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2.
Sanid. mil ; 78(1): 49-58, enero 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211182

RESUMO

El estudio del marco normativo que determina la creación de la Especialidad Fundamental Odontología, como componente delCuerpo Militar de Sanidad de los Cuerpos Comunes de la Defensa, en la Fuerzas Armadas Españolas, permite abordar los cambioshistóricos que tanto en sus cometidos y funciones han afectado a la Odontología Militar en España desde su creación hasta la actualidad y poder comprender así sus capacidades presentes y futuras. (AU)


The study of the regulatory framework that determines the creation of the Fundamental Odontology Specialty, as a component ofthe Military Health Corps of the Common Defense Corps, in the Spanish Armed Forces, allows addressing the historical changesthat both in its tasks and functions have affected to Military Dentistry in Spain from its creation to the present day and thus be ableto understand its present and future capabilities. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Odontologia Militar , História , 51708 , Missões Religiosas , Pacientes
3.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211445

RESUMO

Escribir la historia de las prácticas y acciones sobre el cuidado de la salud es examinar el problema de conceptualización en enfermería, así como, interpretar y distinguir las acciones de cuidado conscientes e inconscientes, ritualizadas, espontáneos, o como resultado del proceso de aculturación en el encuentro de dos o más culturas. Los pueblos mesoamericanos crearon un complejo ideológico simbolizado por divinidades con el que dotaron su cosmovisión, la idea del equilibrio interno con el medio externo, todo era sagrado, por lo tanto, deberían las personas propiciar el equilibrio con su entorno para beneficiar la salud (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVI , Índios Centro-Americanos/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Missões Religiosas/história , Gravação em Vídeo , Espanha
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 345-350, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583335

RESUMO

With an increasing number of adolescents participating in international travel, little is known about travel-related behaviors and health risks in this age group. In the years 2015-2016, we conducted an anonymous, posttravel, questionnaire-based survey with the aim to compare self-reported practices and travel-related symptoms between adolescents (< 18 years old, N = 87) and adults (≥ 18 years old, N = 149) who came to our travel clinic before their humanitarian missions. They had the same pretravel health education, and traveled together to perform similar activities. In univariate analysis, compared with adults, we found that adolescents reported less prior international travel (P < 0.001), more often wore long-sleeved clothing for malaria prevention (P < 0.001) but less often for sun protection (P = 0.009), more often used insect repellents (P = 0.011), and less often had diarrhea (P = 0.024). All other practices and health outcomes were similar between the groups. Multivariate analyses using Bayesian network show strong associations between adults and prior travel experience, and not wearing long-sleeve clothing for malaria prevention. We also found strong associations between prior international travel and sustaining an injury, and having jet lag, as well as between taking malaria prophylaxis and not having diarrhea. Overall, most practices and health outcomes were similar between age groups. Adolescent age and lack of prior international travel experience did not have significant impacts on practices and health outcomes. Our findings highlight the need for more effective strategies to improve the behaviors and health outcomes in both adolescents and adults.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Internacionalidade , Missões Religiosas , Viagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Jet Lag/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Missões Religiosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 38(2): 340-371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403612

RESUMO

This article provides context for three studies about early 20th-century medical cases in the geographically distributed humanitarian aid organization founded by Wilfred Grenfell in pre-Confederation Newfoundland and Labrador. It situates these studies within historiographical and theoretical approaches to case histories and their publication by medical practitioners, the background for research on the clinical records of the Grenfell organization's main hospital, and the history behind specific case information for coastal patients. While the cases examined cohere through their organizational origin, the authors of these three studies reveal sometimes unexpected representations of the patient in text and illustration. In these ways, both this introductory article and the following three studies emphasize the enduring appeal of narrative approaches to case writing while also pointing to the evolving ethics of publishing medical reports for general readers and scholars. Together they invite renewed attention to the representation of medical cases in publications that increasingly are available globally in internet collections.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Missões Religiosas , Hospitais , Humanos , Narração , Terra Nova e Labrador
6.
BMJ Mil Health ; 167(5): 345-349, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402400

RESUMO

Op TRENTON is the UK response to support the United Nations Mission in South Sudan. This article documents a 5-month Engineering deployment after the UK Hospital had ended their mission and some of the medical challenges encountered. During this time, there were 2104 individual patient interactions recorded, with the main common illnesses being musculoskeletal injuries, gastrointestinal infection and dermatology. Given the nature of the tour, there were no battlefield-related injuries and trauma was limited to a handful of minor cases related to physical training or construction work. Recommendations for future deployments would include careful consideration of the required clinical skillsets, particularly identifying individuals who can undertake multiple secondary functions such as Primary Care Nurses, capable of patient care, ward management and Healthcare Governance.


Assuntos
Militares , Missões Religiosas , Atenção à Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Nações Unidas
7.
Am Surg ; 87(5): 681-685, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342274

RESUMO

Modern global surgery, which aims to provide improved and equitable surgical care worldwide, is a product of centuries of international care initiatives, some borne out of religious traditions, dating back to the first millennium. The first hospitals (xenodochia) were established in the 4th and 5th centuries CE by the early Christian church. Early "missions," a term introduced by Jesuit Christians in the 16th century to refer to the institutionalized expansion of faith, included medical care. Formalized Muslim humanitarian medical care was marked by organizations like the Aga Khan Foundation and the Islamic Association of North America in the 20th century. Secular medical humanitarian programs developed in the 19th century, notably with the creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1863) and the League of Nations Health Organization (1920) (which later became the World Health Organization [1946]). World War II catalyzed another proliferation of nongovernmental organizations, epitomized by the quintessential humanitarian health provider, Médecins Sans Frontières (1971). "Global health" as an academic endeavor encompassing education, service, and research began as an outgrowth of departments of tropical medicine and international health. The American College of Surgeons brought a surgical focus to global health beginning in the 1980s. Providing medical care in distant countries has a long tradition that parallels broad themes in history: faith, imperialism, humanitarianism, education, and service. Surgery as a focus of academic global health is a recent development that continues to gain traction.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Saúde Global/história , Missões Médicas/história , Missões Religiosas/história , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/história , Países em Desenvolvimento , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Missões Médicas/organização & administração , Missões Religiosas/organização & administração , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/organização & administração
8.
BMJ Mil Health ; 167(5): 356-357, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123002

RESUMO

Operation TRENTON was the British government's humanitarian contribution to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan. This included the Bentiu-based role 2 medical facility, deployed to provide medical support to approximately 2000 UN peacekeepers and UN staff in the region of the country's largest Protection of Civilian camps. A portable CT brain scanner was installed due to concern over the risk of head injuries and the extended clinical timelines. We provide a short reflection on the utility of this imaging capability in the deployed role 2 environment.


Assuntos
Missões Religiosas , Nações Unidas , Hospitais , Humanos , Sudão do Sul , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(12): 991-996, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251772

RESUMO

Compared to Nobel Prize Laureate Albert Schweitzer, Oliver R. Avison is not well known. Seeking to achieve more international recognition for Avison, this article elaborates on Avison's work with hospital and educational institutions from a post-colonial perspective. Schweitzer and Avison each wrote their memoires in an autobiographical style, and this article deals primarily with those writings, which are published under the titles Out of My Life and Thought by Schweitzer and The Land of the Morning Calm by Avison. Schweitzer and Avison were contemporaries and worked in medical service in the colonial period. Thus, they have certain commonalities. However, this article will elaborate on how Avison approached his mission differently in order to promote sustainability, equality and subjectivity in his work. Avison carried out more than mere charity work, he also accomplished sustainable development of his hospital, as well as its affiliated educational institution. The current circumstances of Severance Hospital and Yonsei University in Korea, compared to that of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, are clear evidence of this. Avison's extraordinary missionary work did not reflect the more negative side effects of colonial heritage intertwined with mission work in the 19th Century. Avison's case should be better known as a model of ecumenical mission towards sustainable development.


Assuntos
Colonialismo/história , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/história , Missionários , Missões Religiosas/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , República da Coreia , Trabalho
11.
Ethn Dis ; 30(3): 425-428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742145

RESUMO

Religious institutions have historically been an essential resource in African American communities and can serve as indispensable partners during a public health crisis. The purpose of this perspective is to establish African American churches, mosques, and temples as essential for an immediate, comprehensive, and sustained response to the elevated risk for and spread of COVID-19 among African Americans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Religião e Medicina , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Missões Religiosas/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 35, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Missions were established in California in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to convert Native Americans to Christianity and enculturate them into a class of laborers for Californios (Spanish/Mexican settler). The concentration of large numbers of Native Americans at the Missions, along with the introduction of European diseases, led to serious disease problems. Medicinal supplies brought to California by the missionaries were limited in quantity. This situation resulted in an opportunity for the sharing of knowledge of medicinal plants between the Native Americans and the Mission priests. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree to which such sharing of knowledge took place and to understand factors that may have influenced the sharing of medicinal knowledge. The study also examines the sharing of medicinal knowledge between the Native Americans and the Californios following the demise of the California Missions. METHODS: Two methods were employed in the study: (1) a comparison of lists of medicinal plants used by various groups (e.g., Native American, Mission priests, Californios) prior to, during, and after the Mission period and (2) a close reading of diaries, reports, and books written by first-hand observers and modern authorities to find accounts of and identify factors influencing the exchange of medicinal information. RESULTS: A comparison of the lists of medicinal plants use by various groups indicated that only a small percentage of medicinal plants were shared by two or more groups. For example, none of the 265 taxa of species used by the Native Americans in pre-Mission times were imported into Spain for medicinal use and only 16 taxa were reported to have been used at the Missions. A larger sharing of information of medicinal plants took place in the post-Mission period when Native Americans were dispersed from the Missions and worked as laborers on the ranches of the Californios. CONCLUSIONS: Sharing of information concerning medicinal plants did occur during the Mission period, but the number of documented species was limited. A number of possible factors discouraged this exchange. These include (1) imbalance of power between the priests and the Native Americans, (2) suppression of indigenous knowledge and medical practices by the Mission priests, (3) language barriers, (4) reduction of availability of medicinal herbs around the Mission due to introduced agricultural practices, (5) desire to protect knowledge of medicinal herbs by Native American shaman, (6) administrative structure at the Missions which left little time for direct interaction between the priests and individual Native Americans, (7) loss of knowledge of herbal medicine by the Native Americans over time at the Missions, and (8) limited transportation opportunities for reciprocal the shipment of medicinal plants between California and Spain. Three possible factors were identified that contributed to a greater sharing of information between the Native Americans and the Californios in the post-Mission period. These were (1) more one-to-one interactions between the Californios and the Native Americans, (2) many of the Californios were mestizos whose mothers or grandmothers were Native Americans, and (3) lack of pressure on the part of the Californios to suppress Native American beliefs and medicinal practices.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Missões Religiosas/história , California , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Missionários , Espanha
13.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(4): e13, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834104

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries represent a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease. This burden is particularly prevalent in low and middle-income countries that already have insufficient health-care resources. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the vision, the history, the implementation, and the challenges in establishing an orthopaedic surgical mission in a developing nation to help address the epidemic of musculoskeletal trauma.Scalpel At The Cross (SATC) is a nonprofit Christian orthopaedic surgical mission organization that sends teams of 10 to 20 members to Pucallpa, Peru, a rural town in the Amazon, to evaluate patients with musculoskeletal conditions, many that require surgery. The organization employs 4 full-time staff members and has included over 400 medical volunteers in 32 surgical campaigns since 2005. SATC has provided approximately 8.1 million U.S. dollars in total medical care, while investing approximately 2.2 million U.S. dollars in implementation and overhead.Given the projected increase in trauma in low and middle-income countries, the SATC model may be increasingly relevant as a possible blueprint for other medical professionals to take on similar endeavors. This paper also highlights the importance of continued research into the effectiveness of various organizational models to advance surgical services in these countries.


Assuntos
Missões Médicas/organização & administração , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/cirurgia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Sistema Musculoesquelético/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Missões Religiosas/organização & administração , Expedições , Humanos , Peru , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Temperamentum (Granada) ; 16: e13006-e13006, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197649

RESUMO

En este artículo se estudia Cartas desde Egipto 1849-1850 de Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). Una colección de cartas escritas por la enfermera británica con la intención de dar noticias a su familia de su viaje a Egipto; cartas que ofrecen datos históricos, culturales, antropológicos, opiniones personales a veces controvertidas y polémicas, y también comentarios sobre la crisis espiritual por la que pasaba en esos momentos de su vida. Una obra importante para entender las decisiones que tomó sobre su futuro en la década de los cincuenta del siglo XIX


In this article we have studied "Letters from Egypt 1849-1850" by Florence Nightingale (1820-1910). A collection of letters written by the British nurse with the intention of giving her family news about her trip to Egypt; letters that offer historical, cultural, anthropological data, personal opinions sometimes controversial and polemic, and also comments on the spiritual crisis that she was going through at those moments in her life. An important work to understand the decisions she took in the 1850s about her future


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , História da Enfermagem , Correspondência como Assunto/história , Educação em Enfermagem/história , Espiritualidade , Viagem/história , Missões Religiosas/história
18.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(1): 108-113, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598656

RESUMO

The missionaries Marcus Whitman, a doctor, and Narcissa Whitman, his wife, and twelve other members of the Waiilatpu Mission were murdered in November 1847 by a small contingent of the Cayuse Indians in the Oregon Territory. The murders became known as the "Whitman Massacre." The authors examine the historical record, including archived correspondence held at the Yale University Libraries and elsewhere, for evidence of what motivated the killings and demonstrate that there were two valid perspectives, Cayuse and white. Hence, the event is better termed the "Whitman Tragedy." A crucial component, a highly lethal measles epidemic, has been called the spark that lit the fuse of the tragedy.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Manuscritos como Assunto/história , Sarampo/história , Missionários/história , Missões Religiosas/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Oregon
19.
Indian J Med Res ; 148(3): 329-333, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425224

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Respiratory tract infections are common among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims which pose a public health risk of spread of respiratory infections. Influenza has been reported from Indian Hajj and Umrah returning pilgrims, but data on other respiratory pathogens are sparse in India. Here we report the presence of common respiratory viral pathogens in returning Hajj and Umrah pilgrims suffering from acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2014-2015. Methods: Respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were collected from 300 consenting pilgrims with ARI in the past one week and tested for influenza and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses using in-house standardized quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical features among the pathogen positive and negative patients were compared. The patients received symptomatic treatment and antivirals where appropriate and were followed telephonically to collect data on illness outcome. Results: Ninety seven (32.3%) of the 300 participants were tested positive for any virus, most common being influenza viruses (n=33, 11%). Other respiratory viruses that were detected included human coronaviruses [n=26, 8.7%; OC43 (n=19, 6.3%) and C229E (n=7, 2.3%)], rhinovirus (n=20, 6%), adenoviruses (n=8, 2.6%), parainfluenza viruses (n=7, 2.3%), respiratory syncytial virus (n=3, 1%) and bocaviruses (n=2, 0.6%). Clinical features observed in pathogen positive and pathogen negative patients did not differ significantly. Eighteen influenza positive patients were treated with oseltamivir. Interpretation & conclusions: Pilgrims returning from mass gatherings are often afflicted with respiratory pathogens with a potential to facilitate transmission of respiratory pathogens across international borders. The study reinforces the need for better infection prevention and control measures such as vaccination, health education on cough etiquette and hand hygiene.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Missões Religiosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Ethn Dis ; 28(Suppl 2): 467-474, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202200

RESUMO

Community partnered participatory research (CPPR) emphasizes community engagement, respect, and empowerment as guiding principles to promote mental health equity. This article describes the "Vision" stage of a CPPR-informed model to implement evidence-based practices for depression in two African American churches in Harlem, New York. Essential parts of the Vision include engagement of stakeholders and collaborative planning. The engagement process increased awareness about the project via a community-focused mental health symposium. The collaborative planning stage resulted in creating a multi-disciplinary Community Coalition for Mental Health, establishing the Coalition's values, agreeing to change the initial chosen study intervention from Interpersonal Counseling to Mental Health First Aid, and developing a website to disseminate the group's work. Key lessons learned from our partnered process are: 1) support from the lead pastor is crucial; 2) balancing community and academic interests can be challenging; 3) icebreaker activities foster relationships and reinforce CPPR principles; 4) multiple communication channels can enhance community participation; and, 5) should organize data in ways that make them easier to interpret.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Aconselhamento , Depressão , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Missões Religiosas/organização & administração , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , New York , Apoio Social
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