Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 452
Filtrar
1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(32)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387184

RESUMO

Most reported cases of human monkeypox occur in Central and West Africa, where the causing virus is endemic. We describe the identification and public health response to an imported case of West African monkeypox from Nigeria to the United Kingdom (UK) in May 2021. Secondary transmission from the index case occurred within the family to another adult and a toddler. Concurrent COVID-19-related control measures upon arrival and at the hospital, facilitated detection and limited the number of potential contacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Monkeypox/diagnóstico , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Nigéria , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13085, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158533

RESUMO

Monkeypox is an emerging infectious disease, which has a clinical presentation similar to smallpox. In the two past decades, Central Africa has seen an increase in the frequency of cases, with many monkeypox virus (MPXV) isolates detected in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR). To date, no complete MPXV viral genome has been published from the human cases identified in the CAR. The objective of this study was to sequence the full genome of 10 MPXV isolates collected during the CAR epidemics between 2001 and 2018 in order to determine their phylogenetic relationships among MPXV lineages previously described in Central Africa and West Africa. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the 10 CAR isolates belong to three lineages closely related to those found in DRC. The phylogenetic pattern shows that all of them emerged in the rainforest block of the Congo Basin. Since most human index cases in CAR occurred at the northern edge of western and eastern rainforests, transmissions from wild animals living in the rainforest is the most probable hypothesis. In addition, molecular dating estimates suggest that periods of intense political instability resulting in population movements within the country often associated also with increased poverty may have led to more frequent contact with host wild animals. The CAR socio-economic situation, armed conflicts and ecological disturbances will likely incite populations to interact more and more with wild animals and thus increase the risk of zoonotic spillover.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Monkeypox/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Humanos , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Zoonoses/genética
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756100

RESUMO

A monkeypox outbreak in Nigeria during 2017-2020 provides an illustrative case study for emerging zoonoses. We built a statistical model to simulate declining immunity from monkeypox at 2 levels: At the individual level, we used a constant rate of decline in immunity of 1.29% per year as smallpox vaccination rates fell. At the population level, the cohort of vaccinated residents decreased over time because of deaths and births. By 2016, only 10.1% of the total population in Nigeria was vaccinated against smallpox; the serologic immunity level was 25.7% among vaccinated persons and 2.6% in the overall population. The substantial resurgence of monkeypox in Nigeria in 2017 appears to have been driven by a combination of population growth, accumulation of unvaccinated cohorts, and decline in smallpox vaccine immunity. The expanding unvaccinated population means that entire households, not just children, are now more susceptible to monkeypox, increasing risk of human-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Monkeypox , Vacina Antivariólica , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Nigéria , Urbanização , Zoonoses
4.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536322

RESUMO

Smallpox, caused by Variola virus (VARV), was eradicated in 1980; however, VARV bioterrorist threats still exist, necessitating readily available therapeutics. Current preparedness activities recognize the importance of oral antivirals and recommend therapeutics with different mechanisms of action. Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is closely related to VARV, causing a highly similar clinical human disease, and can be used as a surrogate for smallpox antiviral testing. The prairie dog MPXV model has been characterized and used to study the efficacy of antipoxvirus therapeutics, including recently approved TPOXX (tecovirimat). Brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) has shown antiviral activity against double-stranded DNA viruses, including poxviruses. To determine the exposure of BCV following oral administration to prairie dogs, a pharmacokinetics (PK) study was performed. Analysis of BCV plasma concentrations indicated variability, conceivably due to the outbred nature of the animals. To determine BCV efficacy in the MPXV prairie dog model, groups of animals were intranasally challenged with 9 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFU; 90% lethal dose [LD90]) of MPXV on inoculation day 0 (ID0). Animals were divided into groups based on the first day of BCV treatment relative to inoculation day (ID-1, ID0, or ID1). A trend in efficacy was noted dependent upon treatment initiation (57% on ID-1, 43% on ID0, and 29% on ID1) but was lower than demonstrated in other animal models. Analysis of the PK data indicated that BCV plasma exposure (maximum concentration [C max]) and the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) were lower than in other animal models administered the same doses, indicating that suboptimal BCV exposure may explain the lower protective effect on survival.IMPORTANCE Preparedness activities against highly transmissible viruses with high mortality rates have been highlighted during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV) infection, is highly transmissible, with an estimated 30% mortality. Through an intensive vaccination campaign, smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, and routine smallpox vaccination of individuals ceased. Today's current population has little/no immunity against VARV. If smallpox were to reemerge, the worldwide results would be devastating. Recent FDA approval of one smallpox antiviral (tecovirimat) was a successful step in biothreat preparedness; however, orthopoxviruses can become resistant to treatment, suggesting the need for multiple therapeutics. Our paper details the efficacy of the investigational smallpox drug brincidofovir in a monkeypox virus (MPXV) animal model. Since brincidofovir has not been tested in vivo against smallpox, studies with the related virus MPXV are critical in understanding whether it would be protective in the event of a smallpox outbreak.


Assuntos
Citosina/análogos & derivados , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organofosfonatos/farmacologia , Organofosfonatos/farmacocinética , Varíola/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Citosina/farmacocinética , Citosina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Isoindóis/farmacocinética , Isoindóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Vírus da Varíola/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
West Afr J Med ; 38(12): 1242-1246, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Monkey Pox Virus (HMPV) infection is a zoonotic infection that is endemic in the Congo basin and West Africa. Its similarity to smallpox infection, increased susceptibility infection in human populations, lack of a definitive therapy and its potential for use as a bioterrorism tool underscores its public health importance. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of HMPV infection in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. METHODS: This was a case study of HMPV infection occurring in two Nigerian adults, seen in 2018, at Bingham University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The cases involved two siblings, and these were the first reported cases in Plateau State of Nigeria, which has an estimated population of 3.5 million persons. The diagnosis was based on a combination of clinical features and positive PCR tests on samples from the skin lesions and blood. RESULTS: The first case, a 20-year-old male, presented with a one week history of fever, headache, pain on swallowing and micturition, and generalised skin lesions. The second case is a 20 year old step brother of the first case, and the primary care provider to first case when he took ill. He also presented with a one-week history of fever, headache, pain on swallowing, and skin lesions which were less intense than in the first case. PCR assays of samples from the skin lesions and blood were positive in both cases. The other comorbidity in both cases was pharyngotonsillitis. Blood, throat, stool, and urine cultures for suspected sepsis and urinary tract infection were all negative. Both cases were admitted and discharged after receiving a course of antibiotics, antihistamine, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and multivitamins. Universal precautions were observed. CONCLUSION: HMPV infection in our environment underscores the need to strengthen preventive health strategies against this infection.


CONTEXTE: L'infection par le virus de la variole humaine du singe (VMPS) est une zoonose endémique dans le bassin du Congo et en Afrique de l'Ouest. Sa similitude de l'infection variole augmenté l'infection susceptibilité dans les populations humaines, l'absence d'une thérapie définitive et son potentiel d'utilisation comme outil de bioterrorisme souligne son importance pour la santé publique. OBJECTIF: Décrire les caractéristiques de l'infection par le HMPV dans l'État du Plateau, dans le centre-nord du Nigeria. MÉTHODES: Il s'agit d'une étude de cas d'une infection à HMPV survenue chez deux adultes nigérians vus en 2018 à l'hôpital universitaire Bingham de Jos Teaching Hospital à Jos, dans l'État du Plateau, au Nigeria. Les cas impliquaient deux frères et sœurs, et il s'agissait des premiers cas signalés dans l'État du Plateau du Nigeria, dont la population est estimée à 3,5 millions de personnes. Le diagnostic était basé sur une combinaison de caractéristiques cliniques et de tests PCR positifs sur des échantillons provenant des lésions cutanées et du sang. RÉSULTATS: Le premier cas, un homme de 20 ans, s'est présenté avec un historique d'une semaine de fièvre, de maux de tête et de douleurs, de douleur à la déglutition et à la miction, et de lésions cutanées généralisées. Le deuxième cas est un demi-frère de 20 ans du premier cas, et le principal et le fournisseur de soins primaires du premier cas lorsqu'il est tombé malade. Il a également présenté une semaine de fièvre, de maux de tête, de douleur à la déglutition et des lésions cutanées qui étaient moins intenses que dans le premier cas. L' analyse PCR des échantillons de lésions cutanées et de sang étaient positifs dans les deux cas. L''autre comorbidité dans les deux cas était pharyngotonsillite. Les cultures de sang, de la gorge, des selles et de l'urine pour une suspicion de septicémie et d'infection des voies urinaires étaient toutes négatives. Les deux cas ont été admis et ont quitté l'hôpital après avoir reçu une série d'antibiotiques, d'antihistaminiques et de médicaments, d'antibiotiques, d'antihistaminiques, d'anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens et des multivitamines. Les précautions universelles ont été observées. CONCLUSION: L'infection par le HMPV dans notre environnement souligne la nécessité de renforcer les stratégies sanitaires préventives contre cette infection. Mots clés: Virus de la variole du singe humain, Présentation clinique, Nigeria.


Assuntos
Hospitais de Ensino , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria
6.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167496

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is a member of orthopoxvirus genus. The reemergence of MPXV in 2017 (at Bayelsa state) after 39 years of no reported case in Nigeria, and the export of travelers' monkeypox (MPX) from Nigeria to other parts of the world, in 2018 and 2019, respectively, have raised concern that MPXV may have emerged to occupy the ecological and immunological niche vacated by smallpox virus. This review X-rays the current state of knowledge pertaining the infection biology, epidemiology, and evolution of MPXV in Nigeria and worldwide, especially with regard to the human, cellular, and viral factors that modulate the virus transmission dynamics, infection, and its maintenance in nature. This paper also elucidates the role of recombination, gene loss and gene gain in MPXV evolution, chronicles the role of signaling in MPXV infection, and reviews the current therapeutic options available for the treatment and prevention of MPX. Additionally, genome-wide phylogenetic analysis was undertaken, and we show that MPXV isolates from recent 2017 outbreak in Nigeria were monophyletic with the isolate exported to Israel from Nigeria but do not share the most recent common ancestor with isolates obtained from earlier outbreaks, in 1971 and 1978, respectively. Finally, the review highlighted gaps in knowledge particularly the non-identification of a definitive reservoir host animal for MPXV and proposed future research endeavors to address the unresolved questions.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Monkeypox/transmissão , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/patogenicidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão
7.
Vaccine ; 38(43): 6800-6806, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A clinical trial is ongoing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a monkeypox vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs). The critical question that needs to be addressed is whether HCWs are willing to accept and purchase this vaccine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) for the vaccine among HCWs. METHODS: From May to July 2019, a cross-sectional study was conducted among registered general practitioners (GPs) in Indonesia. A contingent valuation method was employed to evaluate the WTP. Besides acceptance and WTP, various explanatory variables were also collected and assessed. A logistic regression and a multivariable linear regression were used to explore the explanatory variables influencing acceptance and WTP, respectively. RESULTS: Among 407 respondents, 391 (96.0%) expressed acceptance of a free vaccination. The mean and median WTP was US$ 37.0(95%CI:US$ 32.76-US$ 41.23) and US$ 17.90(95%CI:US$ 17.90-US$ 17.90), respectively. In an unadjusted analysis, those 30 years old or younger had 2.94 times greater odds of vaccine acceptance compared to those who were older (95%CI: 1.07-8.08). Location of alma mater, type of workplace, length of individual medical experience, and monthly income of GPs were all significantly associated with WTP. CONCLUSION: Although the vast majority of GPs would accept a freely provided vaccine, they were also somewhat price sensitive. This finding indicates that partial subsidy maybe required to achieve high vaccine coverage, particularly among GPs at community health centres or those with a shorter duration of medical practice.


Assuntos
Monkeypox , Vacinas , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Indonésia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717786

RESUMO

Over the last 15 years, advances in immunofluorescence-imaging based cycling methods, antibody conjugation methods, and automated image processing have facilitated the development of a high-resolution, multiplexed tissue immunofluorescence (MxIF) method with single cell-level quantitation termed Cell DIVETM. Originally developed for fixed oncology samples, here it was evaluated in highly fixed (up to 30 days), archived monkeypox virus-induced inflammatory skin lesions from a retrospective study in 11 rhesus monkeys to determine whether MxIF was comparable to manual H-scoring of chromogenic stains. Six protein markers related to immune and cellular response (CD68, CD3, Hsp70, Hsp90, ERK1/2, ERK1/2 pT202_pY204) were manually quantified (H-scores) by a pathologist from chromogenic IHC double stains on serial sections and compared to MxIF automated single cell quantification of the same markers that were multiplexed on a single tissue section. Overall, there was directional consistency between the H-score and the MxIF results for all markers except phosphorylated ERK1/2 (ERK1/2 pT202_pY204), which showed a decrease in the lesion compared to the adjacent non-lesioned skin by MxIF vs an increase via H-score. Improvements to automated segmentation using machine learning and adding additional cell markers for cell viability are future options for improvement. This method could be useful in infectious disease research as it conserves tissue, provides marker colocalization data on thousands of cells, allowing further cell level data mining as well as a reduction in user bias.


Assuntos
Imunofluorescência/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Monkeypox/patologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Compostos Cromogênicos , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/patogenicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/patologia , Coloração e Rotulagem
9.
10.
Vaccine ; 38(33): 5077-5081, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417140

RESUMO

Smallpox eradication, coordinated by the WHO and certified 40 years ago, led to the cessation of routine smallpox vaccination in most countries. It is estimated that over 70% of the world's population is no longer protected against smallpox, and through cross-immunity, to closely related orthopox viruses such as monkeypox. Monkeypox is now a re-emerging disease. Monkeypox is endemic in as yet unconfirmed animal reservoirs in sub-Saharan Africa, while its human epidemiology appears to be changing. Monkeypox in small animals imported from Ghana as exotic pets was at the origin of an outbreak of human monkeypox in the USA in 2003. Travellers infected in Nigeria were at the origin of monkeypox cases in the UK in 2018 and 2019, Israel in 2018 and Singapore in2019. Together with sporadic reports of human infections with other orthopox viruses, these facts invite speculation that emergent or re-emergent human monkeypox might fill the epidemiological niche vacated by smallpox. An ad-hoc and unofficial group of interested experts met to consider these issues at Chatham House, London in June 2019, in order to review available data and identify monkeypox-related research gaps. Gaps identified by the experts included:The experts further agreed on the need for a better understanding of the genomic evolution and changing epidemiology of orthopox viruses, the usefulness of in-field genomic diagnostics, and the best disease control strategies, including the possibility of vaccination with new generation non-replicating smallpox vaccines and treatment with recently developed antivirals.


Assuntos
Monkeypox , Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Animais , Gana , Humanos , Israel , Londres , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Monkeypox/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Nigéria , Singapura , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antivariólica/efeitos adversos
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1826-1830, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338590

RESUMO

In May 2019, we investigated monkeypox in a traveler from Nigeria to Singapore. The public health response included rapid identification of contacts, use of quarantine, and postexposure smallpox vaccination. No secondary cases were identified. Countries should develop surveillance systems to detect emerging infectious diseases globally.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Monkeypox , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Monkeypox/diagnóstico , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Nigéria , Singapura/epidemiologia
12.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(7): 955-965, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341480

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease on the rise across endemic habitats. Despite the growing importance of monkeypox virus, our knowledge on its host spectrum and sylvatic maintenance is limited. Here, we describe the recent repeated emergence of monkeypox virus in a wild, human-habituated western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus, hereafter chimpanzee) population from Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Through daily monitoring, we show that further to causing its typical exanthematous syndrome, monkeypox can present itself as a severe respiratory disease without a diffuse rash. By analysing 949 non-invasively collected samples, we identify the circulation of at least two distinct monkeypox virus lineages and document the shedding of infectious particles in faeces and flies, suggesting that they could mediate indirect transmission. We also show that the carnivorous component of the Taï chimpanzees' diet, mainly consisting of the sympatric monkeys they regularly hunt, did not change nor shift towards rodent consumption (the presumed reservoir) before the outbreaks, suggesting that the sudden emergence of monkeypox virus in this population is probably due to changes in the ecology of the virus itself. Using long-term mortality surveillance data from Taï National Park, we provide evidence of little to no prior viral activity over at least two decades. We conclude that great ape sentinel systems devoted to the longitudinal collection of behavioural and health data can help clarify the epidemiology and clinical presentation of zoonotic pathogens.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/fisiologia , Monkeypox/virologia , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Exantema/etiologia , Exantema/metabolismo , Exantema/patologia , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Monkeypox/complicações , Monkeypox/metabolismo , Monkeypox/mortalidade , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/classificação , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/isolamento & purificação , Pan troglodytes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/metabolismo
13.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(2): 68-75, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202967

RESUMO

After the first, imported, laboratory-confirmed case of monkeypox in human was reported in Singapore on May 2019, countries in Asia started to strengthen disease surveillance systems. One challenge in preventing monkeypox is a lack of knowledge, particularly among healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of monkeypox among general practitioners (GPs) in Indonesia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. The survey collected participants' knowledge on a 21-item scale and explanatory variables. A two-step logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the predictors of knowledge of monkeypox. A total of 432 GPs were included; 10.0% and 36.5% of them had a good knowledge using an 80% and 70% cutoff point for knowledge domain, respectively. No explanatory variables were associated with knowledge when using 80% cutoff point. Using the lower cutoff, there was lower knowledge among GPs who graduated from universities located in Sumatra or other islands versus Java (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95%CI: 0.28-0.97, p = 0.041) and among those were older than 30 years compared to younger GPs (aOR: 0.61; 95%CI: 0.39-0.96, p = 0.033). GPs working in private clinics had less knowledge compared to GPs in community health centers (aOR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.31-0.99, p = 0.047). In conclusion, knowledge of monkeypox among GPs in Indonesia is relatively low in all groups. Increasing knowledge of monkeypox will be key to improving the capacity of GPs to respond to human monkeypox cases and to report into a disease surveillance system.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Monkeypox/diagnóstico , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Monkeypox/virologia , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(8): e210-e214, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052029

RESUMO

In a retrospective review of hospital records of 40 human monkeypox cases from Nigeria, the majority developed fever and self-limiting vesiculopustular skin eruptions. Five deaths were reported. Compared to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative cases, HIV type 1-coinfected cases had more prolonged illness, larger lesions, and higher rates of both secondary bacterial skin infections and genital ulcers.


Assuntos
Exantema , Monkeypox , Animais , Humanos , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(4): 782-785, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023204

RESUMO

In September 2018, monkeypox virus was transmitted from a patient to a healthcare worker in the United Kingdom. Transmission was probably through contact with contaminated bedding. Infection control precautions for contacts (vaccination, daily monitoring, staying home from work) were implemented. Of 134 potential contacts, 4 became ill; all patients survived.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Monkeypox , Animais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e17985, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000354

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease. Media campaigns are planned to create awareness about the disease. This is because mass media is often the leading source of information and mobilization during important health issues or crisis. The main objective of this study was to assess the media coverage of monkeypox outbreak in Nigeria.The study adopted a cross-sectional survey of residents in Southern Nigeria. A total of 600 respondents were sampled for this study through a multi-stage cluster random sampling technique. Research assistants helped in collecting data from respondents through structured questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using percentages, mean score, and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA).Respondents had little or no knowledge of monkeypox virus, its nature, mode of transmission, and prevention mechanism (2.30 ±â€Š.918, P = .000). Respondents stated that they learnt about the virus through friends and social institutions instead of media (4.44 ±â€Š.945, P = .006). Media failed to create effective and comprehensive awareness campaigns to mobilize the public (1.86 ±â€Š1.196, P = .001), while inappropriate and insufficient media programs and lack of funds were blamed for media ineffectiveness (4.18 ±â€Š1.352, P = .004).The outbreak of monkeypox virus is a public health concern in Nigeria. Media campaigns are planned to raise awareness about the disease; however, these campaigns have not demonstrated effectiveness in changing people's health behavior toward monkeypox. Media, health professionals, and government should synergize to promote a consistent health policy for the control and prevention of monkeypox virus.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Monkeypox , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(2): 345-349, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961314

RESUMO

In November 2017, the mobile digital Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System was deployed in 30 districts in Nigeria in response to an outbreak of monkeypox. Adaptation and activation of the system took 14 days, and its use improved timeliness, completeness, and overall capacity of the response.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Humanos , Monkeypox/etiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia
19.
Ecohealth ; 17(1): 64-73, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875271

RESUMO

Experimental studies have suggested a larger inoculum of monkeypox virus may be associated with increased rash severity; however, little data are available on the relationship between specific animal exposures and rash severity in endemic regions. Using cross-sectional data from an active surveillance program conducted between 2005 and 2007 in the Sankuru Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we explored the possible relationship between rash severity and exposures to rodents and non-human primates among confirmed MPX cases. Among the 223 PCR-confirmed MPX cases identified during active surveillance, the majority of cases (n = 149) presented with mild rash (5-100 lesions) and 33% had a more serious presentation (> 100 lesions). No association between exposure to rodents and rash severity was found in the multivariable analysis. Those that self-reported hunting NHP 3 weeks prior to onset of MPX symptoms had 2.78 times the odds of severe rash than those that did not report such exposure (95% CI: 1.18, 6.58). This study provides a preliminary step in understanding the association between animal exposure and rash severity and demonstrates correlation with exposure to NHPs and human MPX presentation. Additional research exploring the relationship between rash severity and NHPs is warranted.


Assuntos
Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Exantema , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
20.
Vaccine ; 38(3): 644-654, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677948

RESUMO

Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated but research stocks of variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, still exist in secure laboratories. Clandestine stores of the virus or resurrection of VARV via synthetic biology are possible and have led to concerns that VARV could be used as a biological weapon. The US government has prepared for such an event by stockpiling smallpox vaccines and TPOXX®, SIGA Technologies' smallpox antiviral drug. While vaccination is effective as a pre-exposure prophylaxis, protection is limited when administered following exposure. Safety concerns preclude general use of the vaccine unless there is a smallpox outbreak. TPOXX is approved by the FDA for use after confirmed diagnosis of smallpox disease. Tecovirimat, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in TPOXX, targets a highly conserved orthopoxviral protein, inhibiting long-range dissemination of virus. Although indications for use of the vaccine and TPOXX do not overlap, concomitant use is possible, especially if the TPOXX indication is expanded to include post-exposure prophylaxis. It is therefore important to understand how vaccine and TPOXX may interact. In studies presented here, monkeys were vaccinated with the ACAM2000TM live attenuated smallpox vaccine and concomitantly treated with tecovirimat or placebo. Immune responses to the vaccine and protective efficacy versus a lethal monkeypox virus (MPXV) challenge were evaluated. In two studies, primary and anamnestic humoral immune responses were similar regardless of tecovirimat treatment while the third study showed reduction in vaccine elicited humoral immunity. Following lethal MPXV challenge, all (12 of 12) vaccinated/placebo treated animals survived, and 12 of 13 vaccinated/tecovirimat treated animals survived. Clinical signs of disease were elevated in tecovirimat treated animals compared to placebo treated animals. This suggests that TPOXX may affect the immunogenicity of ACAM2000 if administered concomitantly. These studies may inform on how vaccine and TPOXX are used during a smallpox outbreak.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoindóis/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monkeypox/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antivariólica/administração & dosagem , Animais , Benzamidas/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Isoindóis/imunologia , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Monkeypox/imunologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/imunologia , Primatas , Vacina Antivariólica/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...