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Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.951
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901505


In 2021, the United States saw an exponential influx of unaccompanied migrant children crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. Upon apprehension at the border, unaccompanied children are placed in the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) temporary shelter facilities. The ORR is responsible for locating, vetting, and releasing the children to their family, guardians, or a suitable sponsor. Undocumented parents seeking reunification may fear cross-examination and background checks. This study aimed to explore the experiences of undocumented families reunified with their children with the help of a community-based organization (CBO). A collective case study method was used to collect qualitative data from seven parents. Respondent parents expressed their rationale for allowing their children to cross the U.S.-Mexico border, their experience with the ORR, and the reasons they pursued community-based guidance. The results document the depth of trauma and difficulties parents of unaccompanied migrant children face with American service providers. It is recommended that immigration-related government agencies form relationships with culturally diverse organizations that are trusted by immigrant communities.

Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos , Menores de Idade , Emigração e Imigração , Órgãos Governamentais
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 44(330): 12-15, 2023.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36759062


The care of unaccompanied young exiles in public health care facilities for adolescents often requires teams to adapt their capacities for institutional containment. We describe the case of a 16 year old female migrant adolescent, whose follow-up occurred at the Maison des adolescents of the Cochin Hospital, with several healthcare workers involved. The healthcare team had to reflect on the meaning of her somatic symptoms and why the referring adults were so worried (such as fear of death). We describe how we articulated somatic and psychological care for this adolescent girl living in a precarious situation.

Refugiados , Migrantes , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Criança Abandonada/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Hospitais
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 72(2): 129-147, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36744497


Due to the Russian invasion in Ukraine, many families were forced to flee to Germany, often having to leave relatives behind.The outpatient clinic for refugees at Universitätsklinikum Eppendorf coordinates the psychosocial and psychotherapeutic care for refugee minors from Ukraine in Hamburg. The intercultural practice for child and adolescents psychiatry offers on-site consultations for children and adolescents in camps in order to provide a low-threshold access to counseling and diagnostics. Diagnostic and therapeutic experiences to this point indicate the contribution of multifactorial stress to the development of symptoms in Ukrainian minors.The threat of war and displacement seems to be only one of many factors. Although there are some remarkable resilience factors for Ukrainian refugee children and adolescents in comparison to refugees from other countries of origin, the forced adaptation to living and studying conditions in Hamburg bears challenges for many. Additionally due to war experiences psychotherapeutic and psychiatric care is frequently needed. On Germany's side, there is a need for action to ameliorate the accessibility to the health care system for refugees and migrants. Support of therapists in this complex working field is thereby as important as advocacy for the needs of minor refugees in German society.

Psiquiatria , Refugiados , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Ucrânia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 72(2): 148-170, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36744503


In recent years, increasingly more German-born preschool children of refugee parents have been referred to the 'specialized consultation service for refugee minors' of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University Hospital Münster. This 'change' in the use of the above-mentioned consultation service could be understood as a 'natural' consequence of the family life cycle of forced migrants who some years ago came to Germany as adolescents or young adults and started here a family. The treatment of 'preschoolers with a refugee background', as we may call this group of patients, confronts mental health practitioners with particular challenges. In this contribution, we specify some of these challenges and argue that, due to the deep intertwinement of different aspects of these patients' condition, a 'situated approach' is required when treating this population.When planning therapeutic interventions for preschoolers with refugee background, their families should be conceived as unified systems which in their social and transcultural embeddedness exhibit trans-individual vulnerabilities and resources. By discussing a case study, we illustrate how an extremely challenging child psychiatric treatment could succeed only on the condition that we focused on the interconnectedness of various factors determining not merely the patient's symptomatic behavior but, furthermore, the behavior of the family, i. e., on the condition of focusing on the situated nature of the problematic.

Serviços de Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Refugiados/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Menores de Idade , Pais/psicologia
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 972023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705053


OBJECTIVE: The term trans brings together all transgender identities. The early social transition towards the affirmed gender has benefits in the child's development. For families, transit is a period of great uncertainty, requiring support aimed at families of trans minors. The aim of this paper was to explore the needs and experiencies of parents and close-relatives who supported the social transition of their children. METHODS: We worked with focus groups of functional families of transgender minors who had begun the transition (n=14), with a medium-high educational level and who belonged to urban areas of Tenerife. Through a semi-structured interview, they commented on their experiences in the process of supporting the social transition of their children. The data was recorded in a video recording and processed through content analysis and categorization. RESULTS: Early social transition had positive and immediate benefits on child development as well as in the reduction of anxiety. There was a general improvement in mood, self-esteem, and social and family relationships. The accompaniment of specialists and associations helped in the different social situations and favoured resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Early social transition is positive in the personal and socio-family sphere of the minor. To improve their resilience, families demand accompaniment in this process, as well as meeting other trans people who serve as transpositive references. In addition, they point out the need for specific training in health professionals.

OBJETIVO: El término trans aglutina a todas las identidades transgénero. La transición social temprana hacia el género sentido tiene beneficios en el desarrollo del menor. Para las familias, el tránsito es un periodo de grandes incertidumbres, siendo necesario el acompañamiento dirigido a las familias de menores trans. El objetivo del artículo fue explorar, desde una perspectiva paterna y familiar, las necesidades y experiencias sobre el tránsito de menores trans que sirvieran de referente a otros padres/madres que apoyan el tránsito social de sus hijos e hijas. METODOS: Se trabajó con grupos focales de familias funcionales de menores transgénero que habían iniciado la transición (n=14), de nivel educativo medio-alto y que pertenecían a zonas urbanas de Tenerife. Mediante entrevista semiestructurada, comentaron sus experiencias en el proceso de dar soporte al tránsito social de sus hijos e hijas. Los datos fueron registrados en una videograbación y se procesaron mediante análisis de contenido y categorización. RESULTADOS: La transición social temprana tuvo beneficios positivos e inmediatos en el desarrollo del menor, además de en la disminución de la ansiedad. Hubo una mejora general en el humor, la autoestima y las relaciones tanto sociales como familiares. El acompañamiento de especialistas y asociaciones ayudó en las distintas situaciones sociales y favoreció la resiliencia. CONCLUSIONES: El tránsito social temprano es positivo en la esfera personal y sociofamiliar del menor. Para mejorar su resiliencia, las familias demandan acompañamiento en este proceso, así como conocer otras personas trans que les sirvan como referentes transpositivos. Además, señalan la necesidad de formación específica en los profesionales sanitarios.

Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Criança , Humanos , Menores de Idade , Espanha , Pais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
Med Sci (Paris) ; 39(1): 39-43, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692317


As the number of children and adolescents expressing transidentity has increased in recent years, a societal controversy has emerged over the appropriate therapeutic approach and medical options. The support of transgender minors raises ethical questions to which it is necessary to provide avenues for reflection, in particular on the issues of recognizing the autonomy of these young people in the consent and decisionmaking processes.

Title: Des pistes de réflexion sur les enjeux éthiques de l'accompagnement et de la reconnaissance de l'autonomie des mineurs transgenres en France. Abstract: Alors que le nombre d'enfants et d'adolescents exprimant une transidentité a augmenté ces dernières années, une controverse sociétale est apparue sur l'approche thérapeutique et les options médicales appropriées. L'accompagnement des mineurs transgenres pose des questions éthiques auxquelles il convient d'apporter des pistes de réflexion, en particulier sur les enjeux de la reconnaissance de l'autonomie de ces jeunes dans les processus de consentement et de prise de décision.

Menores de Idade , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , França , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673762


Rising childhood myopia rate has detrimental health consequences that pose a considerable challenge to health systems. The school spatial environment, which is where students are for the longest period of time, has a high health value for myopia systematic intervention. While research has demonstrated associations between physical daylight environments, medical gene and visual health, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence that will act as a spatially-organized resource for school designers. This study is based on literature from the period 2000-2022 and has been taken from the Web of Science, scopus, Medline and CNKI core collection database. Collaboration, literature co-citation and quantitative and qualitative analysis, in addition to keyword co-occurrence are adopted to conduct a visual health research review. The results indicate that intensive near work activity (as a risk factor) and longer time spent outdoors (as a protective factor), are involved in visual health factors. Two main research themes are obtained and relate to: (1) The environment of visual work behavior (especially the near work learning environment) and adaptable multimedia learning environment; and (2) the environment of outdoor exposure behavior. Furthermore, with the variation of educational demands, models and concepts, there are different demands for near work behavior, and this study makes an important contribution by pointing to two future research directions, including the accurate and controllable environment of near work behavior, which operate in accordance with various educational mode requirements and the active design of the environment of outdoor exposure behavior. In referring to differences between regions and countries, as well as the development of the educational environment, it provides insight into how these demands can be controlled.

Menores de Idade , Miopia , Humanos , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene, 06, 2023. 5 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1411598


Principales causas de consulta, acumuladas desde el 24 de diciembre a la fecha, años 2020 ­ 2021. Situación de quemados fechas de quemaduras 1º dic ­ 2 de enero 2019 ­ 2022. Proporción de quemaduras por pólvora divididos por menores y mayores de 18 años de edad, 24 de dic 2022 al 2 de enero de 2023. Quemaduras por pólvora por grupo de edad, comparativo 24 de diciembre de 2022 al 2 de enero de 2023, datos del mismo periodo 2019 y 2021. Quemaduras por pólvora por departamento, comparativo 24 de diciembre de 2022 al 2 de enero de 2023, datos del mismo periodo 2019 y 2021. Áreas lesionadas en personas con quemaduras por productos pirotécnicos por sitio anatómico, El Salvador 24 de diciembre de 2022 al 2 de enero de 2023: Datos generales sobre quemaduras por pólvora 24 de diciembre de 2022 al 2 de enero de 2023, Quemaduras por pólvora plan de fin de año El Salvador 24 de diciembre de 2022 al 2 de enero de 2023, por pirotécnico implicado, Total de consultas, emergencias y referencias, plan de fin de año El Salvador 2019 ­ 2022

Main causes of consultation, accumulated from December 24 to date, years 2020 - 2021. Situation of burns dates of burns Dec 1 - Jan 2, 2019 - 2022. Proportion of gunpowder burns divided by minors and majors under 18 years of age. age, December 24, 2022 to January 2, 2023. Gunpowder burns by age group, comparison December 24, 2022 to January 2, 2023, data from the same period 2019 and 2021. Gunpowder burns by department, comparison 24 from December 2022 to January 2, 2023, data from the same period 2019 and 2021. Injured areas in people with burns from pyrotechnic products by anatomical site, El Salvador December 24, 2022 to January 2, 2023: General data on burns by gunpowder December 24, 2022 to January 2, 2023, Burns by gunpowder year-end plan El Salvador December 24, 2022 to January 2, 2023, by pyrotechnician involved, Total consultations, emergencies and referrals, plan d The end of the year El Salvador 2019 ­ 2022

Queimaduras , Epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Publicações Eletrônicas , Menores de Idade , El Salvador , Emergências
Am J Public Health ; 113(3): 316-319, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634290


Objectives. To describe minors' use of judicial bypass to access abortion and the percentage of bypass petitions denied in Florida and Texas. Methods. Data were derived from official state statistics on judicial bypasses and abortions by age in Texas and Florida; abortions in Texas among minor nonresidents were estimated. In addition, judicial bypass petitions as a percentage of abortions received by minors and judicial bypass denials as a percentage of petitions were calculated. Results. Between 2018 and 2021, minors received 5527 abortions in Florida and an estimated 5220 abortions in Texas. Use of judicial bypass was stable at 14% to 15% in Florida and declined from 14% to 10% in Texas. Among petitions for judicial bypass, denials increased in Florida from 6% to a maximum of 13% and remained stable in Texas at 5% to 7%. Conclusions. Minors' use of judicial bypass in Texas and Florida is substantial. The percentage of denials is higher and increasing in Florida. Public Health Implications. Minors who need confidential abortion care may now be forced to seek judicial bypass far from home. Parental involvement laws in states that do not ban abortion will compound barriers to abortion care. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(3):316-319.

Aborto Induzido , Consentimento dos Pais , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Menores de Idade , Função Jurisdicional , Texas , Florida , Aborto Legal
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 35(2): 275-280, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647569


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine when parents and legal guardians have the authority to make medical decisions on behalf of the minors in their care, when the decisions of healthcare professionals may supersede those of parents and guardians, and under what conditions minors can make healthcare decisions for themselves. RECENT FINDINGS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reignited discussion of who should make healthcare decisions for minors. Though serious adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccines are rare, hesitancy toward pediatric COVID-19 vaccination is prevalent among parents in the United States. This has contributed to large numbers of minors who are not up-to-date or not fully vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Surveys reveal a majority of minors in the United States are willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. A number of scholars have recommended allowing adolescents the ability to consent to COVID-19 vaccination without parental approval. SUMMARY: Allowing adolescents with a minimum age of 15 to consent to vaccination without parental or guardian approval will more quickly enable adolescents to receive new vaccines as they become available, such as the COVID-19 bivalent vaccine.

Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Menores de Idade , Atenção à Saúde , Vacinação , Pais
Int J Legal Med ; 137(2): 395-402, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507962


INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been a notable increase of migratory movements into Europe with the arrival of not (reliably) documented young individuals within EU-Member States. Accordingly, the need for forensic age assessments likewise increased in order to administratively differentiate along the legally relevant cut-off age of 18 completed years. The objective of our study was to analyse the expert reports of forensic age estimation issued in Barcelona between 2011 and 2018. METHOD: In all cases, data on the medical history, physical examination, radiology of the left hand and orthopantomography were collected. In cases without third molars and a complete ossification of the hand, a CT scan of the clavicles was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 2754 expert reports were evaluated; 96.7% were males, the majority were of North African origin, mainly from Morocco (63.6%), and 19.6% were sub-Saharan Africans; 65.4% had a level of bone maturation corresponding to the last three standards of Greulich and Pyle. Most cases had mineralization of the third molar corresponding to the F, G or H stages of Demirjian. In 85.9%, there was a correspondence between bone and dental age. A total of 28.8% of the subjects were evaluated as being aged over 18 years; 86.2% of North Africans were considered to be younger than 18, and 82% of sub-Saharan Africans were considered to be over 18 years old. CONCLUSIONS: In Barcelona, most of the subjects evaluated were male and North African, and 71.2% of the cases were considered to be minors.

Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos , População Negra , Mãos , Menores de Idade , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteogênese , Radiografia Panorâmica , Espanha
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 24(1): 189-202, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184579


The domestic sex trafficking of minors is occurring across Canada and the United States. Understanding the routes into sex trafficking, including the way traffickers target, recruit and enmesh youth in the sex trade is invaluable information for service providers and law makers developing prevention and intervention initiatives. This review synthesized research on the exploitation processes and tactics employed by traffickers in the sex trafficking of domestic minors in Canada and the US. The authors comprehensively and systematically searched five electronic databases and obtained additional publications and grey literature through a backward search of the references cited in articles reviewed for inclusion.  Inclusionary criteria included: Studies published in the English language between January 1990 and June 2020 containing original research with quantitative or qualitative data on the recruitment or pathways into sex trafficking for minors trafficked within the US and Canada. The search yielded 23 eligible studies. The synthesis of the studies in the review converged on the notion of sexual exploitation occurring on a continuum comprising of three components; the recruitment context, entrapment strategies utilized by traffickers, and enmeshment tactics used to prolong exploitation. Findings highlight the significant physical, psychological and emotional hurdles faced by youth victims of sex trafficking and point to the importance of comprehensive and holistic approaches to prevention and intervention practices.

Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Tráfico de Pessoas , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Menores de Idade , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual
Soins ; 67(869): 28-30, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509495


In France, the health of trans minors remains a sensitive and too often invisible subject, leaving a population marked by great vulnerability on the margins of health services. It is therefore particularly interesting to highlight the medical issues related to this population, the psychological risks related to transphobia and the questions related to hormonal treatments at the heart of current controversies.

Menores de Idade , Humanos , Menores de Idade/psicologia , França
Rev Prat ; 72(9): 974-977, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512013


ISOLATED MINORS' ADDICTIONS: FEEDBACK FROM THE ROBERT DEBRE HOSPITAL The emergency department of the Robert Debré pediatric hospital in Paris is receiving an increasing number of unaccompanied minors with somatic problems or who have overdosed on psychoactive substances. These young people are very vulnerable and in preca¬rious situations, with traumatic backgrounds, and are mostly boys from Maghreb. They are frequently used by criminal networks that keep them under the influence of addictive substances. They are generally dependent on tobacco and cannabis but can consume large quantities of drugs diverted from their use such as clonazepam and pregabaline, the risks of withdrawal of which compromise their access to care and can put them in danger. The liaison addiction team, in conjunction with the relevant partners in the city, has set up several tools to improve access to care for these vulnerable young people and enable them to be discharged within a legal framework: an identity recognition alert, a health alert and an initial emergen¬cy care protocol.

ADDICTIONS CHEZ LES MINEURS ISOLÉS : RETOUR D'EXPÉRIENCE DE L'HÔPITAL ROBERT-DEBRÉ Le service des urgences de l'hôpital pédiatrique Robert-Debré de Paris reçoit de plus en plus de mineurs non accompagnés pour des problèmes somatiques ou en situation de surdosage de produits psychoactifs. Ces jeunes très vulnérables et en situation précaire, au parcours traumatique, sont en majorité des garçons venant du Maghreb. Ils sont fréquemment utilisés par des réseaux de délinquance, qui les maintiennent sous l'emprise de substances addictives. Ils sont en général dépendants du tabac et du cannabis mais peuvent consommer de grandes quantités de médicaments détournés de leur usage, tels que le clonazépam et la prégabaline, dont les risques de sevrage compromettent leur accès aux soins et peuvent les mettre en danger. L'équipe d'addictologie de liaison a mis en place, avec les partenaires concernés de la ville, plusieurs outils pour améliorer l'accès aux soins de ces jeunes vulnérables et permettre leur sortie dans un cadre légal : une alerte de reconnaissance d'identité, une alerte sanitaire et un protocole de soins initial aux urgences.

Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Menores de Idade , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Retroalimentação , Hospitais
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 4673964, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36531559


Objective: To explore the nutritional status of serum fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and vitamin E of minors in the Zhuzhou area to provide a scientific basis for clinical guidance to supplement fat-soluble vitamins reasonably. Method: A total of 6,082 minors who underwent physical examination from January 2017 to February 2019 in the Children's Health Department of Zhuzhou Hospital affiliated with XiangYa School of Medicine of Central South University were selected as the subjects to measure the levels of serum fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E. Results: (1) Their average levels of serum vitamin A, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and vitamin E were (0.34 ± 0.08) mg/mL, (34.65 ± 10.24) ng/mL, and (10.11 ± 2.65) mg/mL, respectively. (2) Serum vitamin E showed a gender difference (P < 0.001). (3) The average levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin E in infancy, early childhood, preschool age, school age, and adolescence decreased gradually (P < 0.05). In contrast, the average level of serum vitamin A ranged between 0.32 mg/mL and 0.37 mg/mL. (4) The age was negatively correlated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (r = -0.517, P < 0.001) and weakly negatively correlated with vitamin E (r = -0.366, P < 0.001), but weakly positively correlated with vitamin A (r = 0.269, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Minors from infancy to adolescence in Zhuzhou should strengthen their supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins.

Menores de Idade , Vitamina A , Criança , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Vitaminas , Vitamina D , Vitamina E , Suplementos Nutricionais