Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.293
Filtrar
1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009945

RESUMO

A large number of power meters have become commercially available during the last decades to provide power output (PO) measurement. Some of these power meters were evaluated for validity in the literature. This study aimed to perform a review of the available literature on the validity of cycling power meters. PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar have been explored with PRISMA methodology. A total of 74 studies have been extracted for the reviewing process. Validity is a general quality of the measurement determined by the assessment of different metrological properties: Accuracy, sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and robustness. Accuracy was most often studied from the metrological property (74 studies). Reproducibility was the second most studied (40 studies) property. Finally, repeatability, sensitivity, and robustness were considerably less studied with only 7, 5, and 5 studies, respectively. The SRM power meter is the most used as a gold standard in the studies. Moreover, the number of participants was very different among them, from 0 (when using a calibration rig) to 56 participants. The PO tested was up to 1700 W, whereas the pedalling cadence ranged between 40 and 180 rpm, including submaximal and maximal exercises. Other exercise conditions were tested, such as torque, position, temperature, and vibrations. This review provides some caveats and recommendations when testing the validity of a cycling power meter, including all of the metrological properties (accuracy, sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and robustness) and some exercise conditions (PO range, sprint, pedalling cadence, torque, position, participant, temperature, vibration, and field test).


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Torque
2.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103555, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although firefighters are required to perform various high-intensity critically essential tasks, the influence of neuromuscular function on firefighter occupational performance is unclear. The primary aim of the current study was to identify the key neuromuscular determinants of stair climb (SC) performance in firefighters. METHODS: Leg extension isometric peak torque (PT), peak power (PP), torque steadiness at 10% (Steadiness10%) and 50% (Steadiness50%) of PT, fatigability following 30 repeated isotonic concentric contractions at 40% of PT, percent body fat (%BF), and a weighted and timed SC task were examined in 41 (age: 32.3 ± 8.2 yrs; %BF: 24.1 ± 7.9%) male career firefighters. RESULTS: Faster SC times (74.7 ± 13.4 s) were associated with greater PT and PP, less fatigability, younger age, and lower %BF (r = -0.530-0.629; P ≤ 0.014), but not Steadiness10% or Steadiness50% (P ≥ 0.193). Stepwise regression analyses indicated that PP and Steadiness50% were the strongest predictors of SC time (R2 = 0.442, P < 0.001). However, when age and %BF were included in the model, these variables became the only significant predictors of SC time (R2 = 0.521, P < 0.001) due to age and %BF being collectively associated with all the neuromuscular variables (excluding Steadiness10%). CONCLUSIONS: Lower extremity neuromuscular function, specifically PP and steadiness, and %BF are important modifiable predictors of firefighter SC performance, which becomes increasingly important in aging firefighters.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Força Muscular , Torque , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 31(1): 151-158, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased sagittal-plane trunk tilt is thought to increase drive in the anterior direction toward home plate, transferring energy from the trunk to the distal upper extremity, ultimately generating greater ball velocity. Increased sagittal trunk tilt has also been implicated in the risk of upper-extremity joint loading in baseball pitchers by way of elbow varus torque (EVT), a metric previously associated with elbow injury in professional pitchers. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare sagittal trunk tilt positioning between high school and professional pitchers throughout the pitch and (2) to identify the potential associations between sagittal-plane trunk tilt, ball velocity, and EVT for both cohorts. METHODS: Professional and high school pitchers were instructed to throw fastballs while being evaluated with 3-dimensional motion capture (480 Hz). Sagittal trunk tilt motion throughout the pitching motion was compared between cohorts from maximum knee height to maximum shoulder internal rotation. To assess the effects of sagittal-plane trunk tilt on ball velocity and EVT, linear mixed-effect models were created. RESULTS: Professional pitchers (n = 100, 882 pitches) achieved greater sagittal trunk tilt than high school pitchers (n = 57, 519 pitches) during early portions of the pitching motion, including maximum positive sagittal trunk tilt (46.6° ± 8.3° vs. 43.6° ± 10.2°, P = .042). Professional pitchers also had greater sagittal trunk tilt excursion throughout the pitch motion (68.0° ± 11.4° vs. 62.5° ± 11.0°, P = .004). For every 10° increase in sagittal trunk tilt at ball release for professional pitchers, ball velocity increased by 0.36 m/s (B = 0.036 and ß = 0.194, P < .001) or 0.9% average ball velocity whereas EVT increased by 0.14% body weight × body height (B = 0.014 and ß = 0.159, P < .001) or 2.9% average normalized EVT. For every 10° increase in sagittal trunk tilt at ball release for high school pitchers, ball velocity increased by 0.34 m/s (B = 0.097 and ß = 0.025, P = .025) or 1.1% average ball velocity whereas EVT increased by 0.07% body weight × body height (B = 0.007 and ß = 0.086, P = .016) or 1.7% average normalized EVT. CONCLUSION: Increased positive sagittal-plane trunk tilt was significantly associated with greater ball velocity and increased EVT for both professional and high school pitchers. Peak EVT estimates were consistently more pronounced than ball velocity benefits for both populations, suggesting that no specific time point may provide a ball velocity benefit while concomitantly minimizing EVT. Both professional and high school pitchers should consider this trade-off, which may influence injury risk, when engaging in higher degrees of positive sagittal-plane trunk tilt.


Assuntos
Beisebol , Articulação do Cotovelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cotovelo , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Torque
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960269

RESUMO

It remains unknown whether variation of scores on the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale for muscle strength is associated with operator-independent techniques: dynamometry and surface electromyography (sEMG). This study aimed to evaluate whether the scores of the MRC strength scale are associated with instrumented measures of torque and muscle activity in post-stroke survivors with severe hemiparesis both before and after an intervention. Patients affected by a first ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke within 6 months before enrollment and with complete paresis were included in the study. The pre- and post-treatment assessments included the MRC strength scale, sEMG, and dynamometry assessment of the triceps brachii (TB) and biceps brachii (BB) as measures of maximal elbow extension and flexion torque, respectively. Proprioceptive-based training was used as a treatment model, which consisted of multidirectional exercises with verbal feedback. Each treatment session lasted 1 h/day, 5 days a week for a total 15 sessions. Nineteen individuals with stroke participated in the study. A significant correlation between outcome measures for the BB (MRC and sEMG p = 0.0177, ρ = 0.601; MRC and torque p = 0.0001, ρ = 0.867) and TB (MRC and sEMG p = 0.0026, ρ = 0.717; MRC and torque p = 0.0001, ρ = 0.873) were observed post intervention. Regression models revealed a relationship between the MRC score and sEMG and torque measures for both the TB and BB. The results confirmed that variation on the MRC strength scale is associated with variation in sEMG and torque measures, especially post intervention. The regression model showed a causal relationship between MRC scale scores, sEMG, and torque assessments.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Sobreviventes , Torque
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0262028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972160

RESUMO

Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) instruments (e.g., magnetic and optical tweezers) often use video tracking to measure the three-dimensional position of micron-scale beads under an applied force. The force in these experiments is calibrated by comparing the bead trajectory to a thermal motion-based model with the drag coefficient, γ, and trap spring constant, κ, as parameters. Estimating accurate parameters is complicated by systematic biases from spectral distortions, the camera exposure time, parasitic noise, and least-squares fitting methods. However, while robust calibration methods exist that correct for these biases, they are not always used because they can be complex to implement computationally. To address this barrier, we present Tweezepy: a Python package for calibrating forces in SMFS video-tracking experiments. Tweezepy uses maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to estimate parameters and their uncertainties from a single bead trajectory via the power spectral density (PSD) and Allan variance (AV). It is well-documented, fast, easy to use, and accounts for most common sources of biases in SMFS video-tracking experiments. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of Tweezepy's calibration scheme, including a review of the theory underlying thermal motion-based parameter estimates, a discussion of the PSD, AV, and MLE, and an explanation of their implementation.


Assuntos
Magnetismo/métodos , Pinças Ópticas , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Calibragem , Análise de Fourier , Gravitação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Funções Verossimilhança , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Movimento (Física) , Distribuição Normal , Polímeros/química , Linguagens de Programação , Software , Torque
6.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 160(5): 641-642, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752248

Assuntos
Movimento , Humanos , Torque
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833628

RESUMO

Evaluation of the initial stability of implants is essential to reduce the number of implant failures of pedicle screws after orthopedic surgeries. Laser resonance frequency analysis (L-RFA) has been recently proposed as a viable diagnostic scheme in this regard. In a previous study, L-RFA was used to demonstrate the diagnosis of implant stability of monoaxial screws with a fixed head. However, polyaxial screws with movable heads are also frequently used in practice. In this paper, we clarify the characteristics of the laser-induced vibrational spectra of polyaxial screws which are required for making L-RFA diagnoses of implant stability. In addition, a novel analysis scheme of a vibrational spectrum using L-RFA based on machine learning is demonstrated and proposed. The proposed machine learning-based diagnosis method demonstrates a highly accurate prediction of implant stability (peak torque) for polyaxial pedicle screws. This achievement will contribute an important analytical method for implant stability diagnosis using L-RFA for implants with moving parts and shapes used in various clinical situations.


Assuntos
Parafusos Pediculares , Lasers , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Frequência de Ressonância , Torque
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833796

RESUMO

Mechatronic systems that allow motorized activation in robotic exoskeletons have evolved according to their specific applications and the characteristics of the actuation system, including parameters such as size, mechanical properties, efficiency, and power draw. Additionally, different control strategies and methods could be implemented in various electronic devices to improve the performance and usability of these devices, which is desirable in any application. This paper proposes the integration and testing of a high-torque, servo-driven joint and its electronic controller, exposing its use in a robotic exoskeleton prototype as a case study. Following a brief background review, the development and implementation of the proposal are presented, allowing the control of the servo-driven joint in terms of torque, rotational velocity, and position through a straightforward, closed-loop control architecture. Additionally, the stability and performance of the servo-driven joint were assessed with and without load. In conclusion and based on the obtained results, the servo-driven joint and its control system demonstrate consistent performance under the proposed test protocol (max values: angular velocity 97 °/s, torque 33 Nm, positioning RMSE 1.46°), enabling this approach for use in various applications related to robotic exoskeletons, including human performance enhancement, rehabilitation, or support for daily living activities.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Atividades Cotidianas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletrônica , Humanos , Torque , Extremidade Superior
9.
Prog Orthod ; 22(1): 42, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate factors affecting the long-term stability of microimplants using removal torque and the correlation between removal torque and clinical variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research evaluated 703 microimplants placed in 354 patients (mean age: 30.4 ± 12.1 years). The removal torque was evaluated according to various clinical variables including sex, age, placement site, microimplant size, and placement method (self-drilling versus pre-drilling). Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate different variables and their association with removal torque. RESULTS: The mean removal torque was significantly higher in the mandible (4.46 N cm) than in the maxilla (3.73 N cm). The values in the posterior teeth/retromolar areas were significantly higher than those in the anterior teeth area. There were no significant difference in terms of sex. Teenagers had a lower removal torque than older adults in the mandible, but not in the maxilla. Microimplants with a greater length and diameter, except for those with a greater diameter in the maxilla, was associated with a higher removal torque. Regardless of placement torque, the removal torque convergently reached approximately 4 N cm in both placement methods. The removal torque was significantly correlated with screw length in the self-drilling group and with diameter in the pre-drilling group. CONCLUSIONS: Removal torque was related with placement site, age, placement method, and length and diameter of microimplants.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Procedimentos de Ancoragem Ortodôntica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/cirurgia , Torque , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 21(4): 366-374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810364

RESUMO

Aim: Successful functional and esthetic rehabilitation of edentulous jaws with implants depends on the optimal timing of placement, surgical protocol, materials used, cost-effectiveness, and satisfying patient needs. Increasing demand for shorter treatment times necessitates the immediate placement protocol. However, researchers have demonstrateda higher failure rate. A-PRF (Advanced platelet-rich fibrin) has exhibited accelerated bone regeneration potential. Early implant placement with a limited healing period, along with A-PRF, can be beneficial over conventional and immediate implant placement. Settings and Design: This prospective randomized clinical trial aims to assess the outcome of early implant placement in sockets preserved using A-PRF at six weeks and eight weeks of post-extraction. Two groups of 10 participantseach were formed. All patients underwent atraumatic extraction and socket preservation using A-PRF. Materials and Methods: A Partial-thickness pedicle graft was raised, and the extraction socket wasclosed. Implants wereplaced in at six and eight weeks of post-extraction in group A group B, respectively. The histomorphometric analysisassessedthe bone quality present at the timeof surgery. The insertion torque values were recorded during implant placement. Statistical Analysis Used: The obtained data were statistically analyzed using parametric tests, namely independent T-test for intergroup comparison. Results: T-test for torque values indicated a significantly higher torque value at eight weeks. The meanhistomorphometric value showeda significantly higher percentage of bone formation at eight weeks than at six weeks (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Within the study's limitations, early implant placement in extraction sockets preserved with A-PRF had significantly higher insertion torque values and predictable bone at eight weeks compared to six weeks.


Assuntos
Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Implantes Absorvíveis , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental/cirurgia , Torque , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study analyzes the associations between the muscle contractile properties (MCP) measured at different neuromuscular electrical stimulation amplitudes (NMESa) and the performance or transient fatigue after a bout of repeated sprints. METHODS: Seventeen physically active male subjects performed six repeated sprints of 30 m with 30 s of passive recovery. Capillary blood creatine kinase (CK) concentration, knee extension or flexion isometric peak torque, tensiomyography, and repeated sprint performance were assessed. RESULTS: Muscle displacement and contraction time were different in relation to the NMESa used in the rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. At rest, significant (p < 0.05) associations were found between muscle displacement and the loss of time in the repeated sprints (sprint performance) at 20 or 40 mA in the rectus femoris. At post +24 h or +48 h, the highest significant associations were found between the muscle displacement or the contraction time and CK or peak torques also at submaximal amplitudes (20 mA). The NMESa which elicits the peak muscle displacement showed lack of practical significance. CONCLUSION: Although MCP are typically assessed in tensiomyography using the NMESa that elicit peak muscle displacement, a submaximal NMESa may have a higher potential practical application to assess neuromuscular fatigue in response to repeated sprints.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Joelho , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Torque
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257985, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the initial implant stability obtained using four different osteotomy techniques in low-density synthetic bone, to evaluate the instrument design in comparison to the implant design, and to determinate a possible correlation between the insertion torque and initial stability quotient (ISQ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups were identified in accordance with the osteotomy technique used (n = 10 implants per group): group G1, osteotomy using the recommended drilling sequence; group G2, osteotomy using an undersized compactor drill; group G3, osteotomy using an undersized drill; and group G4, osteotomy using universal osseodensification drills. Two polyurethane blocks were used: block 1, with a medullary portion of 10 pounds per cubic foot (PCF 10) and with a 1 mm cortical portion of PCF 40, and block 2, with a medullary of PCF 15 and with a 2 mm cortical portion of PCF 40. Tapered implants of 4 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length were used. The insertion torque (IT) and ISQ were measured. The dimensions of the final instrument used in each group and the dimensions of the implant were used to calculate the total area of each part, and these data were compared. RESULTS: Differences between the four groups were found for IT and ISQ values depending on the technique used for the osteotomy in the two synthetic bone models (p < 0.0001). All groups showed lower values of initial stability in block 1 than in block 2. CONCLUSIONS: Undersized osteotomies with instruments designed according to the implant body significantly increased the initial stability values compared to beds prepared with universal drills and using the drilling sequence standardized by the manufacturer.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/instrumentação , Osteotomia/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Brasil , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Poliuretanos/química , Poliuretanos/uso terapêutico , Torque
13.
Int J Implant Dent ; 7(1): 98, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare removal torque values after mechanical cyclic loading and bending moment after the static compression testing of customized titanium abutment compared with prefabricated and hybrid abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was developed according to ISO 14801:2016. Sixty implants were divided into three groups equally: Straight titanium abutment group, Customized titanium abutment group, and Hybrid zirconia abutment group. Abutments were fabricated with zirconia restoration. Forty five implants underwent for cyclic loading. The removal torque values were measured after a fatigue test was conducted at 0 cycles (control), 50,000 cycles and 1,000,000 cycles. In the second experiment, 15 implants were divided into the same groups. Then, bending moments were investigated. RESULTS: The mean initial removal torque value was significantly higher than 50,000 cycles and 1,000,000 cycles (P < 0.001). The comparison of mean removal torque value between types of abutments was not significantly different (P > 0.05), and the bending moments of all abutments were not significantly different (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: From the boundary of this in-vitro study, it could be concluded that customized titanium abutment and hybrid abutment were not significantly different in terms of removal torque values after the fatigue test. The bending moment between types of abutment were not significantly different. Thus, it could be concluded that abutment type does not significantly influence abutment stability or fracture strength.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Titânio , Teste de Materiais , Torque , Zircônio
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684368

RESUMO

The present study uniquely examined the effect of 3 mg·kg-1 chronic caffeine consumption on training adaptations induced by 7-weeks resistance training and assessed the potential for habituation to caffeine's ergogenicity. Thirty non-specifically resistance-trained university standard male rugby union players (age (years): 20 ± 2; height (cm): 181 ± 7; body mass (kg): 92 ± 17) completed the study), who were moderate habitual caffeine consumers (118 ± 110 mg), completed the study. Using a within-subject double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design, the acute effects of caffeine intake on upper and lower limb maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric torque were measured using isokinetic dynamometry (IKD) prior to and immediately following a resistance training intervention. Participants were split into strength-matched groups and completed a resistance-training program for seven weeks, consuming either caffeine or a placebo before each session. Irrespective of group, acute caffeine consumption improved peak eccentric torque of the elbow extensors (p < 0.013), peak concentric torque of the elbow flexors (p < 0.005), total eccentric work of the elbow flexors (p < 0.003), total concentric work of the knee extensors (p < 0.001), and total concentric and eccentric work of the knee flexors (p < 0.046) following repeated maximal voluntary contractions. Many of these acute caffeine effects were still prevalent following chronic exposure to caffeine throughout the intervention. The training intervention resulted in significant improvements in upper and lower body one-repetition maximum strength (p < 0.001). For the most part, the effect of the training intervention was equivalent in both the caffeine and placebo groups, despite a small but significant increase (p < 0.037) in the total work performed in the participants that consumed caffeine across the course of the intervention. These results infer that caffeine may be beneficial to evoke acute improvements in muscular strength, with acute effects prevalent following chronic exposure to the experimental dose. However, individuals that consumed caffeine during the intervention did not elicit superior post-intervention training- induced adaptations in muscular strength.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Futebol Americano , Treinamento de Força , Nível de Alerta , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Placebos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682378

RESUMO

The different effects of intermittent and continuous stretching on the mechanical properties of the musculotendinous complex have been unclear. This study aimed to compare the effects of intermittent and continuous stretching for the same duration on the range of motion (ROM), passive resistive torque (PRT), and musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) of ankle plantar flexors. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. Intermittent (four sets × 30 s) and continuous stretching (one set × 120 s) were performed in random orders on two separate days. Both stretching protocols were conducted using a dynamometer with a constant torque applied. ROM and PRT were determined using a dynamometer, and MTS was calculated using the torque-angle relationship measured before and after stretching. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for all parameters. Both intermittent and continuous stretching significantly increased ROM and decreased PRT and MTS (p < 0.05). Intermittent stretching led to greater changes in ROM and PRT than continuous stretching. However, the reduction in MTS did not differ between the two conditions. These results suggest that intermittent stretching is more effective in increasing ROM and changing the mechanical properties of the musculotendinous complex.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Tendões , Torque
16.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 61: 102609, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689116

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of changes in ankle joint angle on the mechanomyogram (MMG) amplitude of the human medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle during voluntary isometric plantarflexion contractions. Ten healthy individuals were asked to perform voluntary isometric contractions at six different contraction intensities (from 10% to 100%) and at three different ankle joint angles (plantarflexion of 26°; plantarflexion of 10°; dorsiflexion of 3°). MMG signals were recorded from the surface over the MG muscle, using a 3-axis accelerometer. The relations between root mean square (RMS) MMG and isometric plantarflexion torque at different ankle joint angles were characterized to evaluate the effects of altered muscle mechanical properties on RMS MMG. We found that the relation between RMS MMG and plantarflexion torque is changed at different ankle joint angles: RMS MMG increases monotonically with increasing the plantarflexion torque but decreases as the ankle joint became dorsiflexed. Moreover, RMS MMG shows a negative correlation with muscle length, with passive torque, and with maximum voluntary torque, which were all changed significantly at different ankle joint angles. Our findings demonstrate the potential effects of changing muscle mechanical properties on muscle vibration amplitude. Future studies are required to explore the major sources of this muscle vibration from the perspective of muscle mechanics and muscle activation level, attributable to changes in the neural command.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético , Torque
17.
Am J Dent ; 34(5): 245-249, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in maxillary premolars of different torques and simulated cervical stress profiles of the premolars under coincident loadings using finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: The CBCT scans of 616 maxillary premolars from 154 subjects were retrospectively evaluated. The premolars were ascribed into low torque group (LTG) <-10.9°, medium torque group (MTG) -10.9° to -3.9°, and high torque group (HTG) >-3.9°, when the torque was referring to the occlusion plane. The prevalence of NCCLs in each group was evaluated. Then finite element models of a maxillary first premolar, its adjacent teeth and alveolar bone were established. The models were prepared with ANSYS software generating the premolars presenting different torques. The mastication scenario for the premolars in maximum intercuspation position was simulated. RESULTS: The prevalence of NCCLs was 15.7% in LTG, 7.9% in MTG and 5.5% in HTG. The prevalence of LTG was significantly higher than that of MTG (P< 0.05) and HTG (P< 0.01). As for FEA, the stresses at the buccal necks of the premolars basically increased with decrease of the torque. The tensile stress peaks were in the cemento-enamel junction in most premolars of the LTG, while in the middle of the crowns in premolars of MTG and HTG. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Low torque with excessive lingual inclination is a risk factor for NCCLs of maxillary premolars, and excessive tensile stress concentration in buccal necks during mastication may be responsible for that.


Assuntos
Colo do Dente , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Colo do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Torque
18.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 32(11): 1274-1287, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A novel implant design, the rectangular block implant (RBI), was investigated as a possible solution to the restoration of the posterior resorbed ridge. AIM: To maximally load test the osseo-integrated RBI in shear and tensile loads and relate these findings to known human masticatory loads as biomechanical proof of the study concept. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve RBIs were design-manufactured and placed into posterior mandibular saddles in 3 mature greyhound dogs.-2 per left and right. After 12 weeks of healing, osseo-integration was confirmed using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and wrench torque tests. Three bone blocks each with two RBIs were dissected and mounted in acrylic. Micro-computerized tomography (µ-CT) was performed to assess bone to implant contact (BIC), and load analysis was performed using a Universal Test System. Three force applications were conducted until failure: pull-out (tensile), buccal push from the lingual (shear) and distal push from the mesial (shear). The osteotomy sites were examined using light magnification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Pull-out, buccal and distal force failures occurred at differing levels. Post-detachment sites showed complex patterns of bone failure, including trabecular and cortical fracture, as well as shearing at varying distances from the BIC. Interfacial shear strength was calculated at 14.4 MPa. CONCLUSION: The osseo-integrated RBIs were able to withstand simulations of the demanding axially, bucco-lingually and mesio-distally oriented biomechanical challenges of the posterior saddle, under conditions of reduced bone volume. These values exceeded equivalent force components of maximal masticatory loads in humans.


Assuntos
Prótese Ancorada no Osso , Implantes Dentários , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cães , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Torque
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640867

RESUMO

With the emerging of wearable robots, the safety and effectiveness of human-robot physical interaction have attracted extensive attention. Recent studies suggest that online measurement of the interaction force between the robot and the human body is essential to the aspects above in wearable exoskeletons. However, a large proportion of existing wearable exoskeletons monitor and sense the delivered force and torque through an indirect-measure method, in which the torque is estimated by the motor current. Direct force/torque measuring through low-cost and compact wearable sensors remains an open problem. This paper presents a compact soft sensor system for wearable gait assistance exoskeletons. The contact force is converted into a voltage signal by measuring the air pressure within a soft pneumatic chamber. The developed soft force sensor system was implemented on a robotic hip exoskeleton, and the real-time interaction force between the human thigh and the exoskeleton was measured through two differential soft chambers. The delivered torque of the hip exoskeleton was calculated based on a characterization model. Experimental results suggested that the sensor system achieved direct force measurement with an error of 10.3 ± 6.58%, and torque monitoring for a hip exoskeleton which provided an understanding for the importance of direct force/torque measurement for assistive performance. Compared with traditional rigid force sensors, the proposed system has several merits, as it is compact, low-cost, and has good adaptability to the human body due to the soft structure.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Marcha , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Torque
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640917

RESUMO

Joint torques of lower extremity are important clinical indicators of gait capability. This parameter can be quantified via hybrid neuromusculoskeletal modelling that combines electromyography-driven modelling and static optimisation. The simulations rely on kinematics and external force measurements, for example, ground reaction forces (GRF) and the corresponding centres of pressure (COP), which are conventionally acquired using force plates. This bulky equipment, however, hinders gait analysis in real-world environments. While this portability issue could potentially be solved by estimating the parameters through machine learning, the effect of the estimation errors on joint torque prediction with biomechanical models remains to be investigated. This study first estimated GRF and COP through feedforward artificial neural networks, and then leveraged them to predict lower-limb sagittal joint torques via (i) inverse dynamics and (ii) hybrid modelling. The approach was evaluated on five healthy subjects, individually. The predicted torques were validated with the measured torques, showing that hip was the most sensitive whereas ankle was the most resistive to the GRF/COP estimates for both models, with average metrics values being 0.70 < R2 < 0.97 and 0.069 < RMSE < 0.15 (Nm/kg). This study demonstrated the feasibility of torque prediction based on personalised (neuro)musculoskeletal modelling using statistical ground reaction estimates, thus providing insights into potential real-world mobile joint torque quantification.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha , Marcha , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Torque
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...