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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

RESUMO

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Smog , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMO

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Rios
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1622, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709338

RESUMO

Climate change and its respective environmental impacts, such as dying lakes, is widely acknowledged. Studies on the impact of shrinking hyper-saline lakes suggest severe negative consequences for the health of the affected population. The primary aim was to investigate the relationship between changes in the water level of the hyper-saline Lake Urmia, along with the associated salt release, and the prevalence of hypertension and the general state of health of the local population in Shabestar County north of the lake. Moreover, we sought to map the vulnerability of the local population to the health risks associated with salt-dust scatter using multiple environmental and demographic characteristics. We applied a spatiotemporal analysis of the environmental parameters of Lake Urmia and the health of the local population. We analyzed health survey data from local health care centers and a national STEPS study in Shabestar County, Iran. We used a time-series of remote sensing images to monitor the trend of occurrence and extent of salt-dust storms between 2012 and 2020. To evaluate the impacts of lake drought on the health of the residences, we investigated the spatiotemporal correlation of the lake drought and the state of health of local residents. We applied a GIScience multiple decision analysis to identify areas affected by salt-dust particles and related these to the health status of the residents. According to our results, the lake drought has significantly contributed to the increasing cases of hypertension in local patients. The number of hypertensive patients has increased from 2.09% in 2012 to 19.5% in 2019 before decreasing slightly to 16.05% in 2020. Detailed results showed that adults, and particularly females, were affected most by the effects of the salt-dust scatter in the residential areas close to the lake. The results of this study provide critical insights into the environmental impacts of the Lake Urmia drought on the human health of the residents. Based on the results we suggest that detailed socioeconomic studies might be required for a comprehensive analysis of the human health issues in this area. Nonetheless, the proposed methods can be applied to monitor the environmental impacts of climate change on human health.


Assuntos
Secas , Lagos , Humanos , Água , Poeira , Solução Salina , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 343, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715815

RESUMO

For extrapolation, climate change and other meteorological analysis, a study of past and current weather events is a prerequisite. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has been able to develop a model capable of predicting various weather data for any location on the Earth, including locations lacking weather stations, weather satellite coverage, and other weather measuring instruments. This paper evaluates the prediction accuracy of the NASA temperature data with respect to NiMet (Nigerian Meteorological Agency) ground truth measurement, using Akwa Ibom Airport as a case study. Exploratory data analysis (descriptive and diagnostic analyses) of temperature retrieved from NiMet and NASA was performed to give a clear path to follow for predictive and prescriptive analyses. Using 2783 days of weather data retrieved from NiMet as ground truth, the accuracy of NASA predictions with the corresponding resolution was calculated. Mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.184 °C and root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.579 °C, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.710 for maximum temperature, then MAE of 0.876 °C, RMSE of 1.225 °C with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.620 for minimum temperature was discovered. There is a good correlation between the two datasets; hence, a model can be developed to generate more accurate predictions, using the NASA data as input. Predictive and prescriptive analyses were performed by employing five prediction algorithms: decision tree regression, XGBoost regression and MLP (multilayer perceptron) with LBFGS (limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno) optimizer, MLP with SGD (stochastic gradient) optimizer and MLP with Adam optimizer. The MLP LBFGS algorithm performed best, by significantly reducing the MAE by 35.35% and RMSE by 31.06% for maximum temperature, accordingly, MAE by 10.05% and RMSE by 8.00% for minimum temperature. Results obtained show that given sufficient data, plugging NASA predictions as input to an LBFGS-MLP model gives more accurate temperature predictions for the study area.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Algoritmos
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 344, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715783

RESUMO

It is crucial to understand the effects caused by experimental parameters such as temperature, light, and food type on lab and field-based ecotoxicology experiments, as these variables, and combinations thereof, can affect results. The type of substrate used in exposure experiments, however, is generally assumed to have no effect. This may not always be correct. The metabolic changes in the freshwater crustacean, Austrochiltonia subtenuis exposed to copper, using three common substrates, gauze; toilet paper; and cellulose were investigated. Substrate alone did not affect survival, but each substrate elicited a different metabolic response and adult and juvenile amphipods had different substrate preferences. Several classes of metabolites were shown to change in response to different substrates and toxicant. These included disaccharides, monosaccharides, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The results illustrate that metabolomic responses can differ in response to experimental factors that were previously thought not to be significant. In fact, our data indicate that substrate should be viewed as an experimental factor as important to control for as more well-known confounders such as temperature or food, thus challenging the current paradigm. Assuming substrate type has no effect on the experiment could potentially lead to errors in contaminant toxicity assessments. We propose that ideal good practise would be that all experimental factors should be evaluated for their potential influence on metabolomic profiles prior to contaminant response experiments being undertaken.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Substâncias Perigosas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 345, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715872

RESUMO

Regulating the fuel consumption of small-scale fishing vessels could help to keep global warming well below 1.5 °C and lead to effective management in small-scale fisheries (SSF) of developing countries like India. In this regard, a bottom-up approach was carried out to collect the requisite data to explore the fuel consumption of small-scale fishing vessels along India's southeast coast. Consequently, twenty-four fishing vessels (type A to type X) were grouped into seven categories based on fishing methods. The estimated numerical value of fuel use intensity (FUI) ranging from 0.08 to 0.80 was used to examine the fuel-efficient fishing vessel and engine type. In addition, the estimated revenue on fuel ranging from ₹5625.06/l to ₹218.07/l and annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Tier 1 method were used to understand the economic efficiency and GHG emission trend, respectively. The total annual GHG emissions from all the fishing vessels at the selected sites were about 1.25E + 08 t CO2-eq year-1. The result shows that longline-cum-gillnetters, seine-netters, longliners and drift-gillnetters largely contributed to 65% of the annual GHG emissions. By recognizing the factors influencing the fuel consumption of fishing vessels in SSF, this sector could be understood, effectively managed, and performed well. Therefore, the possible reasons were extensively discussed through a comparative approach, and potential recommendations for effective management were made.


Assuntos
Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Caça , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161240, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587672

RESUMO

Although evidence suggests the ubiquity of meso- and microplastics (MMPs) in mangrove forests, our knowledge of their bioavailability and risk on mangrove leaves is scarce. Here, we investigated MMP contamination concerning submerged mangrove leaves and herbivorous snails that mainly feed on them from the four mangrove forests located in Beibu Gulf, Guangxi Province, China. Results showed that the MMP abundance on the mangrove leaves ranged from 0.01 ± 0.00 to 0.42 ± 0.15 items cm-2, while it ranged from 0.33 ± 0.21 to 6.20 ± 2.91 items individual-1 in the snails. There were significant positive correlations between snails and leaves regarding the abundance of total MMPs and the proportions of MMPs with the same characteristics. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) that mainly derived from aquaculture rafts, accounted for a major component both on the leaves and in the snails in Shi Jiao (SJ). Both the detection frequency and percentage of larger EPS (2.00-17.50 mm) on the leaves in SJ were higher than other sites. Meanwhile, the detection frequency, abundance and percentage of larger EPS on the leaves had significant positive correlations with those of micro-EPS in the snails. These findings suggested that mangrove leaves may represent a viable pathway for MMPs to enter the herbivorous snails. Larger EPS with higher frequency of occurrence on mangrove leaves were more likely to be encountered and ingested by snail considering its opportunistic feeding behavior. In addition, 11 sensitive genes involved in the processes of metabolism, intestinal mucosal immune systems, and cellular transduction in the snails were significantly suppressed by MMP exposure, which may be potentially used as early biomarkers to indicate the biological effects of MMPs under realistic environmental conditions. Overall, this study provides novel insights into the fate, sources, and biological effects of MMPs on mangrove leaves.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , China , Áreas Alagadas , Poliestirenos/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161274, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587673

RESUMO

Nowadays, microplastic has been detected in many environmental samples, including aquatic and terrestrial environments. However, few studies recently have addressed their attention to microplastic contamination in different drinking sources and food packages. This review paper has narrated those few findings in brief. Literature showed that different pieces of microplastic fragments, e.g., polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), etc. are detected in plastic drinking bottle, tap water, and food packaging containers. Microplastic fragmentation may be associated with mechanical stress, UV radiation, low plastic material quality, aging factor, and atmospheric deposition. Besides these, microplastic is a hub of different chemical compounds and can also retain other complex materials from the surroundings. This makes the microplastic contamination even more complicated and difficult to detect them accurately in a single method. Additionally, one of the common practices at the community level is the long-time repeated usage of plastic drinking bottles and food boxes that subsequently cause microplastic leaching and potential health threats to consumers. This narrative study summarizes the current scenario of microplastic contamination from drinking bottles and food containers and emphasizes doing more quality research in this subtle but highly imposed field to understand potential exposure better.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável/química , Plásticos/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Polietileno/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161256, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587695

RESUMO

Cigarette filters offer no public health benefits, are single-use plastics (cellulose acetate) and are routinely littered. Filters account for a significant proportion of plastic litter worldwide, requiring considerable public funds to remove, and are a source of microplastics. Used cigarette filters can leech toxic chemicals and pose an ecological risk to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Bottom-up measures, such as focusing on consumer behaviour, are ineffective and we need to impose top-down solutions (i.e., bans) if we are to reduce the prevalence of this number one litter item. Banning filters offers numerous ecological, socioeconomic, and public health benefits.


Assuntos
Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Ecossistema , Plásticos , Saúde Pública , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(4): 1764-1775, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36591971

RESUMO

The ability to accurately assess the health risks of contaminants is limited by the shortcomings of toxicological standards. Using organophosphate esters (OPEs) as an example, this study attempted to integrate physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)-based forward dosimetry and in vitro bioassays to assess the likelihood of contaminants inducing biological effects in humans. The total exposure level of OPEs for Chinese residents was 19.5 ± 8.71 ng/kg/day with inhalation being the main exposure pathway. Then, human PBPK models were developed for individual OPEs to predict their steady-state concentrations in human tissues, and the predicted median levels in blood were close to the measurements. The reference doses (RfDs) of OPEs based on in vitro bioassays were comparable to in vivo animal-derived RfDs, demonstrating the reliability of in vitro bioassays. Therefore, the likelihood of OPEs inducing bioactivities in humans (RQin-vitro) was calculated using in vitro toxicity data and OPE levels in human tissues. The RQin-vitros of tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate (7.68 × 10-5-3.18 × 10-3) were comparable to the risks assessed using traditional RfDs (5.22 × 10-5-1.94 × 10-3), indicating the credibility of the method proposed in this study. This study establishes a new framework to improve the health risk assessment of contaminants without sufficient toxicity data and minimize the need for animal experimentation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Fosfatos , Medição de Risco , Bioensaio , China
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161293, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592906

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) become ubiquitous contaminants in Marine Protected Areas (MPA) that have been planned as a conservation strategy. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, abundance, and distribution of MPs potentially affecting MPA worldwide. Data on MP occurrence and levels in sediment and biota samples were collected from recent peer-reviewed literature and screened using a GIS-based approach overlapping MP records with MPA boundaries. MPs were found in 186 MPAs, with levels ranging from 0 to 9187.5 items/kg in sediment and up to 17,461.9 items/kg in organisms. Peaked MPs concentrations occurred within multiple-use areas, and no-take MPAs were also affected. About half of MP levels found within MPA fell into the higher concentration quartiles, suggesting potential impacts on these areas. In general, benthic species were likely more affected than pelagic ones due to the higher concentrations of MP reported in the tissues of benthic species. Alarmingly, MPs were found in tissues of two threatened species on the IUCN Red List. The findings denote urgent concerns about the effectiveness of the global system of protected areas and their proposed conservation goals.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Plásticos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biota
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161198, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592901

RESUMO

To examine the suitability of fish scales as potential tracers of nutrient pollution, we analysed the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) in scales of a generalist fish species, roach Rutilus rutilus, collected from 22 Czech reservoirs covering wide gradients of catchment land use and nutrient enrichment. Using generalised additive mixed models in the first step and generalised linear mixed models in the second step, we evaluated the response of roach scale stable isotope values to catchment land use variables (percentage of agricultural land and human population density) and in-reservoir water quality variables. Roach scale δ15N values varied by 15 ‰ among the reservoirs and were strongly, linearly, and positively associated with the percentage of agricultural land in the reservoir catchments, pointing to agriculture as the dominant source of nitrogen pollution in the investigated systems. Roach scale δ13C values differed by 8 ‰ among the studied reservoirs and were not related to catchment land use variables or in-reservoir primary production (chlorophyll-a levels). Possible variation in roach foraging strategies (littoral versus pelagic) between reservoirs or the contrasting effects of eutrophication-related autotrophic and heterotrophic processes on baseline δ13C values may explain the lack of relationships between roach scale δ13C values and the explanatory variables. In summary, our findings show that fish scale δ15N values are sensitive bioindicators of catchment-derived anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to freshwater ecosystems. Because scales can be sampled in a nonlethal way and δ15N analysis is relatively inexpensive, we suggest that measuring the δ15N values of fish scales could be an effective method for monitoring nitrogen pollution in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161278, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592904

RESUMO

The rupture of the Córrego do Feijão dam in Brumadinho (January 25, 2019) caused serious damage to the Paraopeba River and compromised the quality of its waters for human consumption. However, the possible effects of the dam collapse on the river microbiome and its antibiotic resistance profiles are unknown. The present study aims to analyse the possible shifts in microbial diversity and enhancement of antibiotic resistance in the Paraopeba River. To this end, two sampling campaigns (February and May 2019) were performed to obtain water across the entire Paraopeba River (eight sampling locations: Moeda, Brumadinho, Igarapé, Juatuba, Varginha, Angueretá, Retiro Baixo and Três Marias; ~464 km). This sampling scheme enabled determining the effects of the disaster on the river microbiome. Total DNA and microbial isolation were performed with these water samples. The 16S rRNA-based microbiome analyses (n = 24; 2.05 million 16S rRNA reads) showed changes in microbial diversity immediately after the disaster with the presence of metal-indicating bacteria (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Novosphingobium, and Sediminibacterium). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) identification of bacterial isolates (n = 170) also disclosed possible indicators of faecal contamination across the Paraopeba (Cloacibacterium, Bacteroides, Feaecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus and Escherichia). Antibiotic resistance increased significantly to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and cefalotin among isolates obtained in May after the disaster. The effects of toxic mud on microbiomes were felt at all points sampled up to Anguereta. The ore mud may have exacerbated the growth of different antibiotic-resistant, metal-resistant, and faecal-indicating bacteria in the Paraopeba River.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Colapso Estrutural , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Rios/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Brasil , Bactérias/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Água/análise , Ampicilina/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(4): 1658-1669, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594866

RESUMO

Trace metal pollution poses a serious threat to the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, characterizing the long-term environmental behavior of trace metals and their driving forces is essential for guiding water quality management. Based on a long-term data set from 1990 to 2019, this study systematically conducted the spatiotemporal trend assessment, influential factor analysis, and source apportionment of trace elements in the rivers of the German Elbe River basin. Results show that the mean concentrations of the given elements in the last 30 years were found in the order of Fe (1179.5 ± 1221 µg·L-1) ≫ Mn (209.6 ± 181.7 µg·L-1) ≫ Zn (52.5 ± 166.2 µg·L-1) ≫ Cu (5.3 ± 5.5 µg·L-1) > Ni (4.4 ± 8.3 µg·L-1) > Pb (3.3 ± 4.4 µg·L-1) > As (2.9 ± 2.3 µg·L-1) > Cr (1.8 ± 2.4 µg·L-1) ≫ Cd (0.3 ± 1.1 µg·L-1) > Hg (0.05 ± 0.12 µg·L-1). Wavelet analyses show that river flow regimes and flooding dominated the periodic variations in metal pollution. Bayesian network suggests that the hydrochemical factors (i.e., TOC, TP, TN, pH, and EC) chemically influenced the metal mobility between water and sediments. Furthermore, the source apportionment computed by the Bayesian multivariate receptor model shows that the given element contamination was typically attributed to the geogenic sources (17.5, 95% confidence interval: 13.1-17.6%), urban and industrial sources (22.1, 18.0-27.2%), arable soil erosion (24.2, 16.4-31.5%), and historical anthropogenic activities (35.2, 32.8-43.3%). The results provided herein reveal that both the hydrochemical influence on metal mobility and the chronic disturbance from anthropogenic activities caused the long-term variation in trace metal pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Qualidade da Água , Rios/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Medição de Risco , China
15.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279862, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595521

RESUMO

The Sweepstakes, in Fathom Five National Marine Park, is Ontario's most iconic shipwreck with over 100,000 visitors each summer. Continued exposure to water currents has directly and indirectly affected the integrity of the wreck and resulted in management interventions including efforts to stabilize the wreck and control vessel activity (both duration and speed). Despite these efforts, a scour ring is present in the sediment around the Sweepstakes, raising concerns regarding the prolonged stability of the wreck. An extensive series of field measurements were made during the summer of 2015 with the aim of differentiating between natural hydrological processes present at this site and human-derived water movements during the summer visitor season. There is a high-degree of natural current variability from processes as diverse as wind-induced surface gravity waves, internal gravity waves, and diurnal flows due to differential heating. Our results show that summer circulation driven by internal gravity waves derived from upwelling, surface waves, and differential heating was insignificant with respect to sediment resuspension and thus unlikely to produce the observed scour around the shipwreck. Scour is most likely caused by energetic winter storms, which should be a focus of future studies. While vessel induced currents were detectable at the shipwreck, they were no larger than the normal summer hydrodynamic variability, thus suggesting that management efforts continue to protect the site generally.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Lagos , Movimentos da Água , Água
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 260, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596916

RESUMO

Europe witnessed a strong increase in climate variability and enhanced climate-induced extreme events, such as hot drought periods, mega heat waves, and persistent flooding and flash floods. Intensified land degradation, land use, and landcover changes further amplified the pressure on the environmental system functionalities and fuelled climate change feedbacks. On the other hand, global satellite observations detected a positive spectral greening trend-most likely as a response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming. But which are the engines behind such shifts in surface reflectance patterns, vegetation response to global climate changes, or anomalies in the environmental control mechanisms? This article compares long-term environmental variables (1948-2021) to recent vegetation index data (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), 2001-2021) and presents regional trends in climate variability and vegetation response across Europe. Results show that positive trends in vegetation response, temperature, rainfall, and soil moisture are accompanied by a strong increase in climate anomalies over large parts of Europe. Vegetation dynamics are strongly coupled to increased temperature and enhanced soil moisture during winter and the early growing season in the northern latitudes. Simultaneously, temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture anomalies are strongly increasing. Such a strong amplification in climate variability across Europe further enhances the vulnerability of vegetation cover during extreme events.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aquecimento Global , Europa (Continente) , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Ecossistema
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 261, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598707

RESUMO

Coastal zones support the most productive marine ecosystems, yet they are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic stressors such as dredging. In this study, we investigated how seasonal variation and dredging activities conducted during the construction of a harbor and submarine base (Sepetiba Bay, RJ, Brazil) affected the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages. The observed temporal variability at five different sites over 10 years revealed that dredging exceeds the expected influence of dry and rainy seasons on plankton abundance and diversity. In general, the abundance of both groups increased during dredging due to the resuspension of nutrients and benthic organisms. This increase was particularly evident in the dinoflagellate Scrippsiellaa cuminata, the diatoms Thalassiosira rotula and Nitzschia longissima, and the herbivorous zooplankton Acartia clausii and Pseudevadne tergestina. Moreover, season and dredging activities synergistically influenced plankton assemblages, resulting in larger seasonal variations during dredging activities. After the end of the harbor construction, plankton abundance decreased and remained low until the end of the monitoring, which may indicate persistent changes in the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of impacted areas.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Plâncton , Animais , Estações do Ano , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 265, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600046

RESUMO

The present study was intended for assessing the contamination level of various heavy metals in surface soil and groundwater around the automobile workshops situated at different locations in the Kollam District of Kerala state, India. The procured soil and groundwater samples were analyzed for cadmium, zinc, iron, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, manganese, and arsenic using atomic absorption spectrophotometer by following standard procedures. The contamination level of these metals was assessed using the pollution indices like enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI). The results revealed that the concentrations of all analyzed metals in the surface soils of the automobile workshops were higher than the control. On the contrary, the concentration of no heavy metal in the groundwater was either equal to or higher than the limit prescribed by WHO. However, the concentration levels of Fe, Pb, Cu, and Zn were either equal to or higher than the control values. Based on the Igeo, CF, and EF, it was found that the contamination intensity of the heavy metals in soil decreased in the following order: Fe > Pb > Cd > As > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni > Mn. From the results of PLI, it was interpreted that the sampling sites S2, S4, and S5 were highly polluted. Non-contamination of underground water from the age-old workshops is the uniqueness of the present study against the other studies, which were completed in alluvial formations with inverse results. In the studied region, the groundwater is stored in the hard rock formations and its hydraulics remains different from alluvial aquifers.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Chumbo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Medição de Risco
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 262, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600113

RESUMO

To unveil the potential effect of metal presence to antibiotic tolerance proliferation, four sites of surface landfills containing tailings from metal processing in Slovakia (Hnústa, Hodrusa, Kosice) and Poland (Tarnowskie Góry) were investigated. Tolerance and multitolerance to selected metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cd) and antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin) and interrelationships between them were evaluated. A low bacterial diversity (Shannon-Wiener index from 0.83 to 2.263) was detected in all sampling sites. Gram-positive bacteria, mostly belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria, dominated in three of the four sampling sites. The recorded percentages of tolerant bacterial isolates varied considerably for antibiotics and metals from 0 to 57% and 0.8 to 47%, respectively, among the sampling sites. Tolerances to chloramphenicol (45-57%) and kanamycin (32-45%) were found in three sites. Multitolerance to several metals and antibiotics in the range of 24 to 48% was recorded for three sites. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) for the co-occurrence of tolerance to each studied metal and at least one of the antibiotics was observed. Exposure time to the metal (landfill duration) was an important factor for the development of metal- as well as antibiotic-tolerant isolates. The results show that metal-contaminated sites represent a significant threat for human health not only for their toxic effects but also for their pressure to antibiotic tolerance spread in the environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bactérias , Canamicina/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol/toxicidade
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 180, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604526

RESUMO

Environmental DNA (eDNA) approaches to monitoring biodiversity in terrestrial environments have largely focused on sampling water bodies, potentially limiting the geographic and taxonomic scope of eDNA investigations. We assessed the performance of two strictly terrestrial eDNA sampling approaches to detect arboreal mammals, a guild with many threatened and poorly studied taxa worldwide, within two central New Jersey (USA) woodlands. We evaluated species detected with metabarcoding using two eDNA collection methods (tree bark vs. soil sampling), and compared the performance of two detection methods (qPCR vs. metabarcoding) within a single species. Our survey, which included 94 sampling events at 21 trees, detected 16 species of mammals, representing over 60% of the diversity expected in the area. More DNA was found for the 8 arboreal versus 8 non-arboreal species detected (mean: 2466 vs. 289 reads/sample). Soil samples revealed a generally similar composition, but a lower diversity, of mammal species. Detection rates for big brown bat were 3.4 × higher for qPCR over metabarcoding, illustrating the enhanced sensitivity of single-species approaches. Our results suggest that sampling eDNA from on and around trees could serve as a useful new monitoring tool for cryptic arboreal mammal communities globally.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , DNA Ambiental , Animais , DNA Ambiental/genética , Árvores/genética , Solo , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Biodiversidade , Mamíferos/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
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