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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(13): 4721-4734, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Satureja montana L. is traditionally used as spice and for treatment various diseases. Many studies have shown antioxidative effect of Satureja species. Our thorough study in an animal model was performed through measurement of biochemical parameters in the serum, histology analysis and determination of oxidative status of the liver, coupled with investigation of extraction solvent selection using principal component analysis (PCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Winter savory dry extract (500 mg/kg) dispersion and saline solution were given to Wistar rats for 7 days after exposure to oxidative stress using toxic doses of paracetamol (600 mg/kg). Rats were sacrificed, after which a complete autopsy was performed, the blood obtained was used to determine biochemical parameters, and the liver was sliced for histological analysis and determination of oxidative stress enzymes. RESULTS: Indicators of hepatic and kidney functions, as well as the concentration of oxidative stress enzymes, were statistically significantly lower in animals treated with Satureja montana L. extract compared to the paracetamol group alone before the toxic dose of paracetamol. Liver enzymes were unaltered by pre-treatment with the extract, but the level of lipid peroxidase was decreased, and the level of catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase increased proving in vivo antioxidant effect. In addition, the number of inflammatory cells is decreased coupled with activity of CYP2E1 enzymes proving hepatoprotective effect. CONCLUSIONS: Satureja montana L. extract in our research has shown hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect. PCA analyses indicated that extraction mediums have a great impact on the antioxidative effect.


Assuntos
Satureja , Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Montana , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solventes/metabolismo , Solventes/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268213, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714073

RESUMO

Bergmann's and Allen's rules were defined to describe macroecological patterns across latitudinal gradients. Bergmann observed a positive association between body size and latitude for endothermic species while Allen described shorter appendages as latitude increases. Almost two centuries later, there is still ongoing discussion about these patterns. Temperature, the common variable in these two rules, varies predictably across both latitude and elevation. Although these rules have been assessed extensively in mammals across latitude, particularly in regions with strong seasonality, studies on tropical montane mammals are scarce. We here test for these patterns and assess the variation of several other locomotory, diet-associated, body condition, and thermoregulatory traits across elevation in the Mountain Treeshrew (Tupaia montana) on tropical mountains in Borneo. Based on morphological measurements from both the field and scientific collections, we found a complex pattern: Bergmann's rule was not supported in our tropical mountain system, since skull length, body size, and weight decreased from the lowest elevations (<1000 m) to middle elevations (2000-2500 m), and then increased from middle elevations to highest elevations. Allen's rule was supported for relative tail length, which decreased with elevation, but not for ear and hindfoot length, with the former remaining constant and the latter increasing with elevation. This evidence together with changes in presumed diet-related traits (rostrum length, zygomatic breadth and upper tooth row length) along elevation suggest that selective pressures other than temperature, are playing a more important role shaping the morphological variation across the distribution of the Mountain Treeshrew. Diet, food acquisition, predation pressure, and/or intra- and inter-specific competition, are some of the potential factors driving the phenotypic variation of this study system. The lack of variation in body condition might suggest local adaptation of this species across its elevational range, perhaps due to generalist foraging strategies. Finally, a highly significant temporal effect was detected in several traits but not in others, representing the first phenotypic variation temporal trends described on treeshrews.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Tupaia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Montana , Temperatura
3.
Zootaxa ; 5099(4): 496-500, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391400

RESUMO

We describe the darner dragonfly Kishenehna prima n. gen. and sp. (Odonata, Aeshnidae, Gomphaeschninae) based on a well-preserved, nearly complete female hind wing from the Lutetian Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana, USA. Kishenehna is morphologically close to the late Paleocene genus Alloaeschna Wighton Wilson of Alberta, Canada. This is the first dragonfly (Anisoptera) described from the Kishenehn Formation and the first from the Lutetian of the Western Hemisphere.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Ortópteros , Animais , Feminino , Montana , Asas de Animais
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316290

RESUMO

Wheat is a staple crop that is critical for feeding a hungry and growing planet, but its nutritive value has declined as global temperatures have warmed. The price offered to producers depends not only on yield but also grain protein content (GPC), which are often negatively related at the field scale but can positively covary depending in part on management strategies, emphasizing the need to understand their variability within individual fields. We measured yield and GPC in a winter wheat field in Sun River, Montana, USA, and tested the ability of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measurements from an unoccupied aerial vehicle (UAV) on spatial scales of ~10 cm and from Landsat on spatial scales of 30 m to predict them. Landsat observations were poorly related to yield and GPC measurements. A multiple linear model using information from four (three) UAV flyovers was selected as the most parsimonious and predicted 26% (40%) of the variability in wheat yield (GPC). We sought to understand the optimal spatial scale for interpreting UAV observations given that the ~ 10 cm pixels yielded more than 12 million measurements at far finer resolution than the 12 m scale of the harvester. The variance in NDVI observations was "averaged out" at larger pixel sizes but only ~ 20% of the total variance was averaged out at the spatial scale of the harvester on some measurement dates. Spatial averaging to the scale of the harvester also made little difference in the total information content of NDVI fit using Beta distributions as quantified using the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Radially-averaged power spectra of UAV-measured NDVI revealed relatively steep power-law relationships with exponentially less variance at finer spatial scales. Results suggest that larger pixels can reasonably capture the information content of within-field NDVI, but the 30 m Landsat scale is too coarse to describe some of the key features of the field, which are consistent with topography, historic management practices, and edaphic variability. Future research should seek to determine an 'optimum' spatial scale for NDVI observations that minimizes effort (and therefore cost) while maintaining the ability of producers to make management decisions that positively impact wheat yield and GPC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Grãos , Montana , Estações do Ano , Triticum/metabolismo
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 165, 2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Native American communities in Montana reservations have reported low-level satisfaction in health services. This research explored if the services provided at a Blackfeet Indian Reservation outpatient clinic were designed to meet patient expectations. METHODS: Staff and patient interviews and surveys allowed service expectations to be assessed according to the clinic's ability to meet those expectations. A total of 48 patients and ten staff members (83% of the staff at this clinic) participated in the study voluntarily. RESULTS: We found a disconnect between what patients anticipate for care and what staff think they are anticipating. We also found a discontent between what staff believes patients need versus what the patients feel is needed. CONCLUSIONS: These gaps combine to increase the breach between patient expectations and perceptions of their healthcare services. With better insight that captures what patients are looking for from a service, the potential to meet those needs increases, and patients feel that their voice is respected and valued.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Montana , Satisfação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 74(5): 741-751, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122277

RESUMO

The extraction and characterization of the essential oils (EO) from Satureja montana L., Myristica fragrans H. and Cymbopogon flexuosus and the determination of their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were achieved. The EO were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by cell susceptibility assays and by scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, by ß-carotene bleaching and by determining the reducing power. Borneol (36·18%), γ-terpineol (12·66%) and carvacrol (11·07%) were the principal components in the EO from S. montana, and sabinene (49·23%) and α-pinene (13·81%) were found in the EO from M. fragrans. Geranial (59·66%) and neral (38·98%) isomers were the only major components in the EO from C. flexuosus. The EO from S. montana was effective against E. coli, with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of 6·25 µl ml-1 , whereas bactericidal potential against both was observed for the EO from M. fragrans; MIC = 6·25 µl ml-1 for S. aureus and MBC = 12·5 µl ml-1 for E. coli. A significant protective role on lipid substrates in the ß-carotene bleaching assay was seen for the EO from S. montana and M. fragrans. Overall, such EO can be promising agents against pathogenic bacteria and for protecting biomolecules during oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cymbopogon , Myristica , Óleos Voláteis , Satureja , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Montana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Satureja/química , Staphylococcus aureus , beta Caroteno/farmacologia
7.
Phytochemistry ; 194: 113019, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826794

RESUMO

During our continuous investigation of natural, herbal inhibitors of microglial over-activation in the Euphorbiaceae family, two plants of the Vernicia genus showed remarkable inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in over-activated microglia. In this study, bioactivity-guided phytochemical research on the active fraction of the roots of V. montana was carried out. As a result, seven undescribed terpenoids and lignans, together with thirty-one known components, were isolated and identified using comprehensive spectral analysis. All the identified compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 cells. Combined with our previous research on the Vernicia genus, the effective material basis of different plants and medicinal components was analyzed systematically.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Microglia , Montana
8.
J Rural Health ; 38(1): 151-160, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pregnant women across the rural United States have increasingly limited access to obstetric care, especially specialty care for high-risk women and infants. Limited research focuses on access for rural American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN) women, a population warranting attention given persistent inequalities in birth outcomes. METHODS: Using Montana birth certificate data (2014-2018), we examined variation in travel time to give birth and access to different levels of obstetric care (i.e., the proportion of individuals living within 1- and 2-h drives to facilities), by rurality (Rural-Urban Continuum Code) and race (White and AIAN people). FINDINGS: Results point to limited obstetric care access in remote rural areas in Montana, especially higher-level specialty care, compared to urban or urban-adjacent rural areas. AIAN women traveled significantly farther than White women to access care (24.2 min farther on average), even compared to White women from similarly rural areas (5-13 min farther, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and health care utilization). AIAN women were 20 times more likely to give birth at a hospital without obstetric services and had less access to complex obstetric care. Poor access was particularly pronounced among reservation-dwelling AIAN women. CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative to consider racial disparities and health inequities underlying poor access to obstetric services across rural America. Current federal policies aim to reduce maternity care professional shortages. Our findings suggest that racial disparities in access to complex obstetric care will persist in Montana unless facility-level infrastructure is also expanded to reach areas serving AIAN women.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Montana , Gravidez , População Rural , Estados Unidos
9.
Telemed J E Health ; 28(3): 325-333, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085870

RESUMO

Background: Public health measures that prevent the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing, may increase the risk for suicide among American Indians due to decreased social connectedness that is crucial to wellbeing. Telehealth represents a potential solution, but barriers to effective suicide prevention may exist. Materials and Methods: In collaboration with Tribal and Urban Indian Health Center providers, this study measured suicide prevention practices during COVID-19. A 44-item Likert-type, web-based survey was distributed to Montana-based professionals who directly provide suicide prevention services to American Indians at risk for suicide. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items, and Mann-Whitney U tests examined the differences in telehealth use, training, skills among Montana geographic areas, and barriers between providers and their clients/patients. Results: Among the 80 respondents, two-thirds agreed or strongly agreed that American Indians experienced greater social disconnection since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Almost 98% agreed that telehealth was needed, and 93% were willing to use telehealth for suicide prevention services. Among current users, 75% agreed telehealth was effective for suicide prevention. Over one-third of respondents reported using telehealth for the first time during COVID-19 pandemic, and 30% use telehealth at least "usually" since the COVID-19 pandemic began, up from 6.3%. Compared with their own experiences, providers perceive their American Indian client/patients as experiencing greater barriers to telehealth. Discussion: Telehealth was increasingly utilized for suicide prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Opportunities to improve telehealth access should be explored, including investments in telehealth technologies for American Indians at risk for suicide.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suicídio , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Montana , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
10.
J Asthma ; 59(3): 616-627, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A cross-case analysis was used to discover how two states benefited from expanded use of evaluation for asthma quality improvement initiatives. If an asthma quality improvement (QI) initiative is successfully evaluated, data can inform how to effectively integrate clinical practice guidelines and circumvent non-clinical reasons that interrupt QI projects such as low staff interest. This article addresses a gap in the literature on quality of evaluation support needed to improve and sustain asthma QI at local health care organizations by describing the similar discoveries observed at two independent QI statewide initiatives in Indiana and Montana. METHODS: As part of a larger review, two states funded through the National Asthma Control Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were identified based on similarities in evaluation approaches. Each state used an iterative stakeholder-driven evaluation approach, mixed methods, process evaluation indicators, and active use of evaluation findings. The asthma QI initiatives and evaluations in Indiana and Montana were coordinated independent of each other. RESULTS: Although both states found that asthma QI initiatives improved health outcomes, evaluation data were able to further pinpoint areas that would improve quality of technical support to health care organizations and identify markers of sustainability, such as nontraditional benefits to staff, and intervention sites. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that when evaluation is used to guide implementation, data are available to develop site-specific assistance and identify sustainability markers to prevent interruption of positive health outcomes associated with an asthma QI initiative.


Assuntos
Asma , Melhoria de Qualidade , Asma/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Montana
11.
Protoplasma ; 259(1): 187-201, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938994

RESUMO

Colleters are secretory structures involved in the protection of young and developing plant organs. Although the presence of colleters in Gentianales is described as a synapomorphy, studies on the morphofunctionality of colleters and the mechanisms underlying the synthesis and release of colleter secretion in Gentianaceae are scarce. Here, we described the ontogeny and the morphological and functional aspects of colleters of Prepusa montana, revealed the nature of the key compounds present in the secretion, and explored the cellular aspects of the synthesis and release of secretion and senescence of colleters. Samples of the stem apical meristem with leaf primordium and young leaves; adult and senescent leaves were observed using light and electron microscopy. The colleters, located in the axil of the leaf, have a protodermal origin and develop asynchronously. They are digitiform, possessing a short peduncle and a secretory head containing homogeneous cells with dense cytoplasm and abundant endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies. The secretion, composed of polysaccharides and proteins, is accumulated in schizogenous spaces and released through the separation of peripheral secretory cells and loosening of the external periclinal wall. Presumably, senescence is caused by programmed cell death. The morphoanatomical characterization of P. montana leaf colleters described here is the first record for the genus and the peculiar accumulation of colleter secretion in schizogenous spaces expanding our knowledge on the diversity of these secretory structures. Our results also provide insights into programmed cell death as an eminent topic related to secretory structures.


Assuntos
Gentianaceae , Meristema , Microscopia Eletrônica , Montana , Folhas de Planta
12.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 42(2): E23-E31, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508034

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is essential for treating cardiovascular disease, and modifying risk factor modification, including hypertension. Because the causes of hypertension and benefits of CR are faceted, we examined the influence of phase II CR on resting blood pressure (BP). METHODS: Outcomes straddle the release of the updated BP guidelines, and study emphases included CR session number, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance provider, and referring diagnosis. RESULTS: Patient files of 31 885 individuals uploaded to the Montana Outcomes Project registry indicated that lowered systolic and diastolic BP were further improved after the release of the revised BP guidelines. The CR session number was proportional to improvements in diastolic BP. Blood pressure improved independent of sex, although female patients exhibited lower diastolic BP before and after CR. Race/ethnicity analyses indicated that Asian and White patients experienced drops in systolic and diastolic BP, while diastolic BP was improved in Hispanic patients. Neither American Indian nor Black patients exhibited statistically altered BP. Medicare, Veterans Administration, and privately insured patients had lowered systolic and diastolic BP, while Medicaid patients had lower diastolic BP, and the uninsured had lower systolic BP. Blood pressure outcomes were generally improved independent of the primary referring diagnosis, while those with peripheral artery disease showed no improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that phase II CR is highly effective in the control of BP, although improvements are not equally distributed to all individuals according to differences in sex, race/ethnicity, and access to insurance-funded health care.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Medicare , Montana , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Ind Med ; 65(3): 196-202, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vermiculite ore from Libby, Montana contains on average 24% of a mixture of toxic and carcinogenic amphibole asbestiform fibers. These comprise primarily winchite (84%), with smaller quantities of richterite (11%) and tremolite (6%), which are together referred to as Libby amphibole (LA). METHODS: A total of 1883 individuals who were occupationally and/or environmentally exposed to LA and were diagnosed with asbestos-related pleuropulmonary disease (ARPPD) following participation in communitywide screening programs supported by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and followed up at the Center for Asbestos Related Disease (CARD) between 2000 and 2010. There were 203 deaths of patients with sufficient records and radiographs. Best clinical and radiologic evidence was used to determine the cause of death, which was compared with death certificates. RESULTS: Asbestos-related mortality was 55% (n = 112) in this series of 203 patients. Of the 203 deaths, 34 (17%) were from asbestos-related malignancy, 75 (37%) were from parenchymal asbestosis, often with pleural fibrosis, and 3 (1.5%) were from respiratory failure secondary to pleural thickening. CONCLUSIONS: Asbestos is the leading cause of mortality following both occupational and nonoccupational exposure to LA in those with asbestos-related disease.


Assuntos
Amianto , Asbestose , Doenças Pleurais , Amianto/toxicidade , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/toxicidade , Asbestose/etiologia , Humanos , Montana/epidemiologia , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 149-154, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913443

RESUMO

Ranaviruses are emerging pathogens that have caused mortality events in amphibians worldwide. Despite the negative effects of ranaviruses on amphibian populations, monitoring efforts are still lacking in many areas, including in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. Some PPR wetlands in Montana and North Dakota (USA) have been contaminated by energy-related saline wastewaters, and increased salinity has been linked to greater severity of ranavirus infections. In 2017, we tested tissues from larvae collected at 7 wetlands that ranged in salinity from 26 to 4103 mg Cl l-1. In 2019, we used environmental DNA (eDNA) to test for ranaviruses in 30 wetlands that ranged in salinity from 26 to 11754 mg Cl l-1. A previous study (2013-2014) found that ranavirus-infected amphibians were common across North Dakota, including in some wetlands near our study area. Overall, only 1 larva tested positive for ranavirus infection, and we did not detect ranavirus in any eDNA samples. There are several potential reasons why we found so little evidence of ranaviruses, including low larval sample sizes, mismatch between sampling and disease occurrence, larger pore size of our eDNA filters, temporal variation in outbreaks, low host abundance, or low occurrence or prevalence of ranaviruses in the wetlands we sampled. We suggest future monitoring efforts be conducted to better understand the occurrence and prevalence of ranaviruses within the PPR.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Ranavirus , Anfíbios , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Pradaria , Montana , North Dakota/epidemiologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(45)2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725150

RESUMO

Species invasions can have substantial impacts on native species and ecosystems, with important consequences for biodiversity. How these disturbances drive changes in the trophic structure of native food webs through time is poorly understood. Here, we quantify trophic disruption in freshwater food webs to invasion by an apex fish predator, lake trout, using an extensive stable isotope dataset across a natural gradient of uninvaded and invaded lakes in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Lake trout invasion increased fish diet variability (trophic dispersion), displaced native fishes from their reference diets (trophic displacement), and reorganized macroinvertebrate communities, indicating strong food web disruption. Trophic dispersion was greatest 25 to 50 y after colonization and dissipated as food webs stabilized in later stages of invasion (>50 y). For the native apex predator, bull trout, trophic dispersion preceded trophic displacement, leading to their functional loss in late-invasion food webs. Our results demonstrate how invasive species progressively disrupt native food webs via trophic dispersion and displacement, ultimately yielding biological communities strongly divergent from those in uninvaded ecosystems.


Assuntos
Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Espécies Introduzidas , Truta , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Invertebrados , Lagos , Montana , Isótopos de Nitrogênio
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1778, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rural health professionals stand at the forefront of community response to climate change, but few studies have assessed their perceptions of the threat. Further, no previous study has compared the opinions of environmental to public health professionals or extensively analyzed the factors related to these experts' climate beliefs, risk perceptions, and issue prioritization. METHODS: In conjunction with the Montana Climate Assessment's 2021 Special Report on Climate Change and Human Health, the 479 members of the Montana Public Health Association and Montana Environmental Health Association were surveyed during September-October 2019, with 39% completing the survey. We summarized descriptive data about their perceptions of local climate-related changes and their beliefs that global warming is happening, is mostly human-caused, is a risk to human health, and that their offices and others should take action. We also evaluated which sociodemographic and risk perception factors related to these climate beliefs, risk perceptions, and workplace issue prioritization. RESULTS: Health professionals in Montana, a politically conservative state, demonstrated high levels of awareness that global warming is happening, human-caused, and a threat to human health, well above reported rates of public concern. Eighty-eight percent said that global warming is occurring and 69% that it is mostly anthropogenic. Sixty-nine percent said that their own health was already affected by climate, and 86% said they were already seeing at least one climate change-related event in their communities. Seventy-two percent said that their departments should be preparing to deal with climate change's health effects, but just 30% said that it is currently happening. We found no statistically significant differences between Montana environmental health and public health professionals in regression models predicting climate beliefs, risk perception, and prioritization. As in studies of the public, political ideology and the observation of local climate-related changes were the strongest factors. CONCLUSIONS: Montana environmental and public health officials said that departmental action was needed on climate change, indicating the readiness of rural health professionals to take action. Further studies of health professionals in rural regions are warranted.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Montana , Saúde Pública
17.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(19)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718530

RESUMO

Essential oils can be a useful alternative to the use of synthetic fungicides because they have biological potential and are relatively safe for food and agricultural products. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activities of the essential oils from Satureja montana L., Myristica fragrans H. and Cymbopogon flexuosus S. against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus, as well as their effects on ergosterol synthesis and membrane morphology. The antifungal potential was evaluated by mycelial growth analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Fungicidal effects against A. flavus, with MFC of 0.98, 15.62 and 0.98 µL/mL, respectively, were observed for the essential oils from S. montana, M. fragrans and C. flexuosus. Aspergillus ochraceus did not grow in the presence of concentrations of 3.91, 15.62 and 0.98 µL/mL of the essential oils from S. montana, M. fragrans and C. flexuosus, respectively. The essential oils significantly inhibited the production of ochratoxin A by the fungus A. ochraceus. The essential oils also inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2. The biosynthesis of ergosterol was inhibited by the applied treatments. Biological activity in the fungal cell membrane was observed in the presence of essential oils, given that deleterious effects on the morphologies of the fungi were detected. The essential oils under study are promising as food preservatives because they significantly inhibit toxigenic fungi that contaminate food. In addition, the essential oils hindered the biosynthesis of mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus ochraceus , Cymbopogon , Myristica , Óleos Voláteis , Satureja , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus ochraceus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Ergosterol/biossíntese , Montana , Micotoxinas , Myristica/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Satureja/química
18.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1776-1779, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499538

RESUMO

We describe a large-scale collaborative intervention of practice measures and COVID-19 vaccine administration to college students in the priority 1b group, which included Black or Indigenous persons and other persons of color. In February 2021, at this decentralized vaccine distribution site at Montana State University in Bozeman, we administered 806 first doses and 776 second doses by implementing an interprofessional effort with personnel from relevant university units, including facilities management, student health, communications, administration, and academic units (e.g., nursing, medicine, medical assistant program, and engineering). (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 9, 2021:1776-1779. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306435).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/etnologia , Docentes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(5): 2088-2095, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343288

RESUMO

Forage alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. [Fabales: Fabacae]) is a major agronomic crop grown nationally and Montana ranks highly in acres harvested. The alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]) is the primary defoliating pest that requires insecticide applications to prevent yield loss, particularly pyrethroid active ingredients (a.i.) that are both efficacious and cost-effective. Reports from commercial alfalfa producers in Big Horn County, MT, suggested local populations of alfalfa weevil had developed resistance to the pyrethroid a.i. lambda-cyhalothrin (type II pyrethroid). Chemical control is an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) of alfalfa weevil and the loss of pyrethroid a.i. as an effective tool would result in additional production costs. Two locations in southern Big Horn County and nine locations in four other Montana counties where resistance has not been reported were sampled and assayed for resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Populations from three counties were susceptible, the concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) ranged from 0.02 to 0.10 µg/cm2. In contrast, populations from Big Horn County did not reach 50% mortality at the highest concentration of lambda-cyhalothrin tested (3.30 µg/cm2), indicating high levels of resistance have developed in these populations. A field trial in Big Horn County supported laboratory results of resistance; lambda-cyhalothrin at the highest label rate did not reduce alfalfa weevil populations. Additional bioassays suggest cross-resistance to zeta-cypermethrin (type II pyrethroid), but only partial cross-resistance to permethrin (type I pyrethroid).


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Medicago sativa , Montana , Nitrilas
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