this issue. The location of the Middle East, as a crossroad for imperial mobilities-is ideal for exploring transnational medical movements. Bringing together historians of the Middle East and North Africa, the articles explore intersections among medicine, health, and the body and histories of cross-regional mobility. This section spans the period from the early twentieth century to the 1970s. The articles are based on primary sources in Greek, Turkish, English, French, Spanish, and Arabic, located in the national archives of the UK, Israel, and Cyprus; in French diplomatic and military archives; and in the Overseas Nursing Association's publications.


Assuntos
Medicina , África do Norte , Oriente Médio , Medicina/tendências
19.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 319, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. The present study reported the burden of COPD, and its attributable risk factors, in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex and socio-demographic index (SDI). METHODS: Data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study were used to report the burden of COPD in the MENA countries. The prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 population, with their associated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). RESULTS: In 2019, the regional age-standardised point prevalence and rates of death due to COPD were 2333.9 (2230.1, 2443.6) and 26.1 (22.2, 29.5) per 100,000, which represent a 30.6% (28.2%, 33.0%) increase and an 18.0% (2.8%, 30.9%) decrease, respectively, since 1990. The regional age-standardised DALY rate in 2019 was 649.1 (574.6, 717.7) per 100,000, which had decreased by 11.8% (0.9%, 21.1%) since 1990. Turkey had the highest age-standardised point prevalence in 2019 [3287.1 (3187.4, 3380.3)], while Afghanistan had the highest age-standardised death [40.4 (24.2, 52.6)] and DALY [964.5 (681.8, 1203.2)] rates. The regional age-standardised point prevalence, death and DALY rates in 2019 increased with advancing age and were higher in males in almost all age groups. There was a U-shaped association between SDI and the burden of COPD over the period 1990 to 2019. Moreover, in 2019 smoking (43.7%), ambient particulate matter pollution (22.8%) and occupational particulate matter (11.4%) had the largest proportion of attributable DALYs for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: COPD is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the MENA region, although the age-standardised burden has decreased over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, COPD accounted for a substantial number of deaths and DALYs, especially among the elderly. Programs targeting risk factors, like smoking, should be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Material Particulado , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia
20.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 129(6): 346-355, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319737

RESUMO

Cat domestication likely initiated as a symbiotic relationship between wildcats (Felis silvestris subspecies) and the peoples of developing agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent. As humans transitioned from hunter-gatherers to farmers ~12,000 years ago, bold wildcats likely capitalized on increased prey density (i.e., rodents). Humans benefited from the cats' predation on these vermin. To refine the site(s) of cat domestication, over 1000 random-bred cats of primarily Eurasian descent were genotyped for single-nucleotide variants and short tandem repeats. The overall cat population structure suggested a single worldwide population with significant isolation by the distance of peripheral subpopulations. The cat population heterozygosity decreased as genetic distance from the proposed cat progenitor's (F.s. lybica) natural habitat increased. Domestic cat origins are focused in the eastern Mediterranean Basin, spreading to nearby islands, and southernly via the Levantine coast into the Nile Valley. Cat population diversity supports the migration patterns of humans and other symbiotic species.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Gatos/genética , Genótipo , Oriente Médio
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