Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 457
Filtrar
1.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(9): 1047-1058, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218946

RESUMO

The understanding of epilepsy has been in progressive evolution since Antiquity, with scientific advances culminating in the last few decades. Throughout history, epilepsy was plagued by mystical misconceptions involving either demonic possessions, witchcraft, or divine interventions. This has frequently altered or even halted any real progress in its scientific understanding or its social perception. This metaphysical context is also at the core of the stigma revolving around this condition, some of which still lingering today. This review explores the origins of these mystical beliefs, and describes the chronological evolution of epilepsy from mysticism to science across different civilizations and eras.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Misticismo , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Percepção Social
2.
J Psychopharmacol ; 35(2): 150-158, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic ketamine administration may be helpful for substance use disorders. Converging evidence suggests that the efficacy of ketamine for certain conditions may implicate a subset of its psychoactive effects. AIMS: The aim of this analysis is to evaluate whether the mystical-type effects of ketamine are critical for clinical efficacy in alcohol-dependent individuals. In this secondary analysis, we determine if a subset of the psychoactive effects of ketamine, the so-called mystical-type experience, mediates the effect of ketamine, when combined with motivational enhancement therapy, on at-risk drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent individuals interested in treatment. METHODS: Forty alcohol dependent adults were randomized to either a 52-minute infusion of ketamine or midazolam, which they received on a designated quit-day during the second week of a five-week motivational enhancement therapy regimen. Psychoactive effects were assessed following the infusion, and alcohol use was monitored for the subsequent 3 weeks at each twice-weekly visit. RESULTS: We found that ketamine leads to significantly greater mystical-type effects (by Hood Mysticism Scale) and dissociation (by Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale) compared to the active control. Ketamine also led to significant reduction in at-risk drinking. The Hood Mysticism Scale, but not Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale score, was found to mediate the effect of ketamine on drinking behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This trial adds evidence to the literature on the importance of mystical-type experiences in addiction treatment. Future research should continue to investigate the relationship between the psychoactive effects of psychedelic therapeutics and clinical outcomes for other substance use and mental health disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Misticismo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(6): 775-785, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954960

RESUMO

This article examines Fischl Schneersohn's (1887-1958) "science of man" as a psychotherapeutic approach situated between modern psychology and Chassidic mysticism. While almost forgotten today, Schneersohn was a prolific writer, well-known in Yiddish-speaking circles as a psychologist, educationalist, novelist, and psychotherapist. As a descendant of an important dynasty of Chassidic rebbes, he grew up inside the Chabad movement, but followed a secular career. The first part of this article traces Schneersohn's biography from the outskirts of the Russian empire to Germany, Poland, the United States, and Palestine, and shows how his upbringing and historical experiences shaped his psychological works and his self-understanding as educationalist and psychotherapist. The second part examines Schneersohn's main work, Studies in Psycho-Expedition, which blended Chassidic mysticism and contemporary psychology in a way that was both idiosyncratic and unique. The psycho-sociological "science of man" was a modern psychological and psychotherapeutic approach, using specific methods to gain knowledge about the human mind, and to counteract and treat mental disorders, neuroses, and nervousness. At the same time, however, it was deeply influenced by Chassidic mysticism; revolving around the assumption of a universal human need for spiritual ecstasy. Schneersohn universalised, secularised, and reframed elements of the Kabbalah as a modern psychotherapy. By examining an almost forgotten psychotherapeutic approach outside the mainstream in its specific historical context, this article contributes to the history of the connection between religion and the psy-disciplines, as well as to ongoing debates about the role of spirituality and ecstasy in psychology and psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Judeus/história , Misticismo/história , Psicoterapia/história , Religião e Psicologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Federação Russa
4.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(10): 3161-3171, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700023

RESUMO

Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant brew containing dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). It originates from the Amazon basin, where it is used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Ayahuasca tourists are now entering certain communities seeking alternative physical or psychological healing, as well as spiritual growth. RATIONALE: Recent evidence has shown that the similar acting psychedelic compound, psilocybin, facilitated long-term increases in trait openness following a single administration. OBJECTIVES: This paper assesses the impact of ayahuasca on personality in a traditional framework catering for ayahuasca tourists. METHOD: Within a mixed design, we examined the effect of ayahuasca on participants' personality (measured by the NEO Personality Inventory 3 questionnaire) across time (pre- to post-ayahuasca administration, and 6-month follow-up), relative to a comparison group (who did not ingest ayahuasca). RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant increases in agreeableness pre- and post-ayahuasca administration and significant reductions in neuroticism in 24 participants, relative to the comparison group. Both of these changes were sustained at 6-month follow-up, and trait level increases were also observed in openness at this stage. Additionally, greater perceived mystical experience (measured using the Mystical Experience Questionnaire 30) was associated with increased reductions in neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: These findings, which indicate a positive mediating effect of ayahuasca on personality, support the growing literature suggesting potential therapeutic avenues for serotonergic psychedelics.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Turismo Médico/psicologia , Neuroticismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Personalidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Banisteriopsis/química , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alucinógenos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Turismo Médico/tendências , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Misticismo/psicologia , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/isolamento & purificação , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Psilocibina/isolamento & purificação , Psilocibina/farmacologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 35(5): e2742, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research into psychedelic therapy models has shown promise for the treatment of specific psychiatric conditions. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin have been correlated with therapeutic benefits and long-term improvements in positive mental outlook and attitudes. This article aims to provide an overview of the topic, highlight strengths and weaknesses in current research, generate novel perspectives and discussion, and consider future avenues for research. DESIGN: This narrative review was designed to summarise and assess the state of research on psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences and applications for the treatment of specific psychiatric conditions. RESULTS: Contemporary methods on the quantification of mystical-type experiences and their acute subjective effects are discussed. Recent studies provide some understanding of the pharmacological actions of psychedelics although the neurological similarities and differences between spontaneous and psychedelic mystical-type experiences are not well described. Applicability to modern clinical settings is assessed. Potential novel therapeutic applications include use in positive psychology interventions in healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2006 significant advancements in understanding the therapeutic potential of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy have been made; however, more work is required to understand the neuromechanistic processes and applicability in modern clinical settings. Despite promising results in recent studies, funding issues for clinical trials, legal concerns and socio-cultural resistance provide a counterpoint to experimental evidence.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Psilocibina/farmacologia , Humanos , Misticismo/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
J Psychoactive Drugs ; 52(3): 273-281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148190

RESUMO

5-Methoxy-N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a potent, fast-acting psychedelic. Anecdotal reports from 5-MeO-DMT users suggest that they employ a variety of benefit enhancement (BE) strategies aimed to increase positive effects and decrease any potential challenging effects of the substance, but no empirical study has investigated this claim. We examined the prevalence of BE strategy use using secondary data from a survey of 5-MeO-DMT users (n = 515; Mage = 35.4, SD = 11.7; Male = 79%; White/Caucasian = 86%). Results indicated that BE strategy use was common in this sample. As a secondary aim, we assessed whether the use of BE strategies was associated with acute subjective (i.e., mystical-type, challenging) and persisting effects of 5-MeO-DMT among a subset of respondents who reported using 5-MeO-DMT once in their lifetime (n = 116). Results showed that the use of several BE strategies were associated with significantly more intense mystical-type effects and enduring beliefs about the personal meaning and spiritual significance of their experience, and some BE strategies were associated with less intense or challenging experiences. Data suggests that BE strategies are commonly used, and that the use of BE strategies may be associated with increases in positive mystical-type and enduring effects. The causal influence of BE strategies on acute/persisting effects of 5-MeO-DMT should be examined in longitudinal research.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/uso terapêutico , Misticismo/psicologia , Triptaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 15(3): 669-690, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053465

RESUMO

Although many researchers in psychology, religious studies, and psychiatry recognize that there is overlap in the experiences their subjects recount, disciplinary silos and challenges involved in comparing reported experiences have left us with little understanding of the mechanisms, whether biological, psychological, and/or sociocultural, through which these experiences are represented and differentiated. So-called mystical experiences, which some psychologists view as potentially sui generis, provide a test case for assessing whether we can develop an expanded framework for studying unusual experiences across disciplines and cultures. Evidence for the special nature of "mystical experience" rests on the operationalization of a metaphysically untestable construct in two widely used self-report scales: the Mysticism Scale and the Mystical Experiences Questionnaire. Consideration of the construct in light of research on alterations in sense of self induced by psychoactive drugs and meditation practices suggests that "positive experiences of undifferentiated unity" are not sui generis, but rather a type of "ego dissolution." To better understand the nature and effects of unusual experiences, such as alterations in the sense of self, we need self-report measures that distinguish between generically worded experiences and the way they are appraised in terms of valence, significance, cause, and long-term effects in different contexts.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Misticismo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Senso de Coerência , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Transtornos da Consciência , Ego , Alucinações/psicologia , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Meditação/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 14(4): 1-15, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1115082

RESUMO

Neste trabalho, pretendemos fazer dialogar âmbitos da existência que raramente são vistos reunidos: a análise de sonhos, numa abordagem da Psicologia Analítica num encontro com a daseinsanálise, e a experiência mística. Para tanto, lançamos mão de um sonho de um de meus pacientes e os relatos de Simone Weil, mística judia do século XX. Nesse sentido, meu paciente trouxe um sonho emblemático no qual se evidencia que o âmbito espiritual de sua existência estava recebendo pouca atenção. Vemos que os sonhos podem assumir o papel de apontar ao Dasein que diferentes âmbitos existenciais estão sendo negligenciados. De modo semelhante, para a Psicologia Analítica, a individuação apresenta-se como encontro de âmbitos inconscientes da existência não considerados pelo caráter unilateral da consciência. A experiência mística, entendida como relação de pessoalidade com Deus, no cristianismo, é um desses âmbitos e, quando negligenciada, pode produzir uma limitação na liberdade existencial do indivíduo. O mundo técnico parece desqualificar experiências não apreensíveis pela razão lógica, mas a existência pode sustentar sua essencial liberdade e permanecer aberta, plural e afeita às explosões de possibilidades que o Dasein, em última instância, é. A daseinsanálise é prática psicoterápica apoiada na Fenomenologia Hermenêutica de Heidegger e aponta para o acolhimento da diversidade infindável de possibilidades existenciais que perpassam o Dasein. Para a Psicologia Analítica, o processo de individuação, que recebe dos sonhos sentidos próprios, aponta na direção de diálogo profícuo entre a consciência e o universo plural, dinâmico e aberto do inconsciente. O mistério, doador de sentidos, pode ser um ângulo donde é possível um encontro entre a Fenomenologia e a Psicologia Analítica.


In this work, we intend to make ambits of existence that are rarely seen together dialogue: dream analysis, in an approach of Analytical Psychology in an encounter with daseinsanalysis, and the mystical experience. To this end, we made use of a dream from one of my patients and Simone Weil's reports, a mystical Jew from the 20th Century. In this sense, my patient brought an emblematic dream which revealed that the spiritual ambit of his existence was receiving little attention. We see that dreams can assume the role of pointing to Dasein that different existential ambits are being neglected. Similarly, for Analytical Psychology, individuation presents itself as an encounter of unconscious ambits of existence not considered by the unilateral feature of consciousness. The mystical experience, understood as the personal relationship with God, in Christianity, is one of these ambits and, when neglected, can produce a limitation on the existential liberty of the individual. The technical world seems to disqualify experiences that are not apprehensible by logical reason, but the existence can sustain the essential liberty and remain open, plural and prone to the explosion of possibilities that Dasein, ultimately, is. The daseinsanalys is a psychotherapeutic practice sustained by Heidegger's Hermeneutic Phenomenology and points to welcoming the everlasting diversity of existential possibilities that cross Dasein. For the Analytical Psychology, the process of individuation, which receives from dreams its own senses, points towards a fertile dialogue between consciousness and the plural universe, dynamic and open from the unconscious. The mystery, donor of meanings, can be an angle from which a meeting between Phenomenology and Analytical Psychology is possible.


En el presente trabajo pretendemos hacer dialogar diferentes ámbitos de la existencia que raramente son vistos juntos: el análisis de los sueños en un abordaje de la Psicología Analítica en encuentro con el análisis existencial (daseinanálise) y la experiencia mística. Para esto, tomamos un sueño de uno de mis pacientes y los relatos de Simone Weil, mística judía del siglo XX. En este sentido, mi paciente trajo un sueño emblemático en el cual se evidencia que el ámbito espiritual de su existencia estaba recibiendo poca atención. Observamos que los sueños pueden asumir el papel de señalar al Dasein que diferentes ámbitos existenciales están siendo descuidados. De modo similar, para la Psicología Analítica, la individuación se presenta como el encuentro de ámbitos inconscientes de la existencia no considerados por el carácter unilateral de la consciencia. Por otra parte, la experiencia mística, entendida como la relación de la personalidad con Dios, en el cristianismo, es uno de esos ámbitos y cuando es descuidada puede producir una limitación en la libertad existencial del individuo. El mundo técnico parece descalificar las experiencias no comprensibles por la razón lógica, sin embargo, la existencia puede mantener su esencial libertad y permanecer abierta, plural y afectiva ante las explosiones de posibilidades que el Dasein, en última instancia es. El análisis existencial es una práctica psicoterapéutica apoyada en la Fenomenología Hermenéutica de Heidegger y apunta al acogimiento de una infinita diversidad de posibilidades existenciales que atraviesan el Dasein. Para la Psicología Analítica, el proceso de individuación - que recibe de los sueños sentidos propios-, señala en dirección a un diálogo prolífico entre la consciencia y el universo plural, dinámico y abierto del inconsciente. Finalmente, el misterio, donador de sentidos, puede ser un ángulo por el cual es posible un encuentro entre la Fenomenología y la Psicología Analítica.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Misticismo , Psicoterapia , Espiritualidade , Sonhos , Hermenêutica
10.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(9): 1076-1087, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychedelic therapy is gaining recognition and the nature of the psychedelic experience itself has been found to mediate subsequent long-term psychological changes. Much emphasis has been placed on the occurrence of mystical-type experiences in determining long-term responses to psychedelics yet here we demonstrate the importance of another component, namely: emotional breakthrough. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-nine participants completed online surveys before and after a planned psychedelic experience. Items pertaining to emotional breakthrough were completed one day after the psychedelic experience, as were items comprising the already validated Mystical Experience Questionnaire and the Challenging Experience Questionnaire. Emotional breakthrough, Mystical Experience Questionnaire and Challenging Experience Questionnaire scores were used to predict changes in well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale) in a subsample of 75 participants with low well-being baseline scores (⩽45). RESULTS: Factor analyses revealed six emotional breakthrough items with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.932) and supported our prior hypothesis that emotional breakthrough is a distinct component of the psychedelic experience. Emotional breakthrough scores behaved dose-dependently, and were higher if the psychedelic was taken with therapeutic planning and intent. Emotional breakthrough, Mystical Experience Questionnaire and Challenging Experience Questionnaire scores combined, significantly predicted subsequent changes in well-being (r=0.45, p=0.0005, n=75), with each scale contributing significant predictive value. Emotional breakthrough and Mystical Experience Questionnaire scores predicted increases in well-being and Challenging Experience Questionnaire scores predicted less increases. CONCLUSIONS: Here we validate a six-item 'Emotional Breakthrough Inventory'. Emotional breakthrough is an important and distinct component of the acute psychedelic experience that appears to be a key mediator of subsequent longer-term psychological changes. Implications for psychedelic therapy are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Misticismo/psicologia , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(11): 3221-3230, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research demonstrated the potential of psychedelic drugs as treatment for depression and death-related anxiety and as an enhancement for well-being. While generally positive, responses to psychedelic drugs can vary according to traits, setting, and mental state (set) before and during ingestion. Most earlier models explain minimal response variation, primarily related to dosage and trust, but a recent study found that states of surrender and preoccupation at the time of ingestion explained substantial variance in mystical and adverse psilocybin experiences. OBJECTIVES: The current study sought to replicate the previous model, extend the model with additional predictors, and examine the role of mystical experience on positive change. METHOD: A hierarchical regression model was created with crowdsourced retrospective data from 183 individuals who had self-administered psilocybin in the past year. Scales explored mental states before, during, and after psilocybin ingestion, relying on open-ended memory prompts at each juncture to trigger recollections. Controlled drug administration was not employed. RESULTS: This study replicated the previous model, finding a state of surrender before ingestion a key predictor of optimal experience and preoccupation a key predictor of adverse experience. Additional predictors added to the explanatory power for optimal and adverse experience. The model supported the importance of mystical experiences to long-term change. CONCLUSION: Mental states of surrender or preoccupation at the time of ingestion explain variance in mystical or adverse psilocybin experiences, and mystical experiences relate to long-term positive change. The capacity to recognize this optimal preparatory mental state may benefit therapeutic use of psilocybin in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Psicológicos , Psilocibina/administração & dosagem , Pensamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Misticismo/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Memorandum ; 36: 1-20, Jun. 22, 2019.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-72082

RESUMO

Esse estudo pretende pensar na psicanálise enquanto uma prática clínica essencialmente compatível com certas características dos fenômenos místicos, o que lhe permite abordá-los clinicamente. Iniciamos o texto apresentando nossa compreensão de mística como um fenômeno de alteridade ontológica, ao contrário de uma produção subjetiva do ser humano. A partir disso, abordamos três características da psicanálise que a tornam relevantes para uma clínica dos fenômenos místicos: seu método apofático, sua prática de desconstrução identitária do “eu” e sua inscrição antropológica entre o universal e o particular. Finalizamos o estudo, dessa maneira, pensando na possível função clínica da psicanálise ao abordar a mística, a partir da ideia de adoecimentos espirituais.


This study intends to reflect on psychoanalysis as a clinical practice essentially compatible with certain characteristics of mystical phenomena, which enables it to clinically approach them. We start the text introducing our understanding of mysticism as a phenomenon of alterity, rather than a subjective production of the human being. Through such idea, we approach three characteristics of psychoanalysis that make it relevant for a clinic of the mystical phenomena: its apophatic method, its practice of deconstructing the identity of the “I” and its anthropological inscription between the universal and the particular. Thus, we finalize the study, thinking about the possible clinical function of psychoanalysis when approaching the mystic, based on the idea of spiritual illness.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Psicanálise , Psicologia Clínica , Misticismo/psicologia
13.
Memorandum ; 36: 1-20, jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007080

RESUMO

Esse estudo pretende pensar na psicanálise enquanto uma prática clínica essencialmente compatível com certas características dos fenômenos místicos, os que lhe permite abordá-los clinicamente. Iniciamos o texto apresentando nossa compreensão de mística como um fenômeno de alteridade ontológica, ao contrário de uma produção subjetiva do ser humano. A partir disso, abordamos três características da psicanálise que a tornam relevantes para uma clínica dos fenômenos místicos: seu método apofático, sua prática de desconstrução identitária do "eu" e sua inscrição antropológica entre o universal e o particular. Finalizamos o estudo, dessa maneira, pensando na possível função clínica da psicanálise ao abordar a mística, a partir da ideia de adoecimentos espirituais


This study intends to reflect on psychoanalysis as a clinical practice essentially compatible with certain characteristics of mystical phenomena, wich enables it to clinically approach them. We start the text introducing our understanding of mysticism as a phenomenon of alterity, rather than a subjective production of the human being. Through such idea, we approach three characteristics of apophatic method, its practice of deconstructing the identity of the "I" and its anthropological inscription between the universal and the particular. Thus, we finalize the study, thinking about the possible clinical function of psychoanalysis when approaching the mystic, based on the idea of spiritual illness


Assuntos
Psicologia Clínica , Psicanálise , Religião e Psicologia , Misticismo
14.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(9): 1088-1101, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of randomized studies using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcohol use disorder (AUD) showed large, significant effects for LSD efficacy compared to control conditions. Clinical studies suggest potential anti-addiction effects of LSD and mechanistically-related classic psychedelics for alcohol and other substance use disorders. AIMS: To supplement clinical studies, reports of psychedelic use in naturalistic settings can provide further data regarding potential effects of psychedelics on alcohol use. METHODS: An anonymous online survey of individuals with prior AUD reporting cessation or reduction in alcohol use following psychedelic use in non-clinical settings. RESULTS: 343 respondents, mostly White (89%), males (78%), in the USA (60%) completed the survey. Participants reported seven years of problematic alcohol use on average before the psychedelic experience to which they attributed reduced alcohol consumption, with 72% meeting retrospective criteria for severe AUD. Most reported taking a moderate or high dose of LSD (38%) or psilocybin (36%), followed by significant reduction in alcohol consumption. After the psychedelic experience 83% no longer met AUD criteria. Participants rated their psychedelic experience as highly meaningful and insightful, with 28% endorsing psychedelic-associated changes in life priorities or values as facilitating reduced alcohol misuse. Greater psychedelic dose, insight, mystical-type effects, and personal meaning of experiences were associated with a greater reduction in alcohol consumption, controlling for prior alcohol consumption and related distress. CONCLUSIONS: Although results cannot demonstrate causality, they suggest that naturalistic psychedelic use may lead to cessation or reduction in problematic alcohol use, supporting further investigation of psychedelic-assisted treatment for AUD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Misticismo/psicologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Hist Psychol ; 22(2): 149-162, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730170

RESUMO

During the later Middle Ages, a number of religiously oriented people behaved in ways that we would consider unusual, yet it was unusual for them to be regarded as mentally disordered. This article reviews late medieval thinking and practice with regard to mental disorder and also with regard to the discernment of spirits, that is, how it could be decided whether an experience or impulse to do something was the consequence of God or a good spirit, an evil spirit, or some purely human cause. Many of the criteria for discerning a good spirit were behavioral, for example, consistently showing humility and discretion, and were clearly distinct from those displayed in mental disorder. A comparison of the criteria for mental disorder with those used to discern spirits shows how the distinction between mental disorder and religious experience could have been made and why confusion of the two seems to have been rare. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Misticismo/história , Cristianismo/psicologia , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Misticismo/psicologia
16.
Med Anthropol Q ; 33(2): 207-225, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673140

RESUMO

Modern techniques of caring for the self through staying healthy rely on an ethic of choice, often evoking critiques of the (neo)liberal subject. This sense of choice has carried frequently overlooked Protestant commitments from Luther to Kant and Locke to 19th-century American health reformers, premised on a refusal of ritual, mysticism, and the priest as the source of truth. This article explores how these implicit commitments shape the relation to other religious traditions in countries like Trinidad. Campaigns against chronic disease in Trinidad carried out in public health venues and churches echo multinational health projects in pronouncing, "We all want a healthy life." The article draws on a Caribbean ironic sense of secularity to analyze the way that the threat to this "want" found in other religious traditions such as Pentecostal healing and Hindu ecstatic practices reveals Protestant commitments masked within a modern global "secular" care of the self.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hinduísmo , Política , Protestantismo , Saúde Pública , Antropologia Médica , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Misticismo , Estados Unidos
17.
Explore (NY) ; 15(4): 261-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660506

RESUMO

Wisdom-based Buddhist-derived practices (BDPs) are concerned with transmuting suffering by cultivating insight into the ultimate nature of both the self and reality. Arguably the most important wisdom-based BDP is emptiness (Sanskrit: sunyata) that implies that although phenomena are perceptible to the human mind, they do not intrinsically exist. Despite its significance in Buddhism, emptiness has received little empirical attention. Advancing scientific understanding of emptiness is important as it may yield novel insights not only into the nature of mind and reality, but also in terms of helping human beings realise more of their capacity for wisdom and wellbeing. This study recruited 25 advanced Buddhist meditators and compared emptiness meditation against a mindfulness meditation control condition within the same group of participants. Qualitative analytical techniques were also employed to investigate meditators' experiences of emptiness. Compared to the mindfulness control condition, emptiness meditation resulted in significantly greater improvements in non-attachment to self and environment, mystical experiences, compassion, positive affect, and negative affect. No significant relationship was observed between duration of emptiness meditation and any of the aforementioned outcome measures. Qualitative outcomes demonstrated that participants (i) combined concentrative and investigative meditation techniques to induce emptiness, (ii) elicited spiritually meaningful insights both during and following the meditation on emptiness, and (iii) retained volitional control over the content and duration of the emptiness meditation. Cultivating emptiness appears to be a means of reconnecting advanced Buddhist meditators to what they deem to be the innermost nature of their minds and phenomena.


Assuntos
Budismo , Meditação/métodos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meditação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Misticismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espiritualidade
18.
Pharmacol Ther ; 197: 83-102, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521880

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Promising results were reported for treatment of both end-of-life psychological distress and addiction, and classic psychedelics served as tools for studying the neurobiological bases of psychological disorders. Moreover, classic psychedelics were shown to occasion mystical experiences, which are subjective experiences reported throughout different cultures and religions involving a strong sense of unity, among other characteristics. However, the recreational use of classic psychedelics and their association with the counterculture prompted an end to human research with classic psychedelics in the early 1970s. We provide the most comprehensive review of epidemiological studies of classic psychedelics to date. Notable among these are a number of studies that have suggested the possibility that nonmedical naturalistic (non-laboratory) use of classic psychedelics is associated with positive mental health and prosocial outcomes, although it is clear that some individuals are harmed by classic psychedelics in non-supervised settings. We then review recent therapeutic studies suggesting efficacy in treating psychological distress associated with life-threatening diseases, treating depression, and treating nicotine and alcohol addictions. We also describe the construct of mystical experience, and provide a comprehensive review of modern studies investigating classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences and their consequences. These studies have shown classic psychedelics to fairly reliably occasion mystical experiences. Moreover, classic-psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences are associated with improved psychological outcomes in both healthy volunteer and patient populations. Finally, we review neuroimaging studies that suggest neurobiological mechanisms of classic psychedelics. These studies have also broadened our understanding of the brain, the serotonin system, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness. Overall, these various lines of research suggest that classic psychedelics might hold strong potential as therapeutics, and as tools for experimentally investigating mystical experiences and behavioral-brain function more generally.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Misticismo
20.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 30(4): 331-342, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260256

RESUMO

A psychological model of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy informed by contemporary scientific data is presented in this paper. It is suggested that classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experience is characterized by profound awe, a discrete emotion experienced in the presence of a vast stimulus requiring accommodation of mental structures. Awe, in turn, promotes the small self, a construct that, in the extreme, is analogous to those of unitive experience and ego dissolution. The small self is conceptualized as key to understanding the downstream effects of mystical experience occasioned in the context of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. With this novel theoretical framework in mind, a number of clinical implications and recommendations are provided so as to advance this incipient field of study.


Assuntos
Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Misticismo/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Psilocibina/administração & dosagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...