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1.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458667

RESUMO

Human monoamine oxidases (hMAOs) are well-established targets for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the efforts carried out over the years, few selective and reversible MAO inhibitors are on the market. Thus, a continuous search for new compounds is needed. Herein, MAO inhibitors were searched among the non-chiral constituents of Bergamot Essential Oil (BEO) with the aid of computational tools. Accordingly, molecular modeling simulations were carried out on both hMAO-A and hMAO-B for the selected constituents. The theoretically predicted target recognition was then used to select the most promising compounds. Among the screened compounds, Bergamottin, a furocoumarin, showed selective hMAO-B inhibitory activity, fitting its active site well. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to deeply analyze the target recognition and to rationalize the selectivity preference. In agreement with the computational results, experimental studies confirmed both the hMAO inhibition properties of Bergamottin and its preference for the isoform B.


Assuntos
Monarda , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199656

RESUMO

The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL-1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL-1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105614

RESUMO

Little is known about the pharmacological activity of Monarda fistulosa L. essential oils. To address this issue, we isolated essential oils from the flowers and leaves of M. fistulosa and analyzed their chemical composition. We also analyzed the pharmacological effects of M. fistulosa essential oils on transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activity, as these channels are known targets of various essential oil constituents. Flower (MEOFl) and leaf (MEOLv) essential oils were comprised mainly of monoterpenes (43.1% and 21.1%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (54.8% and 77.7%), respectively, with a high abundance of monoterpene hydrocarbons, including p-cymene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinene, and α-thujene. Major oxygenated monoterpenes of MEOFl and MEOLv included carvacrol and thymol. Both MEOFl and MEOLv stimulated a transient increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in TRPA1 but not in TRPV1 or TRPV4-transfected cells, with MEOLv being much more effective than MEOFl. Furthermore, the pure monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol, and ß-myrcene activated TRPA1 but not the TRPV1 or TRPV4 channels, suggesting that these compounds represented the TRPA1-activating components of M. fistulosa essential oils. The transient increase in [Ca2+]i induced by MEOFl/MEOLv, carvacrol, ß-myrcene, and thymol in TRPA1-transfected cells was blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Although carvacrol and thymol have been reported previously to activate the TRPA1 channels, this is the first report to show that ß-myrcene is also a TRPA1 channel agonist. Finally, molecular modeling studies showed a substantial similarity between the docking poses of carvacrol, thymol, and ß-myrcene in the binding site of human TRPA1. Thus, our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the therapeutic properties of these essential oils, laying the foundation for prospective pharmacological studies involving TRP ion channels.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Monarda/química , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Cimenos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Timol/química
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1903): 20190603, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138075

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are a primary driver of bee decline worldwide, but limited understanding of how pathogens are transmitted hampers effective management. Flowers have been implicated as hubs of bee disease transmission, but we know little about how interspecific floral variation affects transmission dynamics. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens), a trypanosomatid pathogen ( Crithidia bombi) and three plant species varying in floral morphology, we assessed how host infection and plant species affect pathogen deposition on flowers, and plant species and flower parts impact pathogen survival and acquisition at flowers. We found that host infection with Crithidia increased defaecation rates on flowers, and that bees deposited faeces onto bracts of Lobelia siphilitica and Lythrum salicaria more frequently than onto Monarda didyma bracts . Among flower parts, bracts were associated with the lowest pathogen survival but highest resulting infection intensity in bee hosts. Additionally, we found that Crithidia survival across flower parts was reduced with sun exposure. These results suggest that efficiency of pathogen transmission depends on where deposition occurs and the timing and place of acquisition, which varies among plant species and environmental conditions. This information could be used for development of wildflower mixes that maximize forage while minimizing disease spread.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Abelhas/parasitologia , Crithidia/fisiologia , Flores , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Animais , Lobelia , Lythrum , Monarda
6.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 163(6): 840-847, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640741

RESUMO

An endophytic fungus, MC_25L, has been isolated from the leaves of MonardacitriodoraCerv. ex Lag., a medicinal and aromatic herb from the northwestern Himalayas. It produces a fruity fragrance while growing on potato dextrose agar, suggesting that it is producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The endophyte inhibited the growth of plant pathogens such asSclerotiniasp. and Aspergillusflavus by virtue of VOCs. Identification of MC_25L based on morphological and microscopic features, as well as ITS-based rDNA sequence analysis, revealed that it is a Fusariumsp. GC-MS analysis revealed that this endophyte produces a unique array of VOCs, in particular hexanal, p-fluoroanisole, pentafluoropropionic acid 2-ethylhexyl, (5E)-5-ethyl-2-methyl-5-hepten-3-one, 2-butyl-2-hexanol, (7E)-2-methyl-7-hexadecene and acoradiene. Three major compounds were hexanal, (5E)-5-ethyl-2-methyl-5-hepten-3-one and acoradiene, and they account for around 84.57 % of the total VOCs. Moreover, of interest was the presence of hexanal, which has applications in the food and cosmetic industries, as well as in mycofumigation. This is the first report of a fungal endophyte producing the industrially important plant-like VOC hexanal. Hexanal is also active biologically. Thus this study indicates that Fusariumsp. (MC_25L) is a potential candidate for the up-scaling of hexanal.


Assuntos
Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/metabolismo , Hexanóis/metabolismo , Monarda/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Endófitos/química , Endófitos/genética , Fusarium/química , Fusarium/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexanóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
7.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1528-1535, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398103

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that every year considerable losses of the food crops occur due to plant diseases. Although fungicides are extensively used for management of plant diseases, they are expensive and hazardous to the environment and human health. Alternatively, biological control is the safe way to overcome the effects of plant diseases and to sustain agriculture. Since Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) is known for its antifungal properties, it was chosen for the study. OBJECTIVE: The isolation of endophytic fungi from M. citriodora and assessing their biocontrol potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The isolated endophytes were characterized using ITS-5.8 S rDNA sequencing. Their biocontrol potential was assessed using different antagonistic assays against major plant pathogens. RESULTS: Twenty-eight endophytes representing 11 genera were isolated, of which, around 82% endophytes showed biocontrol potential against plant pathogens. MC-2 L (Fusarium oxysporum), MC-14 F (F. oxysporum), MC-22 F (F. oxysporum) and MC-25 F (F. redolens) displayed significant antagonistic activity against all the tested pathogens. Interestingly, MC-10 L (Muscodor yucatanensis) completely inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sp., Colletotrichum capsici, Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in dual culture assay, whereas MC-8 L (A. oryzae) and MC-9 L (Penicillium commune) completely inhibited the growth of the Sclerotinia sp. in fumigation assay. CONCLUSIONS: Endophytes MC-2 L, MC-14 F, MC-22 F and MC-25 F could effectively be used to control broad range of phytopathogens, while MC-10 L, MC-8 L and MC-9 L could be used to control specific pathogens. Secondly, endophytes showing varying degrees of antagonism in different assays represented the chemo-diversity not only as promising biocontrol agents but also as a resource of defensive and bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Monarda/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , DNA Ribossômico , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
8.
BMC Microbiol ; 17(1): 44, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Present study focuses on diversity and distribution analysis of endophytic fungi associated with different tissues of the Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae). Anticancer and antimicrobial potential of isolated endophytes have also been investigated. RESULTS: A total of twenty eight fungal endophytes belonging to 11 different genera were isolated from this plant. All the endophytic fungi belonged to the Ascomycota phylum. The leaves were immensely rich in fungal species, while roots showed the highest tissue specific fungal dominance. Out of 28 fungal species, 72% endophytic extracts were found cytotoxic against one or more human cancer cell lines. The most prominent anticancer activity (IC50 value <10 µg/mL) was shown by MC-14 L (Fusarium oxysporum), MC-14 F (F. oxysporum), MC-18 L (Aspergillus fumigatus), MC-24 L (Cladosporium tenuissimum), MC-25 L (Fusarium sp.), MC-26 F (F. oxysporum) extracts. 75% of the extracts showed antimicrobial activities in agar disc-diffusion assay and 27% in the tube dilution method (MIC <100 µg/mL) respectively against the tested pathogens. Extracts of MC-14 L (F. oxysporum) and MC-18 L (A. fumigatus) displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that M. citriodora harbors a rich fungal endophytic community with anticancer and antimicrobial activities. The isolated endophyte MC-24 L (C. tenuissimum) has the potential to be a source of novel cytotoxic/antimicrobial compounds. This is the first report of diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from M. citriodora.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biodiversidade , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Monarda/microbiologia , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cladosporium/metabolismo , DNA Fúngico/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Células HCT116/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Índia , Células MCF-7/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
9.
Molecules ; 22(2)2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157176

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene (3.7%), and camphene (3.4%). The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds, demonstrating good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. The exposure of the employed weed seeds to M. didyma essential oil and thymol solution (59.3%) increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), markers of oxidative stress, in emerging 5-day-old rootlets.


Assuntos
Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
10.
ACS Chem Biol ; 12(2): 389-397, 2017 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28001351

RESUMO

Characterizing the specific binding between protein targets and small molecules is critically important for drug discovery. Conventional assays require isolation and purification of small molecules from complex matrices through multistep chromatographic fractionation, which may alter their original bioactivity. Most proteins undergo posttranslational modification, and only certain proteoforms have the right conformation with accessible domains and available residues for small molecule binding. We developed a top-down mass spectrometry (MS) centric workflow for rapid evaluation of the bioactivity of crude botanical extracts after a one-step reaction. Our assay distinguished covalent from noncovalent binding and mapped the residue for covalent binding between bioactive constituents and specific proteoforms of the target protein. We augmented our approach with a nanoflow liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS assay for simultaneous identification and label-free multiplex quantitation of small molecules in the crude botanical extracts. Our assay was validated for various proteoforms of human serum albumin, which plays a key role in pharmacokinetics of small molecules in vivo. We demonstrated the utility of our proteoform-specific assay for evaluating thymoquinone in crude botanical extracts, studying its pharmacokinetics in human blood, and interpreting its toxicity to human breast cancer cells in tissue culture.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Proteínas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Monarda/química , Ligação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 7(11): 7389-98, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25550774

RESUMO

The aim of the current research work was to study the chemical composition of the essential oil of Monarda punctata along with evaluating the essential oil and its major components for their antibacterial effects against some frequently encountered respiratory infection causing pathogens. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of 13 chemical constituents with thymol (75.2%), p-cymene (6.7%), limonene (5.4), and carvacrol (3.5%) as the major constituents. The oil composition was dominated by the oxygenated monoterpenes. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its major constituents (thymol, p-cymene, limonene) was evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The study revealed that the essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against different strains. Among the tested strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strain showing lowest MIC and MBC values. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most resistant bacterial strain to the essential oil treatment showing relatively higher MIC and MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the essential oil induced potent and dose-dependent membrane damage in S. pyogenes and MRSA bacterial strains. The reactive oxygen species generated by the Monarda punctata essential oil were identified using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA).This study indicated that the Monarda punctata essential oil to a great extent and thymol to a lower extent triggered a substantial increase in the ROS levels in S. pyogenes bacterial cultures which ultimately cause membrane damage as revealed by SEM results.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Cimenos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 62: 246-54, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23994707

RESUMO

We have isolated an essential oil from Monarda citriodora (MC) and characterized its 22 chemical constituents with thymol (82%), carvacrol (4.82%), ß-myrcene (3.45%), terpinen-4-ol (2.78%) and p-cymene (1.53%) representing the major constituents. We have reported for the first time the chemotherapeutic potential of MC in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells by means of apoptosis and disruption of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascade. MC and its major constituent, thymol, inhibit the cell proliferation in different types of cancer cell lines like HL-60, MCF-7, PC-3, A-549 and MDAMB-231. MC was found to be more cytotoxic than thymol in HL-60 cells with an IC50 value of 22 µg/ml versus 45 µg/ml for thymol. Both MC and thymol induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells, which is evident by Hoechst staining, cell cycle analysis and immuno-expression of Bcl-xL, caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP-1 cleavage. Both induce apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways that were confirmed by enhanced expression of death receptors (TNF-R1, Fas), caspase-9, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and regression of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Interestingly, both MC and thymol inhibit the downstream and upstream signaling of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The degree of apoptosis induction and disruption of the PI3K signaling cascade by MC was significantly higher when compared to thymol.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HL-60/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Timol/análise , Timol/farmacologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(36): 8573-80, 2013 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23919579

RESUMO

As part of an ongoing research program to identify active mosquito repellents, Monarda bradburiana Beck and Monarda fistulosa L. essential oils showed good repellent activity with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.055 ± 0.036 and 0.078 ± 0.027 mg/cm(2), respectively, compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) (0.039 ± 0.014 mg/cm(2)). Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of essential oils of both Monarda species was performed to identify the active repellent compounds, and isolated pure compounds were individually tested for repellency. Of the isolated compounds, carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol methyl ether were found to be the repellent compounds with MEDs in the range of 0.013-0.063 mg/cm(2). Active repellent compounds were also tested for larvicidal activity against 1-day-old Aedes aegypti larvae. Thymol was the best larvicide among the tested individual compounds (LD50 of 13.9 ppm). None of the individual compounds showed cytotoxicity against mammalian cells; however, the essential oils were toxic to all cell lines.


Assuntos
Aedes , Eugenol/administração & dosagem , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cimenos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Larva , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Timol/administração & dosagem
14.
Fitoterapia ; 91: 51-59, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23978578

RESUMO

Monardic acids A (1) and B (2), which are (7R,8R) diastereomers of lithospermic acid (LA) and lithospermic acid B, respectively, were isolated from Monarda fistulosa. A (7S,8R) isomer (3) of LA was also isolated from this plant, and a (7R,8S) isomer (7) of LA was obtained from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by analysis of its hydrolysates, 7-epiblechnic acid and 2R-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid. The configuration in the dihydrobenzofuran moieties of 2, 3, and 7 was extrapolated by using the phenylglycine methyl ester method and a Cotton effect at approximately 250-260 nm in their electronic circular dichroism spectra. Diastereomers (1-3 and 7) displayed moderate hyaluronidase inhibitory and histamine release inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/isolamento & purificação , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lithospermum/química , Monarda/química , Animais , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/química , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/química , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Isomerismo , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23082579

RESUMO

Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Tropolona/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Benzoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Benzoquinonas/química , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Carum/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Camundongos , Monarda/química , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Monoterpenos/química , Myristica/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/química , Santalum/química , Tropolona/administração & dosagem , Tropolona/química , Tropolona/farmacologia
16.
Environ Entomol ; 41(1): 125-32, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22525067

RESUMO

Several phytophagous insects exhibit distinct preference for their host plants. In widely distributed generalist insects, host preference can be influenced by geographic variation in host plant distribution and abundance as well as by prior experience. We have studied host preference of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), a pest of cotton in Texas and other neighboring states, by measuring olfactory orientation to horsemint (Monarda punctata L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Horsemint is one of the primary, native, wild hosts of cotton fleahopper during late-spring and early summer in Texas, and it is commonly believed to be the main source of this pest in cotton. Although the abundance of horsemint, and therefore the fleahopper exposure to it, varies geographically, cotton fleahopper's preference for this native host-plant is maintained across two ecoregions in Texas, TX High Plains (Lubbock area) and Brazos Valley (College Station area). Similarly, preference for horsemint was retained regardless of prior experience with cotton throughout all the life stages of the insect. This fixed preference of cotton fleahopper to horsemint could be because of their ancestral insect-plant interaction, better fitness of cotton fleahopper on horsemint, and relatively low abundance of horsemint compared with cotton. Information gained from this study could be used to implement cultural control practices such as trap cropping, to develop attractants to monitor this pest, or both.


Assuntos
Gossypium/química , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Monarda/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Texas
17.
Phytochemistry ; 71(16): 1884-91, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20832830

RESUMO

An 80% acetone extract of Monarda punctata showed an inhibitory effect on lipase activity in isolated mouse plasma in vitro and carvacrol was obtained as the active constituent. It had an IC50 value of 4.07 mM invitro and suppressed elevations in blood triacylglycerol levels in olive oil-loaded mice. Furthermore, from the whole plant, 22 compounds were isolated. Six monoterpene glycosides, a flavone glucuronide, and other known compounds were identified based on the results of spectroscopic analyses.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Glucuronídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monarda/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Cimenos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/sangue , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Flavonas/sangue , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Glucuronídeos/sangue , Glucuronídeos/química , Glucuronídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/sangue , Glicosídeos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/sangue , Monoterpenos/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
18.
Phytopathology ; 100(5): 493-501, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20373971

RESUMO

Plants in the genus Monarda produce complex essential oils that contain antifungal compounds. The objectives of this research were to identify selections of monarda that reduce Rhizoctonia damping-off of tomato, and to determine relationships between essential oil composition of 13 monarda herbages (dried and ground leaves) and disease suppression. Herbages were grouped into five chemotypes, based on essential oil composition and effective concentrations for reducing growth by 50% for Rhizoctonia solani. Replicated and repeated disease control assays were conducted with monarda herbages in greenhouse medium, with or without Rhizoctonia. Percent survival, seedling height, and stem diameter were evaluated at 8 weeks. Survival, seedling height, and stem diameter in herbage-only treatments were not different from the control (no-herbage, no-pathogen) for most herbage treatments. In the pathogen control (no-herbage + Rhizoctonia), seedling survival was 10% that of the control. In pathogen-infested media, seedling survival ranged from 65 to 80% for treatments with thymol chemotypes and 55 to 65% for carvacrol chemotypes. Effective control of Rhizoctonia damping-off was correlated with phenolic monoterpenes; herbages classified as carvacrol chemotypes effectively protected tomato seedlings from Rhizoctonia damping-off disease without phytotoxicity. This study provides evidence that monarda herbages have potential as growing media amendments for control of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease.


Assuntos
Monarda/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , /microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Ecology ; 89(5): 1344-51, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18543627

RESUMO

Little is known about how exotics influence the ecophysiology of co-occurring native plants or how invader impact on plant physiology may be mediated by community diversity or resource levels. We measured the effect of the widespread invasive forb spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on leaf traits (leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen percentage, leaf C:N ratios, and delta13C as a proxy for water use efficiency) of two co-occurring native perennial grassland species, Monarda fistulosa (bee balm) and Koeleria macrantha (Junegrass). The impact of spotted knapweed was assessed across plots that varied in functional diversity and that either experienced ambient rainfall or received supplemental water. Impact was determined by comparing leaf traits between identical knapweed-invaded and noninvaded assemblages. Virtually all M. fistulosa leaf traits were affected by spotted knapweed. Knapweed impact, however, did not scale with its abundance; the impact of knapweed on M. fistulosa was similar across heavily invaded low-diversity assemblages and lightly invaded high-diversity assemblages. In uninvaded assemblages, M. fistulosa delta13C, leaf nitrogen, and C:N ratios were unaffected by native functional group richness, whereas leaf dry matter content significantly increased and specific leaf area significantly decreased across the diversity gradient. The effects of spotted knapweed on K. macrantha were weak; instead native functional group richness strongly affected K. macrantha leaf C:N ratio, delta13C, and specific leaf area, but not leaf dry matter content. Leaf traits for both species changed in response to spotted knapweed or functional richness, and in a manner that may promote slower biomass accumulation and efficient conservation of resources. Taken together, our results show that an invader can alter native plant physiology, but that these effects are not a simple function of how many invaders exist in the community.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Centaurea/fisiologia , Monarda/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
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