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1.
Science ; 375(6577): 161-167, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855509

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the critical need for broad-spectrum therapeutics against respiratory viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major threat to pediatric patients and older adults. We describe 4'-fluorouridine (4'-FlU, EIDD-2749), a ribonucleoside analog that inhibits RSV, related RNA viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with high selectivity index in cells and human airway epithelia organoids. Polymerase inhibition within in vitro RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assays established for RSV and SARS-CoV-2 revealed transcriptional stalling after incorporation. Once-daily oral treatment was highly efficacious at 5 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) in RSV-infected mice or 20 mg/kg in ferrets infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, initiated 24 or 12 hours after infection, respectively. These properties define 4'-FlU as a broad-spectrum candidate for the treatment of RSV, SARS-CoV-2, and related RNA virus infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleotídeos de Uracila/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Furões , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mononegavirais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mononegavirais/fisiologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética , Nucleotídeos de Uracila/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeos de Uracila/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960735

RESUMO

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), the founding member of the mononegavirus order (Mononegavirales), was found to be a negative strand RNA virus in the 1960s, and since then the number of such viruses has continually increased with no end in sight. Sendai virus (SeV) was noted soon afterwards due to an outbreak of newborn pneumonitis in Japan whose putative agent was passed in mice, and nowadays this mouse virus is mainly the bane of animal houses and immunologists. However, SeV was important in the study of this class of viruses because, like flu, it grows to high titers in embryonated chicken eggs, facilitating the biochemical characterization of its infection and that of its nucleocapsid, which is very close to that of measles virus (MeV). This review and opinion piece follow SeV as more is known about how various mononegaviruses express their genetic information and carry out their RNA synthesis, and proposes a unified model based on what all MNV have in common.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mononegavirales/virologia , Mononegavirais/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Sendai/genética , Animais , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mononegavirais/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Vírus Sendai/metabolismo
3.
Enzymes ; 50: 21-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861938

RESUMO

Viruses with negative-strand RNA genomes (NSVs) include many highly pathogenic and economically devastating disease-causing agents of humans, livestock, and plants-highlighted by recent Ebola and measles virus epidemics, and continuously circulating influenza virus. Because of their protein-coding orientation, NSVs face unique challenges for efficient gene expression and genome replication. To overcome these barriers, NSVs deliver a large and multifunctional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase into infected host cells. NSV-encoded polymerases contain all the enzymatic activities required for transcription and replication of their genome-including RNA synthesis and mRNA capping. Here, we review the structures and functions of NSV polymerases with a focus on key domains responsible for viral replication and gene expression. We highlight shared and unique features among polymerases of NSVs from the Mononegavirales, Bunyavirales, and Articulavirales orders.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , RNA Viral , Humanos , Mononegavirais/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
4.
J Gen Virol ; 102(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738886

RESUMO

Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales, with unsegmented (except for members of the genus Tapwovirus), negative-sense RNA genomes of 10-13 kb. Nyamviruses have a genome organisation and content similar to that of other mononegaviruses. Nyamiviridae includes several genera that form monophyletic clades on phylogenetic analysis of the RNA polymerase. Nyamiviruses have been found associated with diverse invertebrates as well as land- and seabirds. Members of the genera Nyavirus and Socyvirus produce enveloped, spherical virions. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Nyamiviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/nyamiviridae.


Assuntos
Mononegavirais/classificação , Mononegavirais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Genoma Viral , Invertebrados/virologia , Mononegavirais/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vírion/classificação , Vírion/genética , Vírion/isolamento & purificação
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546457

RESUMO

Mononegavirales phosphoproteins (P) are essential co-factors of the viral polymerase by serving as a linchpin between the catalytic subunit and the ribonucleoprotein template. They have highly diverged, but their overall architecture is conserved. They are multidomain proteins, which all possess an oligomerization domain that separates N- and C-terminal domains. Large intrinsically disordered regions constitute their hallmark. Here, we exemplify their structural features and interaction potential, based on the Pneumoviridae P proteins. These P proteins are rather small, and their oligomerization domain is the only part with a defined 3D structure, owing to a quaternary arrangement. All other parts are either flexible or form short-lived secondary structure elements that transiently associate with the rest of the protein. Pneumoviridae P proteins interact with several viral and cellular proteins that are essential for viral transcription and replication. The combination of intrinsic disorder and tetrameric organization enables them to structurally adapt to different partners and to act as adaptor-like platforms to bring the latter close in space. Transient structures are stabilized in complex with protein partners. This class of proteins gives an insight into the structural versatility of non-globular intrinsically disordered protein domains.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Pneumovirus/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Mononegavirais , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Pneumovirus/genética , Ligação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas Virais/genética
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(12): 3513-3566, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463877

RESUMO

In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, and Gammarhabdovirinae), 42 genera, and 200 species. Thirty-nine species were renamed and/or moved and seven species were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.


Assuntos
Mononegavirais , Vírus , Humanos
7.
Virology ; 553: 51-61, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221630

RESUMO

Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight is controlled in Europe through natural spread of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), a mycovirus able to induce hypovirulence to the host. In recent years C. parasitica was reported infecting Azerbaijani population of chestnut, but the presence of CHV1 still needs to be confirmed. Aim of this work was to investigate fifty-five C. parasitica isolates collected in Azerbaijan to describe the associated viruses. Our work found i) the first negative-sense ssRNA virus known to infect C. parasitica naturally for which we propose the name Cryphonectria parasitica sclerotimonavirus 1 (CpSV1) and ii) an RNA sequence showing peculiar features suggesting a viral nature for which we propose the name Cryphonectria parasitica ambivirus 1 (CpaV1). The discovery of CpaV1 expands our knowledge of the RNA virosphere suggesting the existence of a new lineage that cannot presently be reliably associated to the monophyletic Riboviria.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/virologia , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Mononegavirais/isolamento & purificação , Viroma , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Azerbaijão , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/genética , Genoma Viral , Mononegavirais/classificação , Mononegavirais/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Casca de Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172032

RESUMO

The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for several human arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Mosquitoes also harbor insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that may modulate host physiology and potentially affect the transmission of viruses that are pathogenic to vertebrates, thus representing a potential tool for vector control strategies. In Ae. albopictus we identified a novel anphevirus (family Xinmoviridae; order Mononegavirales) provisionally designated here as Aedes albopictus anphevirus (AealbAV). AealbAV contains a ~12.4 kb genome that is highly divergent from currently known viruses but displays gene content and genomic organization typical of known anpheviruses. We identified AealbAV in several publicly available RNA-Seq datasets from different geographical regions both in laboratory colonies and field collected mosquitoes. Coding-complete genomes of AealbAV strains are highly similar worldwide (>96% nucleotide identity) and cluster according to the geographical origin of their hosts. AealbAV appears to be present in various body compartments and mosquito life stages, including eggs. We further detected AealbAV-derived vsiRNAs and vpiRNAs in publicly available miRNA-Seq libraries of Ae. albopictus and in samples experimentally coinfected with chikungunya virus. This suggests that AealbAV is targeted by the host RNA interference (RNAi) response, consistent with persistent virus replication. The discovery and characterization of AealbAV in Ae. albopictus will now allow us to identify its infection in mosquito populations and laboratory strains, and to assess its potential impact on Ae. albopictus physiology and ability to transmit arboviruses.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Mononegavirais/classificação , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Mononegavirais/isolamento & purificação , Mononegavirais/fisiologia , Filogenia , Replicação Viral
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3023-3072, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888050

RESUMO

In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.


Assuntos
Mononegavirais/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
J Virol ; 94(22)2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847861

RESUMO

Mononegavirales, known as nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viruses, are a class of pathogenic and sometimes deadly viruses that include rabies virus (RABV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), and Ebola virus (EBOV). Unfortunately, no effective vaccines and antiviral therapeutics against many Mononegavirales are currently available. Viral polymerases have been attractive and major antiviral therapeutic targets. Therefore, Mononegavirales polymerases have been extensively investigated for their structures and functions. Mononegavirales mimic RNA synthesis of their eukaryotic counterparts by utilizing multifunctional RNA polymerases to replicate entire viral genomes and transcribe viral mRNAs from individual viral genes as well as synthesize 5' methylated cap and 3' poly(A) tail of the transcribed viral mRNAs. The catalytic subunit large protein (L) and cofactor phosphoprotein (P) constitute the Mononegavirales polymerases. In this review, we discuss the shared and unique features of RNA synthesis, the monomeric multifunctional enzyme L, and the oligomeric multimodular adapter P of Mononegavirales We outline the structural analyses of the Mononegavirales polymerases since the first structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) L protein determined in 2015 and highlight multiple high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the polymerases of Mononegavirales, namely, VSV, RABV, HRSV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), that have been reported in recent months (2019 to 2020). We compare the structures of those polymerases grouped by virus family, illustrate the similarities and differences among those polymerases, and reveal the potential RNA synthesis mechanisms and models of highly conserved Mononegavirales We conclude by the discussion of remaining questions, evolutionary perspectives, and future directions.


Assuntos
Mononegavirais/enzimologia , Mononegavirais/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/química , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Metapneumovirus , Modelos Moleculares , Mononegavirais/classificação , Conformação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Raiva , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/enzimologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Replicação Viral
12.
Arch Virol ; 164(4): 1233-1244, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663023

RESUMO

In October 2018, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the establishment of three new families and three new genera, abolishment of two genera, and creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Assuntos
Mononegavirais/classificação , Mononegavirais/genética , Mononegavirais/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Virologia/organização & administração
13.
Glycobiology ; 29(1): 2-21, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878112

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a biologically important protein modification process by which a carbohydrate chain is enzymatically added to a protein at a specific amino acid residue. This process plays roles in many cellular functions, including intracellular trafficking, cell-cell signaling, protein folding and receptor binding. While glycosylation is a common host cell process, it is utilized by many pathogens as well. Protein glycosylation is widely employed by viruses for both host invasion and evasion of host immune responses. Thus better understanding of viral glycosylation functions has potential applications for improved antiviral therapeutic and vaccine development. Here, we summarize our current knowledge on the broad biological functions of glycans for the Mononegavirales, an order of enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of high medical importance that includes Ebola, rabies, measles and Nipah viruses. We discuss glycobiological findings by genera in alphabetical order within each of eight Mononegavirales families, namely, the bornaviruses, filoviruses, mymonaviruses, nyamiviruses, paramyxoviruses, pneumoviruses, rhabdoviruses and sunviruses.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Mononegavirais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicosilação , Humanos , Mononegavirais/genética , Polissacarídeos/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
Viruses ; 10(12)2018 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544818

RESUMO

The order Mononegavirales harbors numerous viruses of significant relevance to human health, including both established and emerging infections. Currently, vaccines are only available for a small subset of these viruses, and antiviral therapies remain limited. Being obligate cellular parasites, viruses must utilize the cellular machinery for their replication and spread. Therefore, targeting cellular pathways used by viruses can provide novel therapeutic approaches. One of the key challenges confronted by both hosts and viruses alike is the successful folding and maturation of proteins. In cells, this task is faced by cellular molecular chaperones, a group of conserved and abundant proteins that oversee protein folding and help maintain protein homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how the Mononegavirales interact with cellular chaperones, highlight key gaps in our knowledge, and discuss the potential of chaperone inhibitors as antivirals.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Mononegavirais/fisiologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus do Sarampo/genética , Vírus do Sarampo/fisiologia , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Mononegavirais/genética , Dobramento de Proteína , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3057, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076298

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that nucleoli play critical roles in the DNA-damage response (DDR) via interaction of DDR machinery including NBS1 with nucleolar Treacle protein, a key mediator of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription and processing. Here, using proteomics, confocal and single molecule super-resolution imaging, and infection under biosafety level-4 containment, we show that this nucleolar DDR pathway is targeted by infectious pathogens. We find that the matrix proteins of Hendra virus and Nipah virus, highly pathogenic viruses of the Henipavirus genus in the order Mononegavirales, interact with Treacle and inhibit its function, thereby silencing rRNA biogenesis, consistent with mimicking NBS1-Treacle interaction during a DDR. Furthermore, inhibition of Treacle expression/function enhances henipavirus production. These data identify a mechanism for viral modulation of host cells by appropriating the nucleolar DDR and represent, to our knowledge, the first direct intranucleolar function for proteins of any mononegavirus.


Assuntos
Nucléolo Celular/fisiologia , Nucléolo Celular/virologia , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Vírus Hendra/fisiologia , Vírus Nipah/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Henipavirus/genética , Infecções por Henipavirus , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Mononegavirais/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Nucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica , RNA Ribossômico/biossíntese , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
16.
J Virol ; 92(17)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950416

RESUMO

Insect-specific viruses (ISVs) of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti have been demonstrated to modulate transmission of arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus by the mosquito. The diversity and composition of the virome of A. aegypti, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Aedes anphevirus (AeAV), a negative-sense RNA virus from the order Mononegavirales AeAV identified from Aedes cell lines was infectious to both A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus cells but not to three mammalian cell lines. To understand the incidence and genetic diversity of AeAV, we assembled 17 coding-complete and two partial genomes of AeAV from available transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) data. AeAV appears to transmit vertically and be present in laboratory colonies, wild-caught mosquitoes, and cell lines worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis of AeAV strains indicates that as the A. aegypti mosquito has expanded into the Americas and Asia-Pacific, AeAV has evolved into monophyletic African, American, and Asia-Pacific lineages. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis restricts positive-sense RNA viruses in A. aegypti Reanalysis of a small RNA library of A. aegypti cells coinfected with AeAV and Wolbachia produces an abundant RNA interference (RNAi) response consistent with persistent virus replication. We found Wolbachia enhances replication of AeAV compared to a tetracycline-cleared cell line, and AeAV modestly reduces DENV replication in vitro The results from our study improve understanding of the diversity and evolution of the virome of A. aegypti and adds to previous evidence that shows Wolbachia does not restrict a range of negative-strand RNA viruses.IMPORTANCE The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Mosquitoes also harbor insect-specific viruses that may affect replication of pathogenic arboviruses in their body. Currently, however, there are only a few insect-specific viruses described from A. aegypti in the literature. Here, we characterize a novel negative-strand virus, AeAV. Meta-analysis of A. aegypti samples showed that it is present in A. aegypti mosquitoes worldwide and is vertically transmitted. Wolbachia-transinfected mosquitoes are currently being used in biocontrol, as they effectively block transmission of several positive-sense RNA viruses in mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that Wolbachia enhances the replication of AeAV and modestly reduces dengue virus replication in a cell line model. This study expands our understanding of the virome in A. aegypti as well as providing insight into the complexity of the Wolbachia virus restriction phenotype.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Mononegavirais/fisiologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/veterinária , Vírus de Insetos/classificação , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Mononegavirais/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
17.
Arch Virol ; 163(8): 2283-2294, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637429

RESUMO

In 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 12 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.


Assuntos
Mononegavirais/classificação , Animais , Humanos , Mononegavirais/genética , Mononegavirais/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mononegavirales/veterinária , Infecções por Mononegavirales/virologia , Filogenia
18.
Viruses ; 9(5)2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492506

RESUMO

The mononegaviral family Filoviridae has eight members assigned to three genera and seven species. Until now, genus and species demarcation were based on arbitrarily chosen filovirus genome sequence divergence values (≈50% for genera, ≈30% for species) and arbitrarily chosen phenotypic virus or virion characteristics. Here we report filovirus genome sequence-based taxon demarcation criteria using the publicly accessible PAirwise Sequencing Comparison (PASC) tool of the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (Bethesda, MD, USA). Comparison of all available filovirus genomes in GenBank using PASC revealed optimal genus demarcation at the 55-58% sequence diversity threshold range for genera and at the 23-36% sequence diversity threshold range for species. Because these thresholds do not change the current official filovirus classification, these values are now implemented as filovirus taxon demarcation criteria that may solely be used for filovirus classification in case additional data are absent. A near-complete, coding-complete, or complete filovirus genome sequence will now be required to allow official classification of any novel "filovirus." Classification of filoviruses into existing taxa or determining the need for novel taxa is now straightforward and could even become automated using a presented algorithm/flowchart rooted in RefSeq (type) sequences.


Assuntos
Filoviridae/classificação , Filoviridae/genética , Filogenia , Algoritmos , Sequência de Bases , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Marburgvirus/classificação , Marburgvirus/genética , Mononegavirais/classificação , Mononegavirais/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Design de Software , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Arch Virol ; 162(8): 2493-2504, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389807

RESUMO

In 2017, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by the inclusion of a total of 69 novel species. Five new rhabdovirus genera and one new nyamivirus genus were established to harbor 41 of these species, whereas the remaining new species were assigned to already established genera. Furthermore, non-Latinized binomial species names replaced all paramyxovirus and pneumovirus species names, thereby accomplishing application of binomial species names throughout the entire order. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Mononegavirais/classificação , Ordem dos Genes , Mononegavirais/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 147: 37-50, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793741

RESUMO

Invertebrates are hosts to diverse RNA viruses that have all possible types of encapsidated genomes (positive, negative and ambisense single stranded RNA genomes, or a double stranded RNA genome). These viruses also differ markedly in virion morphology and genome structure. Invertebrate RNA viruses are present in three out of four currently recognized orders of RNA viruses: Mononegavirales, Nidovirales, and Picornavirales, and 10 out of 37 RNA virus families that have yet to be assigned to an order. This mini-review describes general properties of the taxonomic groups, which include invertebrate RNA viruses on the basis of their current classification by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Assuntos
Invertebrados/virologia , Mononegavirais/genética , Nidovirales/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mononegavirais/classificação , Nidovirales/classificação , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação
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