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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 149: 155-164, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the residual risk of waterborne contamination by Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a water network colonized by a single genotype [sequence type (ST) 299] despite the presence of antimicrobial filters in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: During the first 19-month period since the ICU opened, contamination of the water network was assessed monthly by collecting water upstream of the filters. Downstream water was also sampled to assess the efficiency of the filters. P. aeruginosa isolates from patients were collected and compared with the waterborne ST299 P. aeruginosa by multiplex-rep polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing. Cross-transmission events by other genotypes of P. aeruginosa were also assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 1.3% of 449 samples of filtered water were positive for P. aeruginosa in inoculum, varying between 1 and 104 colony-forming units/100 mL according to the tap. All P. aeruginosa hydric isolates belonged to ST299 and displayed fewer than two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among 278 clinical isolates from 122 patients, 10 isolates in five patients showed identical profiles to the hydric ST299 clone on both multiplex-rep PCR and PFGE, and differed by an average of fewer than five SNPs, confirming the water network reservoir as the source of contamination by P. aeruginosa for 4.09% of patients. Cross-transmission events by other genotypes of P. aeruginosa were responsible for the contamination of 1.75% of patients. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial filters are not sufficient to protect patients from waterborne pathogens when the water network is highly contaminated. A microbiological survey of filtered water may be needed in units hosting patients at risk of P. aeruginosa infections, even when all water points-of-use are fitted with filters.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbiologia da Água , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/transmissão , Filtração/instrumentação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Tipagem Molecular , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
2.
J Hosp Infect ; 149: 108-118, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, sequence type (ST) 239 and ST59 were two major clones among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates in the past two decades. USA300 (ST8) prevailed in the Americas but not in outside areas. Recently USA300 (ST8) emerged and was increasingly identified in Taiwan; we thus conducted an island-wide study to explore the role of USA300 among MRSA isolates. METHODS: One hundred MRSA bloodstream isolates identified in 2020 from each of the six participating hospitals in Taiwan were collected and characterized. The first 10 ST8 isolates from each hospital were further analysed by whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Of the 590 confirmed MRSA isolates, a total of 22 pulsotypes and 21 STs were identified. The strain of pulsotype AI/ST8 was the most common lineage identified, accounting for 187 isolates (31.7%) and dominating in five of six hospitals, followed by pulsotype A/ST239 (14.7%), pulsotype C/ST59 (13.9%) and pulsotype D/ST59 (9.2%). Of the 187 pulsotype AI/ST8 isolates, 184 isolates were characterized as USA300 and clustered in three major sub-pulsotypes, accounting for 78%. Ninety per cent of the 60 ST8 isolates for whole-genome sequencing were clustered in three major clades. CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, USA300 became the most common clone of MRSA in Taiwan, accounting for >30% of MRSA bloodstream isolates island wide. Most of USA300 isolates circulating in Taiwan might have been imported on multiple occasions and evolved into at least three successful local clades. MRSA USA300 has successfully established its role in Taiwan, an area outside of the Americas.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular
3.
Saudi Med J ; 45(5): 458-467, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734425

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to go through the molecular methods used for typing of carbapenem-resistant Acientobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates for investigating the molecular epidemiology all over the world. Multiple typing techniques are required to understand the source and nature of outbreaks caused by Acientobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) and acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Nowadays, there is gradual shift from traditional typing methods to modern molecular methods to study molecular epidemiology and infection control. Molecular typing of A. baumannii strains has been revolutionized significantly in the last 2 decades. A few sequencing-based techniques have been proven as a breakthrough and opened new prospects, which have not been achieved by the traditional methods. In this review, discussed different pre-existing and recently used typing methods to explore the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii pertaining in context with human infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos
4.
Nature ; 629(8012): 543-554, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750233

RESUMO

Metastasis is a multistep process by which cancer cells break away from their original location and spread to distant organs, and is responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. Preventing early metastatic dissemination would revolutionize the ability to fight cancer. Unfortunately, the relatively poor understanding of the molecular underpinnings of metastasis has hampered the development of effective anti-metastatic drugs. Although it is now accepted that disseminating tumour cells need to acquire multiple competencies to face the many obstacles they encounter before reaching their metastatic site(s), whether these competencies are acquired through an accumulation of metastasis-specific genetic alterations and/or non-genetic events is often debated. Here we review a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of both genetic and non-genetic reprogramming events during the metastatic cascade, and discuss how genetic and non-genetic processes act in concert to confer metastatic competencies. We also describe how recent technological advances, and in particular the advent of single-cell multi-omics and barcoding approaches, will help to better elucidate the cross-talk between genetic and non-genetic mechanisms of metastasis and ultimately inform innovative paths for the early detection and interception of this lethal process.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Multiômica , Tipagem Molecular , Reprogramação Celular
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012143, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662795

RESUMO

Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is now largely confined to around 40 low- and middle-income countries. It is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), a contagious intracellular bacterium. The World Health Organization recommends mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin for treatment and control of ocular Ct infections, alongside improving facial cleanliness and environmental conditions to reduce transmission. To understand the molecular epidemiology of trachoma, especially in the context of MDA and transmission dynamics, the identification of Ct genotypes could be useful. While many studies have used the Ct major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for genotyping, it has limitations. Our study applies a typing system novel to trachoma, Multiple Loci Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis combined with ompA (MLVA-ompA). Ocular swabs were collected post-MDA from four trachoma-endemic zones in Ethiopia between 2011-2017. DNA from 300 children with high Ct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) loads was typed using MLVA-ompA, utilizing 3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci within the Ct genome. Results show that MLVA-ompA exhibited high discriminatory power (0.981) surpassing the recommended threshold for epidemiological studies. We identified 87 MLVA-ompA variants across 26 districts. No significant associations were found between variants and clinical signs or chlamydial load. Notably, overall Ct diversity significantly decreased after additional MDA rounds, with a higher proportion of serovar A post-MDA. Despite challenges in sequencing one VNTR locus (CT1299), MLVA-ompA demonstrated cost-effectiveness and efficiency relative to whole genome sequencing, providing valuable information for trachoma control programs on local epidemiology. The findings suggest the potential of MLVA-ompA as a reliable tool for typing ocular Ct and understanding transmission dynamics, aiding in the development of targeted interventions for trachoma control.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Chlamydia trachomatis , Genótipo , Repetições Minissatélites , Tracoma , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/microbiologia , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Variação Genética , Lactente , Criança , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 509, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main causes of hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a group of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains with multiple virulence factors known as uropathogenic E. coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred E. coli isolates from the urine specimens of hospital- and community-acquired UTI patients were characterized based on their virulence factors and genetic relatedness using PCR and RAPD‒PCR, respectively. Among all, the traT (71%), sitA (64%), ompT (54%), malX (49%), ibeA (44%), tsh (39%), hlyD (18%) and cnf1 (12%) genes had the highest to lowest frequencies, respectively. There was no significant difference between the frequency of tested virulence genes in E. coli isolates from inpatients and outpatients. The frequency of the hlyD gene was significantly greater in E. coli isolates from patients hospitalized in gynecology, dermatology and intensive care unit (ICU) wards than in those from other wards. Eight virulence gene patterns were common among the isolates of inpatients in different wards of the same hospital, of which five patterns belonged to the isolates of inpatients in the same ward. More E. coli isolates with similar virulence gene patterns and greater genetic similarity were found in female patients than in male patients. The analysis of the RAPD‒PCR dendrograms revealed more genetic similarities among the E. coli isolates from inpatients than among those from outpatients. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of virulence factors in E. coli isolates and the possibility of spreading the same clones in different wards of the hospital.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Virulência/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Tipagem Molecular , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
7.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 24(4): 376-383, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of breast cancer ranks highest among cancers and is exceedingly heterogeneous. Immunohistochemical staining is commonly used clinically to identify the molecular subtype for subsequent treatment and prognosis. PURPOSE: Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM) learning algorithm were utilized to identify blood samples from breast cancer patients in order to investigate a novel molecular typing approach. METHOD: Tumor tissue coarse needle aspiration biopsy samples, and peripheral venous blood samples were gathered from 459 invasive breast cancer patients admitted to the breast department of Sichuan Cancer Hospital between June 2021 and September 2022. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization were performed on the coarse needle aspiration biopsy tissues to obtain their molecular typing pathological labels, including: 70 cases of Luminal A, 167 cases of Luminal B (HER2-positive), 57 cases of Luminal B (HER2-negative), 84 cases of HER2-positive, and 81 cases of triple-negative. Blood samples were processed to obtained Raman spectra taken for SVM classification models establishment with machine algorithms (using 80% of the sample data as the training set), and then the performance of the SVM classification models was evaluated by the independent validation set (20% of the sample data). RESULTS: The AUC values of SVM classification models remained above 0.85, demonstrating outstanding model performance and excellent subtype discrimination of breast cancer molecular subtypes. CONCLUSION: Raman spectroscopy of serum samples can promptly and precisely detect the molecular subtype of invasive breast cancer, which has the potential for clinical value.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Receptor ErbB-2 , Análise Espectral Raman , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptor ErbB-2/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Idoso , Prognóstico , Invasividade Neoplásica
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 416, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen which is an important cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic resistance infections. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the frequency of resistance to antibiotics, as well as the molecular typing of the associated isolates, and compare multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) methods to specify the degree to which distinctions can be separated from each other. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from different sources of infections from patients admitted to hospitals. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was then performed by applying the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Typing of K. pneumoniae was done by utilizing MLVA and ERIC-PCR methods. RESULTS: Eighty-six multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae isolates were identified, which resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and ceftriaxone was the most frequent in the considered isolates (100, 93, and 93%, respectively). A total of 50 different antibiotic susceptibility patterns were observed among the MDR K. pneumonia, with the most frequent pattern being resistance to all antibiotics (12.79%) and resistance to all antibiotics except amikacin (10.47%). The isolates were then divided into 37 different MLVA types and seven clonal complexes were obtained from the minimum spanning tree analysis. Finally, the isolates were assigned to 38 different ERIC types. The discriminatory power of MLVA and ERIC methods also showed a value of 0.958, and 0.974. CONCLUSION: Both PCR-typing methods with phenotypic patterns can be useful for the epidemiological typing of K. pneumoniae isolates with the highest performance in discriminating isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297333, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470881

RESUMO

AIM: Norway has a low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and reporting of all MRSA cases has been mandatory, including infections and carriage, since 1995 and 2005 accordingly. This provides a unique window to study the spread of MRSA in Norway over time. The aim of this study was to analyze the nationwide trends in the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in Norway over a period of 10 years. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data as well as bacterial genotype (spa-type and PVL) were analyzed for all reported MRSA cases in Norway in the period 2008-2017. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 15,200 MRSA cases reported in Norway, from 14,386 patients. The notification rate per 100,000 population increased by 15% annually, rising from 14.2 in 2007 to 48.6 in 2017. This increase was primarily driven by MRSA carriage and community-associated MRSA cases. The incidence of invasive infections remained stable and low, at less than 0.5. The incidence of healthcare-associated MRSA showed an increasing trend, while the number of outbreak-related cases, particularly those associated with nursing homes, decreased. Overall, there were significantly more MRSA infections in males than females. Interestingly, there was a significantly higher prevalence of MRSA infections in female young adolescents compared to males. spa-typing revealed a very heterogeneous MRSA population (D = 0.97), predominantly impacted by international travel and migration patterns, and less by domestic spread in the community. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that Norway, while still classified as a low-prevalence country, has experienced a significant increase in the incidence of MRSA between 2008 and 2017, which can predominantly be attributed to CA-MRSA and MRSA carriage.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Casas de Saúde , Noruega/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular
10.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(5)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444209

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were recovered from surface river water samples in La Rioja region (Spain) to characterise their antibiotic resistance, molecular typing and virulence mechanisms. Fifty-two P. aeruginosa isolates were isolated from 15 different water samples (45.4%) and belonged to 23 different pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, except one carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa that showed a premature stop codon in OprD porin. Twenty-two sequence types (STs) (six new ones) were detected among 29 selected P. aeruginosa (one strain with a different PFGE pattern per sample), with ST274 (14%) being the most frequent one. O:6 and O:3 were the predominant serotypes (31%). Seven virulotypes were detected, being 59% exoS-exoY-exoT-exoA-lasA-lasB-lasI-lasR-rhlAB-rhlI-rhlR-aprA-positive P. aeruginosa. It is noteworthy that the exlA gene was identified in three strains (10.3%), and the exoU gene in seven (24.1%), exoS in 18 (62.1%), and both exoS and exoU genes in one strain. High motility ranges were found in these strains. Twenty-seven per cent of strains produced more biofilm biomass, 90% more pyorubin, 83% more pyocyanin and 65.5% more than twice the elastase activity compared with the PAO1 strain. These results highlight the importance of rivers as temporary reservoirs and sources of P. aeruginosa transmission, and show the importance of their epidemiological surveillance in the environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Virulência/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Rios , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Tipagem Molecular , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Água
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 122, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441818

RESUMO

This study was conducted for identifying phylogenetic relationships between 15 scab-causing Streptomyces species including S. bottropensis, S. europaeiscabiei, S. scabiei, S. stelliscabiei and, other 11 Streptomyces sp. All of the strains were originally isolated from symptomatic potatoes in Erzurum Province, The Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Some morphological and biochemical properties of the strains were defined in our former research. Then, 16 s rRNA regions of them were sequenced. After the sequence data assembly, phylogenetic analyzes were performed. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains are involved in the same major group and, substantially similar to reference strains. Additionally, some subgroup formations were also recorded. Moreover, Repetitive element-based PCR (Rep-PCR), Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR), and BOX-PCR fingerprinting molecular typing methods were used for as molecular typing methods. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on phylogenetic relationships of scab-causing Streptomyces species from Turkey. However, the identification of most pathogenic strains remained at the species level.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae , Streptomyces , Turquia , Filogenia , Tipagem Molecular , Streptomyces/genética
12.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(1): 175-182, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319447

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide prevalence that is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to summarize available data on genotyping T. gondii strains based on the GRA6 gene marker in different hosts around the world. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five international databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) from inception until December 2021. We identified 32 papers eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. The majority of studies (50%) were carried out in Iran (n = 16) to identify T. gondii genotypes based on the GRA6 gene. Other countries with reported studies include China, Japan, Sweden, and Italy (n = 2 each). Out of 3,434 samples collected from various hosts, most studies (n = 11) focused on human samples (34.4%), followed by ovine (n = 7), pig (n = 4), goat (n = 3) and soil and cattle (n = 2).Using various molecular methods such as conventional PCR, nested-PCR, real-time PCR, microsatellite analysis, and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), we found DNA positive results in 805 out of 3,434 samples. Of these, 285 (35.40%), 207 (25.71%), 182 (22.60%), 65 (8.07%), and 18 (2.23%) were infected with types I, II, III, mix I, II, III, and mix II, III, respectively. Our data demonstrate that the GRA6 gene marker has sufficient polymorphism to detect three types of T. gondii genotypes in various hosts. Identifying the specific genotype could be valuable in developing new strategies for treatment, vaccination, diagnosis, control, and prevention of T. gondii infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Tipagem Molecular , Proteínas de Protozoários , Toxoplasma , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Cabras/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos , Suínos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
13.
Med Mycol ; 62(2)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38289726

RESUMO

Candida krusei also known as Pichia kudriavzevii is a potentially multidrug-resistant yeast because it is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and develops acquired resistance to echinocandins and polyenes. Here, we aim to provide a better understanding of the epidemiology and transmission modes of C. krusei infections by comparing invasive bloodstream (n = 35) and non-invasive vaginal (n = 20) C. krusei isolates. The genetic relatedness of the isolates was assessed using a newly described short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and their sensitivity to eight antifungal compounds was evaluated by antifungal susceptibility testing using the CLSI microbroth dilution method. All C. krusei isolates revealed unique STR genotypes, indicating the absence of clonal transmission in the study group. Furthermore, no drug-resistant or non-wild-type isolates were identified. Our findings demonstrated high resolution of STR genotyping for the detection and simultaneous genetic analysis of multiple C. krusei strains in clinical samples and excellent in vitro activity of common antifungal agents against invasive strains.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Pichia , Feminino , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Turquia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Tipagem Molecular/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
14.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 43(1): 187-194, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37971537

RESUMO

This study aimed to map MDRO carriage and potential transmission within and between three Flemish tertiary care hospitals and their neighbouring nursing homes. A cross-sectional MDRO prevalence survey was organized between October 2017 and February 2019. Perianal swabs were cultured for detection of MDRO. Determination of clonal relatedness based on wgMLST allelic profiles was performed. The prevalence of MDRO in Belgian hospitals and NHs is on the rise, compared to previous studies, and transmission in and between institutions is observed. These results re-emphasize the need for a healthcare network-wide infection prevention strategy in which WGS of MDRO strains can be supportive.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Casas de Saúde , Humanos , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Bactérias , Tipagem Molecular , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia
15.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13666, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37941162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wrestling, considered the national sport of Iran, has gained immense popularity among Iranians. Wrestlers frequently encounter skin conditions, with dermatophyte fungal infections, particularly tinea gladiatorum (TG), being a common issue. TG, caused by the Trichophyton genus, has emerged as a major health concern for wrestlers and other contact sport athletes worldwide. This study aimed to assess the genotypic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans isolates responsible for TG in Iranian wrestlers from Mazandaran province, northern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 clinical T. tonsurans isolates collected from various cities in Mazandaran, were included in the study. The isolates were identified through PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from these isolates, and the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was targeted for genotyping using newly designed primers. Haplotype analysis was performed to explore genetic diversity, and antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine (TRB) and itraconazole (ITC) was assessed. RESULTS: The results revealed five distinct NTS types: NTS-I, NTS-II, NTS-III, NTS-IV and NTS-V, with NTS-IV being the most prevalent. The distribution of NTS types varied across different cities, suggesting potential transmission patterns among wrestlers. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed that all isolates were susceptible to TRB, while one isolate demonstrated resistance to ITC. Genotypic diversity was not correlated with antifungal susceptibility, emphasising the importance of monitoring susceptibility to ensure effective treatment. Haplotype analysis highlighted significant genetic diversity among the T. tonsurans isolates. This diversity may be attributed to factors such as human-to-human transmission, geographic location and lifestyle changes. The study's findings underscore the need for comprehensive genotypic analysis to understand the epidemiology and evolution of T. tonsurans infections in athletes. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into the genotypic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of T. tonsurans isolates causing TG in Iranian wrestlers. The presence of multiple NTS types and varying susceptibility patterns highlights the complexity of T. tonsurans infections in this population. Further research is warranted to track the transmission routes and genetic evolution of T. tonsurans strains among wrestlers and develop effective control measures.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , População do Oriente Médio , Tinha , Luta Romana , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Tipagem Molecular , Terbinafina , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/etiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton
17.
Adv Mater ; 36(9): e2309046, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38011581

RESUMO

Developing a robust strategy for profiling heterogeneous circular tumor cells specifically, distinguishing the phenotypes of which in blood sample of cancer patient precisely, and releasing them sequentially, is significant for cancer management by liquid biopsy. Herein, a bio-inspired free-standing and flexible film composed of TiO2 nanotube and silk fibroin, fabricated with multiply dynamic bioactive surface (TSF/MDBS) by a simple and eco-friendly way including using polydopamine chemistry and dual dynamic covalent chemistry, is reported. The as-prepared TSF/MDBS binds specific peptides toward cells with epithelial biomarker and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) biomarker, and antifouling agents bovine serum albumin for obviating platelets and proteins adhering of blood, can capture heterogeneous CTCs with enhanced capability due to the cytocompatible soft film and exquisite surface design, and further release the captured cells as program, by specifically breaking down the covalent bonds in sequence via the action of adding biocompatible molecules fructose and glutathione. By applying the TSF/MDBS, it can be tailored into desired pieces for identifying CTCs with different phenotypes (HER2-high and HER2-low) from the unprocessed blood samples of breast cancer patients, and finally profiling these heterogeneous CTCs, to discriminate HER2 positive or negative of breast cancer patients in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fibroínas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Plaquetas , Tipagem Molecular , Biomarcadores
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 16-130 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS, CONASS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-TESESESSP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1555568

RESUMO

O bocavírus humano (HBoV) foi descrito pela primeira vez em 2005 e desde então associado como agente etiológico causador de doenças respiratórias e diarreia em todo mundo. Há 4 genótipos de HBoV identificados até o momento. HBoV-1 é comumente associado as infecções respiratórias, enquanto o HBoV-2, HBoV-3 e HBoV-4 são frequentemente detectados em amostras fecais. Coinfecções envolvendo o HBoV e outros agentes virais entéricos são frequentes. Vírus entéricos podem ser preservados em fezes congeladas por longos períodos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a frequência e a diversidade genotípica dos HBoV em amostras fecais históricas armazenadas e coletadas antes de 2005, a fim de compreender a história natural dos HBoV em pacientes com diarreia nas regiões Centro Oeste, Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. A associação do HBoV com outros vírus gastroentéricos de importância epidemiológica na doença diarreica também foi explorada. Um total de 3347 amostras foram selecionadas e testadas para HBoV por qPCR. As amostras positivas foram genotipadas por PCR convencional seguido de sequenciamento Sanger. As amostras positivas para HBoV por qPCR também foram testadas para a presença de Norovírus (NoV) por RT-qPCR e para Adenovirus Humano (HAdV) por PCR convencional e sequenciamento. HBoV foi detectado em 5,8% (195/3347). Coinfecção com NoV foi encontrada em 25,6% (50/195), HAdV 8,2% (16/195) e a tripla-infecção em 1% (2/195), totalizando 34,9% (68/195) de casos de coinfecções. Esses achados indicam que o HBoV pode ter um papel epidemiológico importante como único agente causador de doença diarreica em pacientes (65,2% de monoinfecções). A taxa de detecção variou significativamente de acordo com os anos de 2000-2001, 2002-2003 e 2003-2004 (p<0,05).


The human bocavirus (HBoV) was first described in 2005 and has since been associated as an etiological agent causing respiratory diseases and diarrhea worldwide. There are four genotypes of HBoV identified so far. HBoV-1 is commonly associated with respiratory infections, while HBoV-2, HBoV-3, and HBoV-4 are often detected in fecal samples. Coinfections involving HBoV and other enteric viral agents are common. Enteric viruses can be preserved in frozen feces for long periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and genotypic diversity of HBoV in stored historical fecal samples collected before 2005, in order to understand the natural history of HBoV in patients with diarrhea in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. The association of HBoV with other gastroenteric viruses of epidemiological importance in diarrheal disease was also explored. A total of 3347 selected samples were tested for HBoV by qPCR. Positive samples were genotyped by conventional PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Samples positive for HBoV by qPCR were also tested for the presence of Norovirus (NoV) by RT-qPCR and Human Adenovirus (HAdV) by conventional PCR and sequencing. HBoV was detected in 5.8% (195/3347) of samples. Coinfection with NoV was found in 25.6% (50/195), HAdV in 8.2% (16/195), and triple infection in 1% (2/195), totaling 34.9% (68/195) of coinfection cases. These findings indicate that HBoV may play an important epidemiological role as a single causative agent of diarrheal disease in patients (65.2% of monoinfections). The detection rate varied significantly according to the years 2000-2001, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 (p<0.05), reinforcing that HBoV is an important pathogen in childhood diarrhea. The genotype was obtained in 32.8% (64/195) of positive HBoV samples, and genetic analysis identified the circulation of HBoV-1


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tipagem Molecular , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Gastroenterite
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 149: 184-188, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145811

RESUMO

This paper aims to describe the investigation and control of an outbreak of USA300 ST8 Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), confirmed by whole genome sequencing (WGS), within a maternity and neonatal setting in the UK. The identification of two linked PVL-MRSA cases led to an outbreak investigation. A lookback exercise conducted using the infection control surveillance database, typing of saved MRSA isolates, enhanced patient screening, and staff screening were used to identify further cases. Environmental screening was also performed. Genetic relatedness between isolates was assessed by WGS. During the outbreak, 18 cases were identified between 11th July 2021 and 22nd December 2022: 10 cases were infections and eight cases were colonizations. A healthcare worker (HCW) tested positive for colonization with the same strain, and environmental swabbing identified contaminated information technology equipment in the hospital. The outbreak was brought to an end by exclusion of the colonized HCW from work, and infection prevention and control measures. Since the end of the outbreak, cases of PVL-MRSA with similar molecular profiles have been found in the community. It is likely that the HCW played a role in the transmission of PVL-MRSA. Their exclusion from work and decolonization were key to preventing further cases. WGS was valuable in identifying and linking cases. The identification of community cases of PVL-MRSA with similar molecular profiles confirms transmission of the organism outside of healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecção Hospitalar , Surtos de Doenças , Exotoxinas , Controle de Infecções , Leucocidinas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Exotoxinas/genética , Maternidades , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
N Z Vet J ; 72(1): 1-9, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37589061

RESUMO

AIMS: To apply molecular typing to DNA isolated from historical samples to determine Leptospira spp. infecting farmed and wild mammals in New Zealand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA samples used in this study were extracted from urine, serum or kidney samples (or Leptospira spp. cultures isolated from them) collected between 2007 and 2017 from a range of domestic and wildlife mammalian species as part of different research projects at Massey University. Samples were included in the study if they met one of three criteria: samples that tested positive with a lipL32 PCR for pathogenic Leptospira; samples that tested negative by lipL32 PCR but were recorded as positive to PCR for pathogenic Leptospira in the previous studies; or samples that were PCR-negative in all studies but were from animals with positive agglutination titres against serogroup Tarassovi. DNA samples were typed using PCR that targeted either the glmU or gyrB genetic loci. The resulting amplicons were sequenced and typed relative to reference sequences. RESULTS: We identified several associations between mammalian hosts and Leptospira strains/serovars that had not been previously reported in New Zealand. Leptospira borgpetersenii strain Pacifica was found in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) samples, L. borgpetersenii serovars Balcanica and Ballum were found in wild red deer samples, Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni was found in stoats (Mustela erminea) and brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), and L. borgpetersenii was found in a ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Furthermore, we reconfirmed previously described associations including dairy cattle with L. interrogans serovars Copenhageni and Pomona and L. borgpetersenii serovars Ballum, Hardjo type bovis and strain Pacifica, sheep with L. interrogans serovar Pomona and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type bovis, brushtail possum with L. borgpetersenii serovar Balcanica, farmed deer with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type bovis and hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) with L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an updated summary of host-Leptospira associations in New Zealand and highlights the importance of molecular typing. Furthermore, strain Pacifica, which was first identified as Tarassovi using serological methods in dairy cattle in 2016, has circulated in animal communities since at least 2007 but remained undetected as serology is unable to distinguish the different genotypes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To date, leptospirosis in New Zealand has been diagnosed with serological typing, which is deficient in typing all strains in circulation. Molecular methods are necessary to accurately type strains of Leptospira spp. infecting mammals in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Cervos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Sorogrupo , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Furões , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais Selvagens , DNA , Tipagem Molecular/veterinária
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