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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 631-632: 317-325, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525711

RESUMO

Population consequences of chronic exposure to multiple pollutants at low environmental doses remain speculative, because of the lack of appropriate long-term monitoring surveys. This study integrates proximate and ultimate aspects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) burden in free-living vertebrates, by coupling hormonal and behavioral endpoints, life-history traits, and population dynamics. Blood samples (N=70) were collected in South polar skuas during two breeding periods, in 2003 and 2005, and individuals were annually monitored until 2011. Multi-state mark recapture models were used to test the effects of POP levels on demographic traits. Survival rate and long-term breeding probability were not related to individual POP levels, whereas long-term breeding success significantly decreased with increasing blood levels of mirex, an organochlorine insecticide. At the proximate level, corticosterone (stress hormone) and prolactin (parental care hormone) levels were not linked to individual POP burden. Nest defense in 2005 was significantly less intensive in chick-rearing skuas bearing higher mirex levels, suggesting reproductive behavioral impairment. Matrix population models were then built to project the rate of population decline according to increasing mirex burden. Although mirex levels were 2.8 times higher in 2003 than in 2005, the population-level effect of mirex was only detected in 2005, the year of higher corticosterone levels. The combination of endocrine traits with demographic analysis thereby enables to provide new support of synergistic interactions between pollutants and stress levels on long-term breeding outputs and population dynamics.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mirex/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 314: 63-71, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888061

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of chlordane, heptachlor and mirex, on hormonal regulation of the force of myometrial contractions. Myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells as well as strips of myometrium from non-pregnant cows were incubated with three insecticides at environmentally relevant doses (0.1, 1 or 10ng/ml). None of the insecticides affected the viability of studied cells. Chlordane stimulated, while heptachlor and mirex inhibited, secretion of testosterone and estradiol from granulosa cells as well as secretion of progesterone from luteal cells, respectively. Secretion of oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells was increased after incubation with all studied insecticides. Only mirex stimulated OT secretion from luteal cells, while heptachlor inhibited this effect. None of them affected synthesis of OT in luteal cells and prostaglandins (PGF2 and PGE2) secretion from uterine cells, except PGE2 secretion from endometrial cells was decreased when the cells were incubated with 0.1ng/ml of chlordane. Basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions were increased by mirex and decreased by heptachlor. The data show that the insecticides altered secretory function of ovarian cells. Heptachlor and mirex affected also myometrial contractions in vitro, but uterine secretion of prostaglandins were not involved in the mechanism of that adverse effect of insecticides. The data indicate on potential of these insecticides to disturb fertilisation, blastocyst implantation or even the length of gestation.


Assuntos
Clordano/toxicidade , Heptacloro/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mirex/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Ovário/metabolismo , Gravidez
3.
Rev Environ Health ; 31(1): 115-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26943594

RESUMO

We have studied rates of diabetes in 601 members of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, ages 18-84 years, in relation to serum concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex]. Diabetes was determined from either a diagnosis by a physician or by having a fasting glucose concentration of >125 mg/dL. Rates of diabetes are high in this community. Three models were used. In the first model rate ratios (RR) were determined for quartiles of total PCBs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total serum lipids. For total PCBs RR=2.21 (1.2-4.2), while for total pesticides RR=3.75 (1.3-10.7). When the total PCB results were also adjusted for total pesticides and the total pesticide results were also adjusted for total PCBs (Model 2) the RRs were somewhat reduced. In Model 3 we considered subgroups of PCBs based on numbers of chlorines on the molecule (tri-/tetra, penta-/hexa, hepta plus) and numbers of ortho chlorines (non-/mono; di-, tri-/tetra-), and considered each of the pesticides individually after adjustment for all other contaminants as well as age, sex, BMI and serum lipids. We found a highly significant association between diabetes and PCBs with only three or four chlorines (RR=5.02), but no significant association with those with greater chlorination. When evaluating PCBs based on numbers of ortho chlorines only, those with no or one ortho chlorine showed significant associations. As mono-ortho PCBs include some with dioxin-like activity, we compared those with and without a TEF, and found that the association with diabetes was exclusively with the non-dioxin-like congeners. Of the pesticides only hexachlorobenzene showed a small but significant association with diabetes. Because lower chlorinated PCBs are more volatile and do not greatly accumulate in fish, these results suggest that inhalation is the major route of exposure to those PCBs that increase risk of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fungicidas Industriais/sangue , Inseticidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Feminino , Hexaclorobenzeno/sangue , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mirex/sangue , Modelos Teóricos , New York/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(9): 6601-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25410309

RESUMO

The occurrence and spatial distribution of dechloranes including mirex, dechlorane plus (DP), dechlorane (Dec) 602, Dec 603, and Dec 604 in surficial sediments of Lake Taihu were investigated in this study. The concentrations of mirex and DP ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 1.29 ng g(-1) dw and 0.051 to 2.10 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. Dec 602, Dec 603, and Dec 604 on the other hand, were BDL in any of the samples. The contamination levels of DP were higher than that of Mirex at 21 of all 22 sampling sites. Levels of mirex and DP in the lake sediments were correlated when an extremely high mirex value was removed. Both mirex and DP levels were correlated with the amount of organic matters in the sediment samples. Spatial distribution of mirex and DP suggested that these two chemicals in the lake had similar input sources except for one site. Comparison to previously reported flame retardants' levels in the sediments shows that DP levels were similar with the levels of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane but lower than PBDEs and organophosphates levels in Lake Taihu. The higher levels in the north-east part of Lake Taihu adjacent to two major cities: Wuxi and Suzhou, indicated that city effluent might be a major source for DP contamination in the lake.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lagos/química , Mirex/análise , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(19): 11170-7, 2014 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25184555

RESUMO

The dechlorane family of flame retardants, which includes Mirex (also known as Dechlorane), Dechlorane Plus (DP), and Dechloranes (Dec) 602, 603, and 604, were manufactured at a facility along the Niagara River, upstream of Lake Ontario. Some of these compounds remain in use. In a previous study, we found Mirex and Dec602 to have greater bioaccumulation potentials than Dec604 and DP based on calculated biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). In this study, analogues of Dec604, containing fewer bromines and mixed substitutions of bromine and chlorine, were identified in Lake Ontario sediment and fish using high and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric techniques. The tribromo-Dec604 (Br3Dec604) analogue, known as Dechlorane 604 Component B (Dec604 CB), was present in lake trout and whitefish at concentrations of 10-60 ng/g lipid weight, approximately 50-200 times greater than concentrations measured for Dec604. In addition, BrDec604 and Br2Dec604 analogues, and mixed Br2Cl2Dec604, Br3ClDec604, Br2ClDec604, and BrCl2Dec604 analogues were also present. We have shown that solutions of Dec604 and Dec604 CB exposed to UV-light undergo photodebromination and give rise to the analogues found in sediment and fish. Dec604 CB and other lesser halogenated analogues of Dec604 show greater bioaccumulation potentials than Dec604, Dec602 and DP, based on BSAFs, which highlight the need to consider likely impurities and degradation products in the assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos da radiação , Lagos , Mirex/análise , Mirex/metabolismo , Ontário , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , Compostos Policíclicos/metabolismo , Salmonidae , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 86(1-2): 266-273, 2014 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25066456

RESUMO

Eleven persistent organic pollutant (POP) compounds including ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ∑CHLs, dieldrin, HCB, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of Sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the Pearl River Estuary in China during 2007-2013. For most parameters of POPs measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, heptachlor and endrin in the melon tissue exhibited significant correlations with body length, whereas PCBs and heptachlor also displayed significant regression with age. Our studies showed hepatic concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and mirex in S. chinensis were generally higher than those found in cetaceans from other geographic locations. The high levels of POP residues in the testis of one male dolphin suggested an increasing risk of infertility in the species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Estuários , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Fatores Etários , Aldrina/farmacocinética , Animais , China , Clorobenzenos/farmacocinética , Dieldrin/farmacocinética , Endrin/farmacocinética , Geografia , Heptacloro/farmacocinética , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mirex/farmacocinética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/farmacocinética , Testículo/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Chemosphere ; 110: 1-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24880592

RESUMO

In utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is thought to be potentially harmful to fetal development. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal and cord serum OCPs levels with infant birth weight in China. In this study, we measured serum levels of 18 OCPs in 81 mother-infant pairs, including DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlors, chlordanes, endosulfan-I, and mirex using a high-resolution-gas-chromatography with high-resolution-mass-spectrometry method. We found that p,p'-DDE and ß-BHC had the highest detection rate in both maternal and cord blood serum (97.2% and 96.7%, respectively), followed by HCB (93.0%, 51.7%), p,p'-DDT (88.7%, 36.7%), and p,p'-DDD (83.1%, 60.0%). Among all OCPs, the concentration of p,p'-DDE was the highest (mothers geometric mean (GM): 203.54ngg(-1), newborns GM: 116.14ngg(-1)), followed by HCB (70.62ngg(-1), 65.16ngg(-1)), and ß-BHC (67.67ngg(-1), 33.39ngg(-1)). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that each 1ngg(-1) increment of cord serum p,p'-DDE, total DDT, and ß-BHC was associated with a 0.10g, 0.10g, and 0.92g decrease in infant birth weight, respectively, and as the cord serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, HCB and mirex increased, the infant birth weight was also decreased, although the associations were not statistically significant due to the relatively small sample size. These results suggest that p,p'-DDE, ß-BHC, and HCB were the predominant OCPs in the serum of Chinese pregnant women and cord blood of their newborns. Prenatal exposure to DDT, ß-BHC, HCB, and mirex were associated with a decrease in birth weight, but these results need validation in larger sample-sized studies.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , China , DDT/sangue , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Endossulfano/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Hexaclorobenzeno/sangue , Hexaclorocicloexano/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Mirex/sangue , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 275: 19-25, 2014 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24835686

RESUMO

A total of 175 samples, composed of 35 different foodstuffs, were obtained from retail markets in Korea and analyzed to investigate the contamination status and dietary intake of Dechlorane compounds. The concentrations of Dechlorane Plus (DP), mirex, Dechlorane (Dec) 602 and 603 ranged from ND to 169.85 pg/g wet weight (ww), 107.30 pg/g ww, 20.81 pg/g ww, 0.41 pg/g ww, respectively, while Dechlorane (Dec) 604 was not detected in any samples. Strong correlations between anti- and syn-DP and between mirex and Dec 602 were observed. The average anti-isomer fractional abundance (fanti) was 0.78±0.11 which was larger than the technical DP value (fanti=0.75). The estimated dietary daily intake of DP, 11.2×10(3) pg/day, was one to three orders of magnitude higher than other Dechloranes. Grain was the most contributed food group to dietary daily intake of DP for Korean population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Mirex/análise , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , República da Coreia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 472: 194-203, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24291562

RESUMO

Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in µg·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ΣPCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ΣDDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ΣHCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , DDT/metabolismo , Feminino , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Masculino , Mirex/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 94: 48-52, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24080003

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that harmful chemicals accumulating in the human body may pose a significant threat to infant health through foetal exposure. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are thought to enhance the risk for later development of allergic disease like atopic dermatitis (AD). However, few studies have evaluated the effect of foetal exposure to various POPs on the development of AD in early infancy. Here, we describe the impact of foetal exposure to a number of POPs on the occurrence of AD in 7-month-old infants. The participants were 81 infants with or without AD who participated in a birth cohort study, where the concentrations of 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, mirex, oxychlordane, and 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners were measured in the umbilical cord tissues collected immediately after birth. At 7 months, 27 of the 81 infants (33.8%) were diagnosed with AD. Of all POPs examined, total concentrations of 27 PBDE congeners were associated with a significantly decreased incidence of AD. Notably, the concentration of 27 PBDEs was significantly lower in AD infants than in non-AD infants (P<0.01), and the risk of AD development decreased with increasing PBDE levels. These results suggest that foetal exposure to PBDEs is a possible contributing factor to reducing AD in early infancy.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Clordano/análogos & derivados , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mirex/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 121(11-12): 1319-24, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24192044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. OBJECTIVE: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. METHODS: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women's Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case-control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum ß-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: In our case-control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of ß-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Endometriose/induzido quimicamente , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexaclorocicloexano/sangue , Hexaclorocicloexano/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mirex/sangue , Mirex/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Praguicidas/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Washington/epidemiologia
12.
Chemosphere ; 90(5): 1729-35, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23186893

RESUMO

Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) has been recognized as a promising non-combustion technology for the disposal of obsolete pesticides belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mirex, a termiticide ever used for many years in China, was ball milled in the presence of various reagent(s) in a planetary ball mill at room temperature to investigate the destruction efficiency. The ground samples were characterized and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), and ion chromatography (Martins, Bicego et al.). Under the same conditions of mill rotary rate and charge ratio, the mixture of iron powder and quartz sand (Fe/SiO(2)) was found best in promoting the mirex destruction. Mirex was completed destroyed after 2 h grinding at a charge ratio of 36:1 (reagent/mirex, m/m) and a mill rotation speed of 550 rpm. No organic compound was detected by GC/µECD screening. The yield of water-soluble chlorine determined by ion chromatography (Martins, Bicego et al.) in the final residue accounted for 90.7% of chlorine in the original mirex, which indicated a nearly complete dechlorination. Signals of both graphite and amorphous carbon were found in the Raman spectra of the co-ground powder samples. With the main final degradation products of water soluble Cl and carbon, the mechanism of the mechanochemical destruction approach should be dechlorination followed by the carbonization.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/química , Inseticidas/química , Ferro/química , Mirex/química , Quartzo/química , China , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Inseticidas/análise , Mirex/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(23): 12882-9, 2012 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23153324

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are degradation-resistant anthropogenic chemicals that accumulate in the food chain and in adipose tissue, and are among the most hazardous compounds ever synthesized. However, their toxic mechanisms are still undefined. To investigate whether characteristic molecular signatures can discriminate individual POP and provide prediction markers for the early detection of POPs exposure in an animal model, we performed transcriptomic analysis of rat liver tissues after exposure to POPs. The six different POPs (toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, chlordane, mirex, dieldrin, and heptachlor) were administered to 11-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, and after 48 h of exposure, RNAs were extracted from liver tissues and subjected to rat whole genome expression microarrays. Early during exposure, conventional toxicological analysis including changes in the body and organ weight, histopathological examination, and blood biochemical analysis did not reflect any toxicant stresses. However, unsupervised gene expression analysis of rat liver tissues revealed in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant, and supervised analysis identified 2708 outlier genes that discerned the POPs exposure group from the vehicle-treated control. Combination analysis of two different multiclassifications suggested 384 genes as early detection markers for predicting each POP exposure with 100% accuracy. The data from large-scale gene expression analysis of a different POP exposure in rat model suggest that characteristic expression profiles exist in liver hepatic cells and multiclassification of POP-specific molecular signatures can discriminate each toxicant at an early exposure time. The use of these molecular markers may be more widely implemented in combination with more traditional techniques for assessment and prediction of toxicity exposure to POPs from an environmental aspect.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Dieldrin/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Heptacloro/toxicidade , Hexaclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mirex/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Toxafeno/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 438: 527-32, 2012 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23037812

RESUMO

Brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were listed as endangered in the United States in 1970, largely due to reproductive failure and mortality caused by organochlorine contaminants, such as DDT. The southeast population, P.o. carolinensis, was delisted in 1985, while the west coast population, P.o. californicus, was not delisted until 2009. As fish-eating coastal seabirds, brown pelicans may serve as a biomonitors. Organic contaminants were examined in brown pelican eggs collected from the Gulf of California in 2004 and South Carolina in 2005 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Contaminants were compared using all individual data as well as statistically pooled samples to provide similar sample sizes with little difference in results. Principal components analysis separated the Gulf of California brown pelican eggs from the South Carolina eggs based on contaminant patterns. The South Carolina population had significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes, dieldrin and mirex, while the Gulf of California eggs had higher levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). With the exception of dieldrin and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) 47, this pattern was observed for mussel and oyster tissues from these regions, indicating the need for further study into the differences between east and west coast brown pelican populations and ecosystem contamination patterns.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Óvulo/química , Análise de Variância , Animais , Clordano/análise , DDT/análise , Dieldrin/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Limite de Detecção , México , Mirex/análise , Análise Multivariada , Oceanos e Mares , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , South Carolina
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(14): 2734-45, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21636111

RESUMO

Organochlorine compounds total DDT (ΣDDT), total HCH isomers (ΣHCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (ΣCBz), total chlordane compounds (ΣCHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ΣPCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ΣPBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, ΣCHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ΣHCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣPCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ΣPBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ΣPBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ΣPBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Focas Verdadeiras/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Derivados de Benzeno/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/metabolismo , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Endrin/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Masculino , Metoxicloro/metabolismo , Mirex/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Federação Russa , Toxafeno/metabolismo , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(14): 2783-95, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21600630

RESUMO

Differences in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between fjords characterized by different water masses were investigated by comparing POP concentrations, patterns and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in seven species of zooplankton from Liefdefjorden (Arctic water mass) and Kongsfjorden (Atlantic water mass), Svalbard, Norway. No difference in concentrations and patterns of POPs was observed in seawater and POM; however higher concentrations and BAFs for certain POPs were found in species of zooplankton from Kongsfjorden. The same species were sampled in both fjords and the differences in concentrations of POPs and BAFs were most likely due to fjord specific characteristics, such as ice cover and timing of snow/glacier melt. These confounding factors make it difficult to conclude on water mass (Arctic vs. Atlantic) specific differences and further to extrapolate these results to possible climate change effects on accumulation of POPs in zooplankton. The present study suggests that zooplankton do biomagnify POPs, which is important for understanding contaminant uptake and flux in zooplankton, though consciousness regarding the method of evaluation is important.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Zooplâncton/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Oceano Atlântico , Clordano/análise , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/análise , DDT/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/análise , Mirex/análise , Mirex/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Svalbard , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(10): 4270-7, 2011 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21526819

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including legacy POPs (PCBs, chlordanes, mirex, DDTs, HCB, and dieldrin) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were determined in 300 blubber biopsy samples from coastal and near shore/estuarine male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled along the U.S. East and Gulf of Mexico coasts and Bermuda. Samples were from 14 locations including urban and rural estuaries and near a Superfund site (Brunswick, Georgia) contaminated with the PCB formulation Aroclor 1268. All classes of legacy POPs in estuarine stocks varied significantly (p < 0.05) among sampling locations. POP profiles in blubber varied by location with the most characteristic profile observed in bottlenose dolphins sampled near the Brunswick and Sapelo estuaries along the Georgia coast which differed significantly (p < 0.001) from other sites. Here and in Sapelo, PCB congeners from Aroclor 1268 dominated indicating widespread food web contamination by this PCB mixture. PCB 153, which is associated with non-Aroclor 1268 PCB formulations, correlated significantly to human population indicating contamination from a general urban PCB source. Factors influencing regional differences of other POPs were less clear and warrant further study. This work puts into geographical context POP contamination in dolphins to help prioritize efforts examining health effects from POP exposure in bottlenose dolphins.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/metabolismo , Dieldrin/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Mirex/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(7): 2613-8, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21351765

RESUMO

Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (DP), Mirex (Dechlorane), Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), Dechlorane 603 (Dec 603), and Dechlorane 604 (Dec 604), were determined using GC-MSD for water, sediment and oyster samples collected at 15 sampling sites near the Bohai and Huanghai Sea shore area of northern China in 2008. DP and Mirex were detected in most water, sediment, and oyster samples, which indicated widespread distribution of these two compounds. The mean concentrations in water, sediment and oyster samples, respectively, were 1.8 ng/L, 2.9 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 4.1 ng/g wet weight (ww) for total DP, and 0.29 ng/L, 0.90 ng/g dw, and 2.0 ng/g ww for Mirex. Dec 602 and Dec 603 were not detected in water but in small portions of the sediment and oyster samples, showing a low level of contamination by these two chemicals in the region. Strong and significant correlations were found between total DP and Mirex concentrations in water, sediment and oyster samples, probably suggesting similar local sources of these two chemicals. Dec 604 was not found in any samples. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of DP, Mirex, and Dec 602 declined along with the increase of their logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow), possibly indicating that compounds with lower log Kow (like Mirex and Dec 602) accumulated more readily in biota. The mean fractional abundance of syn-DP (fsyn) was 0.34 in water samples, a value lower than that in Chinese commercial mixture (0.41), while the mean fsyn for surface sediment (0.44) and oyster (0.45) samples were higher than technical values. Enrichment of syn-DP in oyster was in agreement with previously reported findings in Great Lakes fish. Enrichment of syn-DP in marine surface sediments, however, is contrary to data reported for fresh water sediments. To our knowledge this is the first report of Dec 602, Dec 603, and Dec 604 in a marine environment and also the first report of Dechloranes in marine biota.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Mirex/análise , Mirex/metabolismo , Ostreidae/metabolismo , Compostos Policíclicos/análise , Compostos Policíclicos/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 83(7): 891-6, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21440927

RESUMO

The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11,100 ng g(-1) lipid and 453-49,000 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Aldrina/metabolismo , Animais , Clordano/metabolismo , DDT/metabolismo , Dieldrin/metabolismo , Endrin/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Heptacloro/metabolismo , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Hong Kong , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Mirex/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
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