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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360701

RESUMO

Artisanal and small-scale mining is characterized by an excessive exposure to silica-containing dust, overcrowding, poor living conditions and limited access to primary health services. This poses a risk to tuberculosis, HIV infection and silicosis. The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the burden of tuberculosis, HIV and silicosis among artisanal and small-scale miners. We conducted a cross sectional study on 3821 artisanal and small-scale miners. We found a high burden of silicosis (19%), tuberculosis (6.8%) and HIV (18%) in a relatively young population, with the mean age of 35.5 years. Men were 1.8 times more likely to be diagnosed with silicosis compared to women, adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.02-2.74)]. Artisanal and small-scale miners who were living with HIV were 1.25 times more likely to be diagnosed with silicosis compared to those who were negative, [aPR = 1.25 (1.00-1.57)]. The risk of silicosis increased with both duration as a miner and severity of exposure to silica dust. The risk of tuberculosis increased with the duration as a miner. Zimbabwe is currently experiencing a high burden of TB, silicosis and HIV among artisanal and small-scale miners. Multi-sectoral and innovative interventions are required to stem this triple epidemic in Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Silicose , Tuberculose , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Zimbábue/epidemiologia , Ouro , Silicose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Poeira , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , HIV , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that coal miners in China have higher levels of perceived job stress. However, few studies have investigated the work stress structure of coal miners. OBJECTIVE: Our study focused on the work stress of coal miners in China, with a primary aim to determine the work stress structure of coal miners in China using a mixed-methods approach. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were performed with thirty-three people (team leaders and frontline coal miners) conducted with participants from various state-owned large- and medium-sized coal mines in China. Grounded theory was used to construct an initial model for the concept of coal miners' work stress. Using the results of this initial survey and findings in the existing literature, we then constructed a preliminary questionnaire regarding coal miners' work stress and administered the questionnaire to 900 coal miners in the Shaanxi, Henan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu provinces. RESULTS: The results show that the work stress structure for coal miners differs from that for other occupational types in China, due to differences in the Chinese culture and foreign cultural influences. We revised our questionnaire based on these considerations and administered a new survey to the frontline production workers in coal mines. The preliminary questionnaires were revised and analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, resulting in a final formal model for work stress, which was supported by content and structural validity. CONCLUSION: In this research, we used the framework of grounded theory to conduct an empirical analysis of the structure model of coal miners' work stress. The findings support that the primary work stress factors of Chinese coal miners included the stress of the work environment, job responsibility, interpersonal relationships, career development, the family environment, and organizational systems. Coal enterprises should therefore always take these factors into consideration when developing and implementing safety management policies aimed at to improve the occupational health status of coal miners.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Carvão Mineral , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , China
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361232

RESUMO

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is often associated with no or compromised attention to health and safety. Although headlines of fatal accidents in Zimbabwe characterise ASGM, little attention is paid to prevention strategies. This study, therefore, explores health and safety risk mitigation in ASGM in Zimbabwe to inform prevention strategies. A qualitative design was used with focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis, coding, and descriptive statistics. Reported factors contributing to compromised health and safety included immediate causes, workplace factors, ASM related factors, and contextual factors, with interconnectedness between the causal factors. In addition, factors related to ASGM were significant. For risk mitigation, formalisation, organisation of risk reduction, behaviour change, and enforcement of prevention strategies is proposed. A multi-causal analysis is recommended for risk assessment and accident investigation. A multi-stakeholder approach could be considered for risk mitigation including community and public health interventions. However, risk mitigation has been characterised by gaps and weaknesses such as lacking ASM policy, lack of capital, poor enforcement, negative perceptions, and non-compliance. Therefore, we recommend addressing the threats associated with health and safety mitigation to ensure health and safety protection in ASGM.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Mineradores , Humanos , Ouro , Zimbábue , Mineração , Local de Trabalho , Mercúrio/análise
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231870

RESUMO

This article examines the impact of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) on livelihood in mining communities in Rwanda (Rutsiro) where wolframite and coltan are mined. The paper discusses the development of ASM and other entrepreneur activities, in particular agriculture. With ASM activities, there is environmental degradation on the one hand but also an improvement in the well-being of the local population on the other. The 3T (tin, tungsten, tantalum) minerals extracted by ASM are used in the electronics industry for products such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops, which are mainly consumed in the developed world. Based on questionnaires and structured research with miners, it was determined how ASM affects their lives, or whether there is a deterioration or improvement in their well-being. The research builds on previous field research in Rwanda. Because of mining, communities in the mining areas have access to health care, they can pay tuition fees, insurance, etc. On the other hand, the lives of miners are endangered by respiratory diseases, accidents in mines, landslides in mining areas, and other negative environmental impacts. The extraction of these minerals, however, may lead to a worse quality of life for the miners responsible for the extraction in developing countries. This different view is also illustrated by the fact that miners themselves often do not know what 3T minerals are used for. ASM benefits miners from an economic perspective but may worsen their quality of life due to unsuitable working conditions. This study covers a broader understanding of socioeconomic impacts of ASM and tries to point out the lack of awareness about the mining of minerals important for the daily use of modern technologies. This article would like to contribute to the larger debate about the lack of awareness of the origin of 3T minerals.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Ouro , Minerais , Qualidade de Vida , Ruanda , Tantálio , Estanho , Tungstênio
5.
Am J Ind Med ; 65(12): 953-958, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pneumoconiosis among working United States underground coal miners has been increasing for the past two decades, with the highest rates of disease observed among miners in the central Appalachian states of Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. Surveillance for this disease in the United States focuses on working coal miners, who continue to be occupationally exposed to dust. This study examines the radiographic evidence for postexposure progression of pneumoconiosis in a population of former coal miners no longer occupationally exposed to coal mine dust who were seen at a community radiology clinic in eastern Kentucky. METHODS: Data were obtained and analyzed from clinical records of former coal miners who had a clinic encounter during January 1, 2017-August 1, 2019, a recorded final year of employment, and ≥2 postemployment digital chest radiographs. Radiographs were classified according to the International Labour Office guidelines by at least two B Readers. A final summary pneumoconiosis severity score (range, 0-13), accounting for both small and large opacities, was assigned to each chest radiograph. Progression was defined as an increase in severity score between a miner's radiographs over time. RESULTS: Data for 130 former coal miners were analyzed. All miners were male and most (n = 114, 88%) had worked primarily in Kentucky. Information on race/ethnicity was not available. The most common job types were roof bolters (n = 51, 39%) and continuous miner operators (n = 46, 35%). Forty-one (31.5%) miners had evidence of radiographic disease progression after leaving the workforce, with a median of 3.6 years between first and latest postretirement radiograph. A total of 80 (62%) miners had evidence of pneumoconiosis on their latest radiograph, and two-thirds (n = 53) of these were classified as progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), the most severe form of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Postexposure progression can occur in former coal miners, emphasizing the potential benefits of continued radiographic follow-up postemployment. In addition to participating in disease screening throughout their careers to detect pneumoconiosis early and facilitate intervention, radiographic follow-up of former coal miners can identify new or progressive radiographic findings even after workplace exposure to respirable coal mine dust ends. Identification of progressive pneumoconiosis in former miners has potential implications for clinical management and eligibility for disability compensation.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Pneumoconiose , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Pneumoconiose/etiologia , Poeira , Carvão Mineral
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078476

RESUMO

The unsafe behavior of miners seriously affects the safety of deep mining. A comprehensive evaluation of miners' unsafe behavior in deep coal mines can prevent coal mine accidents. This study combines HFACS-CM, SEM, and SD models to evaluate miners' unsafe behaviors in deep coal mining. First, the HFACS-CM model identifies the risk factors affecting miners' unsafe behavior in deep coal mines. Second, SEM was used to analyze the interaction between risk factors and miners' unsafe behavior. Finally, the SD model was used to simulate the sensitivity of each risk factor to miners' unsafe behavior to explore the best prevention and control strategies for unsafe behavior. The results showed that (1) environmental factors, organizational influence, unsafe supervision, and unsafe state of miners are the four main risk factors affecting the unsafe behavior of miners in deep coal mines. Among them, the unsafe state of miners is the most critical risk factor. (2) Environmental factors, organizational influence, unsafe supervision, and the unsafe state of miners have both direct and indirect impacts on unsafe behaviors, and their immediate effects are far more significant than their indirect influence. (3) Environmental factors, organizational influence, and unsafe supervision positively impact miners' unsafe behavior through the mediating effect of miners' unsafe states. (4) Mental state, physiological state, business abilities, resource management, and organizational climate were the top five risk factors affecting miners' unsafe behaviors. Taking measures to improve the adverse environmental factors, strengthening the organization's supervision and management, and improving the unsafe state of miners can effectively reduce the risk of miners' unsafe behavior in deep coal mines. This study provides a new idea and method for preventing and controlling the unsafe behavior of miners in deep coal mines.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142064

RESUMO

As a high-risk industry that is always struggling with unsafe factors, coal mine enterprises must prioritize safety in their operation and management, but there are still some short-sighted coal mine managers who choose to leave safety behind in the desperate pursuit of financial benefits, resulting in coal mine accidents from time to time. Unfortunately, this leadership style, known as leader bottom-line mentality, has not yet received sufficient attention in the safety field. Based on dual-system theory, this study aimed to explore the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and safety consciousness between leader bottom-line mentality and miners' safety behavior, as well as the moderating role of Chinese traditionality. Using a sample of 422 frontline miners in China, the results of the data analysis showed that emotional exhaustion and safety consciousness played parallel mediating roles between leader bottom-line mentality and miners' safety behavior, and Chinese traditionality moderated the effect of leader bottom-line mentality: the higher the Chinese traditionality, the weaker the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion and the stronger the mediating effect of safety consciousness. Present research explains the mechanisms and boundaries of the influence of leader bottom-line mentality on miners' safety behavior, contributing to the emerging literature on safety management and bottom-line mentality.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Carvão Mineral , Emprego , Humanos , Mineradores/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16375, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180557

RESUMO

Miners' unsafe behavior is the main cause of accidents in coal mines, and unsafe state have an important influence on unsafe behavior among miners. To minimize accidents from the source of accident chain, we evaluated the impact of workload on miners' unsafe state. It is important for coal enterprises to monitor miners' unsafe state and to prevent unsafe accidents. Workload is divided into two dimensions: work time and work demand. Meanwhile, we introduced job satisfaction as a moderating variable. Through empirical research methods, first-line employees from two coal mines in China were enrolled in the questionnaire survey. Regression analysis was used to verify the impact of workload and its various dimensions, job satisfaction, and miners' unsafe state. We found that workload, work time and work demand have significant positive effects on miners' unsafe state. Job satisfaction plays a moderating effect in the relationship between workload and miners' unsafe state. To some extent, a higher job satisfaction was associated with reduced workload, reduced occurrence of miners' unsafe state and minimal incidences of unsafe accidents. On this basis, measures were proposed to improve miners' unsafe state in terms of workload and job satisfaction. This study informs the establishment of effective intervention measures to monitor miners' unsafe state and is also beneficial to the improvement of coal mine safety.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Carga de Trabalho
9.
Health Promot Int ; 37(4)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000529

RESUMO

Malaria is endemic in French Guiana, in particular, where illegal gold mining activities take place. Gold miners travel from Brazil to remote camps in the Guiana forest to carry out mining activities, exposing themselves to the presumed contamination area. This article presents the results of a qualitative case study of the Malakit project, an intervention where health facilitators offer appropriate training and distribution of self-diagnosis and self-treatment kits to manage an episode of malaria at resting sites on the French Guiana borders. The objectives were: (i) Determine the contextual elements influencing the use of Malakit; (ii) Understand the way gold miners perceive Malakit; (iii) Identify the elements that are favorable and unfavorable to the use of Malakit; (iv4) Identify what can be improved in the project. The data were collected using three methods: on-site observation, semi-structured individual interviews (n = 26), and group interviews (n = 2). The results indicate that Malakit responds to the need for treatment and facilitates access to care. Gold miners say they trust the facilitators and receive accurate explanations, the kit is easy to use and carry, and explanations given are sufficient. Nonetheless, the results lead us to believe that contextual elements influence exposure to numerous risk factors and that malaria among gold miners working illegally in French Guiana is a question of social inequalities in health. Thus, malaria intervention practices such as Malakit cannot be carried out without considering the complexity generated by social inequalities in health.


Assuntos
Malária , Mineradores , Ouro , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mineração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 2): 114035, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932835

RESUMO

Coal miners on the fringes of cities are often exposed to respirable dust hazards. Spray is one of the most effective dust reduction measures. When studying the coupling and collision behavior of droplets and dust particles, it is helpful to optimize the parameter range of the droplets to capture dust particles at the mesoscopic level, to determine the effect of the spray field on the dust particles at the macroscopic level. In this study, the volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to track the interface of multiphase flow. A numerical simulation of 13 working conditions was carried out using the control variable method. Based on the numerical simulation results, we obtained the optimal parameter range for dust to be encapsulated by droplets. To confirm the reliability of the simulation, we independently developed an experimental system and conducted experiments. The simulation results obtained were measured using the experimental system, and an optimal droplet parameter range of 7 µm to settle dust in a coal mining face was determined. Numerical simulation using a mesoscopic method to study dust-spray coupling produced reliable results, which can be used in the practical application of spray dust reduction and has wider relevance for practical engineering.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Carvão Mineral/análise , Minas de Carvão/métodos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907157, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910918

RESUMO

Inhalation studies involving laboratory rats exposed to poorly soluble particles (PSLTs), such as carbon black and titanium dioxide, among others, have led to the development of lung cancer in conditions characterized as lung overload. Lung overload has been described as a physiological state in which pulmonary clearance is impaired, particles are not effectively removed from the lungs and chronic inflammation develops, ultimately leading to tumor growth. Since lung tumors have not occurred under similar states of lung overload in other laboratory animal species, such as mice, hamsters and guinea pigs, the relevance of the rat as a model for human risk assessment has presented regulatory challenges. It has been suggested that coal workers' pneumoconiosis may reflect a human example of apparent "lung overload" of poorly soluble particles. In turn, studies of risk of lung cancer in coal miners may offer a valuable perspective for understanding the significance of rat inhalation studies of PSLTs on humans. This report addresses whether coal can be considered a PSLT based on its composition in contrast to carbon black and titanium dioxide. We also review cohort mortality studies and case-control studies of coal workers. We conclude that coal differs substantially from carbon black and titanium dioxide in its structure and composition. Carbon black, a manufactured product, is virtually pure carbon (upwards of 98%); TiO2 is also a manufactured product. Coal contains carcinogens such as crystalline silica, beryllium, cadmium and iron, among others; in addition, coal mining activities tend to occur in the presence of operating machinery in which diesel exhaust particles, a Type I Human carcinogen, may be present in the occupational environment. As a result of its composition and the environment in which coal mining occurs, it is scientifically inappropriate to consider coal a PSLT. Despite coal not being similar to carbon black or TiO2, through the use of a weight of evidence approach-considered the preferred method when evaluating disparate studies to assess risk- studies of coal-mine workers do not indicate a consistent increase in lung cancer risk. Slight elevations in SMR cannot lead to a reliable conclusion about an increased risk due to limitations in exposure assessment and control of inherent biases in case-control studies, most notably confounding and recall bias. In conclusion, the weight of the scientific literature suggests that coal mine dust is not a PSLT, and it does not increase lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mineradores , Animais , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Cricetinae , Poeira , Cobaias , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Fuligem/toxicidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954527

RESUMO

The dark and humid environment of underground coal mines had a detrimental effect on workers' skeletal health. Optimal risk prediction models can protect the skeletal health of coal miners by identifying those at risk of abnormal bone density as early as possible. A total of 3695 male underground workers who attended occupational health physical examination in a coal mine in Hebei, China, from July to August 2018 were included in this study. The predictor variables were identified through single-factor analysis and literature review. Three prediction models, Logistic Regression, CNN and XG Boost, were developed to evaluate the prediction performance. The training set results showed that the sensitivity of Logistic Regression, XG Boost and CNN models was 74.687, 82.058, 70.620, the specificity was 80.986, 89.448, 91.866, the F1 scores was 0.618, 0.919, 0.740, the Brier scores was 0.153, 0.040, 0.156, and the Calibration-in-the-large was 0.104, 0.020, 0.076, respectively, XG Boost outperformed the other two models. Similar results were obtained for the test set and validation set. A two-by-two comparison of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the three models showed that the XG Boost model had the best prediction performance. The XG Boost model had a high application value and outperformed the CNN and Logistic regression models in prediction.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011876

RESUMO

The health and safety of the miners in the South African mining industry are guided by the regulations and standards applied to promote a healthy work environment. The miners must comply with these regulations/standards to protect themselves from potential occupational health and safety risks, accidents, and fatalities. The status of compliance to safety regulations and standards in the mining industry of Limpopo Province has received little attention from scholars. This study explores the practices related to occupational health and safety standards compliance in the mining industry. A total of 277 miners were randomly selected from 1300 respondents in the mining industry. Data were collected using a 31-item survey questionnaire, administered to miners to explore occupational health and safety standards compliance from December 2019 to May 2020. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) extracted key attributes of occupational health and safety standards compliance in the mining industry and uncovered relationships between different dimensions. The study revealed that seven factors could measure occupational health and safety standards practices. It was observed that Factor 1 (occupational health practice related to regulations) is correlated with Factor 2 (measures to reduce risk of injuries/accidents). Additionally, Factor 2 (measures to minimise the risk of injuries/accidents) is correlated with Factor 4 (impact of the environment and production). There is a correlation between non-compliance with the safety regulations and the occurrence of injuries and accidents.


Assuntos
Mineradores , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , África do Sul , Local de Trabalho
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(59): 88690-88698, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836046

RESUMO

Global prevalence trend and regional differences of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) remain unclear. This study aimed to provide systematic and comprehensive evidence for the global prevalence of CWP. Literature research for studies that reported prevalence of CWP was conducted in PubMed, CNKI, and Web of Science. The identified studies were strictly screened according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of CWP in different periods and regions was calculated. A total of 37 studies were included after screening, and data from the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program was additionally included in the meta-analysis. The global pooled prevalence of CWP decreased from 23.33% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.03%, 28.62%) before 1970 to 6.00% (95% CI: 4.11%, 7.90%) in 1981-1990, but indicated a rebound (10.35%, 95% CI: 8.08%, 12.62%) in 1991-2000 and finally dropped to 2.29% (95% CI: 2.06%, 2.51%) in 2011-2020. In the recent 30 years, the top three pooled prevalence of CWP was found in Europe, China, and the USA, respectively. Few articles have reported the prevalence in developing regions, but available evidence indicated that the prevalence in developing regions was much higher than that in developed regions. Higher pooled prevalence was observed in studies which reported larger number of miners in collieries, older average age of miners, underground collieries, and longer dust exposure time. The global prevalence of CWP indicates a rebound in 1990s, but the overall trend is downward in the recent 60 years. The prevention and treatment of CWP should be currently emphasized in developing countries.


Assuntos
Antracose , Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Humanos , Prevalência , Antracose/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808527

RESUMO

Blockchain has become one of the key techniques for the security of the industrial internet. However, the blockchain is vulnerable to FAW (Fork after Withholding) attacks. To protect the industrial internet from FAW attacks, this paper proposes a novel FAW attack protection algorithm (FAWPA) based on the behavior of blockchain miners. Firstly, FAWPA performs miner data preprocessing based on the behavior of the miners. Then, FAWPA proposes a behavioral reward and punishment mechanism and a credit scoring model to obtain cumulative credit value with the processed data. Moreover, we propose a miner's credit classification mechanism based on fuzzy C-means (FCM), which combines the improved Aquila optimizer (AO) with strong solving ability. That is, FAWPA combines the miner's accumulated credit value and multiple attack features as the basis for classification, and optimizes cluster center selection by simulating Aquila's predation behavior. It can improve the solution update mechanism in different optimization stages. FAWPA can realize the rapid classification of miners' credit levels by improving the speed of identifying malicious miners. To evaluate the protective effect of the target mining pool, FAWPA finally establishes a mining pool and miner revenue model under FAW attack. The simulation results show that FAWPA can thoroughly and efficiently detect malicious miners in the target mining pool. FAWPA also improves the recall rate and precision rate of malicious miner detection, and it improves the cumulative revenue of the target mining pool. The proposed algorithm performs better than ND, RSCM, AWRS, and ICRDS.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Mineradores , Algoritmos , Humanos , Mineração
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that long work hours and overtime are associated with health impairment, including stress, burnout, and overall health. However, this has not been thoroughly assessed among stone, sand, and gravel mine workers. As such, this study examined whether significant differences in stress, burnout, and overall health existed among workers that worked different hours each week. METHODS: ANOVA analyses were completed for the outcome variables (stress, burnout, and health status). Each analysis included three categorical independent variables: age, sex, and work hours. Age and sex were control variables. BMI was added to the health status analysis as an additional control variable. RESULTS: There were significant differences between work hour groups for all three outcomes. Post hoc analyses determined that workers working >60 h/week had more stress, more burnout, and lower health. Differences were not found between age or sex. There were no differences in health status for different BMI groups, but the interaction of BMI and work hours was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Working more than 60 h per week was problematic. Mine and safety administrators should enact programs to protect and promote worker health, particularly among those working long hours, especially if more than 60 h per week.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Mineradores , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Areia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886514

RESUMO

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) employs 14-19 million people globally. There is limited research on accidents, injuries, and safety in Zimbabwe's ASGM. This study investigates the prevalence of accidents and injuries, as well as the associated risks and existing safety practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among artisanal and small-scale gold miners. Data from 401 participants were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The prevalence of accidents and injuries was 35.0% and 25.7%. Accidents associated with experiencing injuries included mine collapses and underground trappings. The major injury risk factors were digging, blasting, being male, being 18-35 years old, crushing, and the underground transportation of workers and materials. Injuries were reported highest among the miners working 16 to 24 h per day. Participants had heard about personal protective equipment (PPE). There was training and routine inspections mainly on PPE use. Mine owners and supervisors were reported as responsible for OSH, which was mainly PPE use. Practices including the use of wire winch ropes and escape routes were rare. There was ignorance on underground mine shaft support. The mining regulations that had the potential to introduce comprehensive safety controls were not adaptable. We recommend applicable health and safety regulations for Zimbabwe's ASGM.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Mineradores , Acidentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11902, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831380

RESUMO

Mental fatigue increases risk-taking behavior. Using data collected between June 15 and August 6, 2020, this study investigates the impact of miners' mental fatigue on risk decision-making to improve risk prevention and prediction abilities, and to reduce the occurrence of coal mine safety accidents. A total of 273 and 33 people participated in the preliminary and formal experiments, respectively. The participants, coal miners, visited a lab thrice to complete the pre-experiment, Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). On the BART, mental fatigue displayed a significantly positive association with risk preference. On the IGT, as mental fatigue increased, net scores continuously decreased, while the frequency of making unfavorable decisions and the probability of taking risks increased. The BART value had no or weak correlations with the net score. Results suggest that mental fatigue leads to an increasing propensity to take risks. Therefore, regarding coal mine safety management, further attention is necessary concerning miners' mental health, addressing mental fatigue, increasing rest time, and reducing night work. Furthermore, reasonable diet, improved working environments, and a positive attitude toward work should be promoted to reduce or eliminate mental fatigue and avoid decision-making errors that could cause accidents.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Jogo de Azar , Mineradores , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Fadiga Mental , Gestão da Segurança
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886146

RESUMO

(1) Background: While previous studies revealed how underground mining might adversely affect the cardiopulmonary functions of workers, this study further investigated the differences between under- and aboveground mining at both high and low altitudes, which has received little attention in the literature. (2) Methods: Seventy-one healthy male coal mine workers were recruited, who had worked at least 5 years at the mining sites located above the ground at high (>3900 m; n = 19) and low (<120 m; n = 16) altitudes as well as under the ground at high (n = 20) and low (n = 16) altitudes. Participants' heart rates, pulmonary functions, total energy expenditure and metabolism were measured over a 5-consecutive-day session at health clinics. (3) Results: Combining the results for both above- and underground locations, workers at high-altitude mining sites had significantly higher peak heart rate (HR), minimum average HR and training impulse as well as energy expenditure due to all substances and due to fat than those at low-altitude sites. They also had significantly higher uric acid, total cholesterol, creatine kinase and N-osteocalcin in their blood samples than the workers at low-altitude mining sites. At underground worksites, the participants working at high-altitude had a significantly higher average respiratory rate than those at low-altitude regions. (4) Conclusion: In addition to underground mining, attention should be paid to high-altitude mining as working under a hypoxia condition at such altitude likely presents physiological challenges.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Exposição Ocupacional , Altitude , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Masculino , Local de Trabalho
20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 400-409, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375644

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Due to the growing concern about work-related social and health aspects, occupational health and safety has become relevant. Objective: This work aims to develop a model to assist cardiovascular risk management in a team of haul truck operators, who work in rotating shifts at a mining company in Brazil. Methods: This longitudinal study evaluated risk factors for cardiovascular diseases of 191 mineworkers at three times points - 2010, 2012, and 2015. In addition, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases was calculated, and the risk factors were analyzed using the chi-square test, the U Mann-Whitney test, and binary logistic regression. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: In the study period, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides levels of the study group increased. In 2015, there was a high prevalence of alcohol intake, overweight or obesity, central obesity, inadequate WHR, high blood pressure, total cholesterol above 190 mg/dL, and triglycerides above 150 mg/dL. An association was identified between increased cardiovascular risk and age, SBP, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated glucose levels. Conclusion: Intense interventions for reduction and prevention of elevated alcohol intake, blood pressure levels, WHR, metabolic syndrome, blood glucose, and LDL-C levels, and low HDL-C levels are needed. In addition, a close monitoring of mine workers over 38 years of age who smoke, consume alcoholic beverages, and have altered blood glucose levels is important.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Mineradores , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Tabagismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Síndrome Metabólica , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Hipercolesterolemia
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