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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039358

RESUMO

A fit and healthy 44-year-old woman took a single dose of oral acetazolamide (125 mg) in preparation for a hiking trip to Everest base camp. She awoke the next morning with profoundly blurred distance vision. She presented to eye casualty later that morning, approximately 18 hours postingestion: examination demonstrated myopia and bilateral choroidal effusions. Acetazolamide is used to minimise symptoms of altitude sickness. Rarely, its use can be linked with ophthalmic side effects, such as myopia. A handful of case reports also describe choroidal effusions secondary to its use as part of ophthalmic treatment (eg, postoperatively). This is the first reported case in which choroidal effusions have been demonstrated as a side effect of its prophylactic use against altitude sickness.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Efusões Coroides , Montanhismo , Miopia , Acetazolamida , Adulto , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos
2.
Phys Ther Sport ; 52: 173-179, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sport climbing induces physiological changes in the body of high-level climbers. In 2012, our study group demonstrated adaptions of elite climbers' soft tissues with thicker A2/A4-pulleys, flexor tendons and palmar plates compared to non-climbers. OBJECTIVES: To assess these adaptations over time we examined all 31 (follow up 100%) climbers that participated in that baseline study again using ultrasonography after a follow-up of 10 years. MAIN FINDINGS: (1) In climbers, a significant increase in A2 and A4-pulley and flexor tendon thickness over the last 10 years was observed (p < 0.001), while PIP&DIP palmar plate thickness remained unchanged (p > 0.05); (2) at 10-years follow-up, all soft tissue thickness parameters (incl. palmar plates) were still significantly larger in climbers than in age-matched controls (p < 0.05); (3) as for the association with anthropometrics and climbing performance/experience, a significant association of the current climber's soft tissue thickness could only be found between palmar plate and reached climbing level(p = 0.032) as well as climber's body weight(p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: An accumulation of repetitive climbing-related stress to the fingers of elite sport climbers over the career induces mechano-adaptation of the A2/A4-pulleys, flexor tendons and palmar plates. At later stages, there is a further significant increase in flexor tendon and pulley thickness, but not for palmar plate thickness.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Esportes , Estudos Transversais , Dedos , Seguimentos , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574495

RESUMO

Decisions in the management and rescue of avalanche victims are complex and must be made in difficult, sometimes dangerous, environments. Our goal was to identify indicators for quality measurement in the management and rescue of avalanche victims. The International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MedCom) convened a group of internal and external experts. We used brainstorming and a five-round modified nominal group technique to identify the most relevant quality indicators (QIs) according to the National Quality Forum Measure Evaluation Criteria. Using a consensus process, we identified a set of 23 QIs to measure the quality of the management and rescue of avalanche victims. These QIs may be a valuable tool for continuous quality improvement. They allow objective feedback to rescuers regarding clinical performance and identify areas that should be the foci of further quality improvement efforts in avalanche rescue.


Assuntos
Avalanches , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Medicina de Emergência , Montanhismo , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Trabalho de Resgate
4.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 438-447, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267583

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of two or four weekly campus board training sessions among highly accomplished lead climbers. Sixteen advanced-to-elite climbers were randomly allocated to two (TG2), or four weekly campus board training sessions (TG4), or a control group (CG). All groups continued their normal climbing routines. Pre- and post-intervention measures included bouldering performance, maximal isometric pull-up strength using a shallow rung and a large hold (jug), and maximal reach and moves to failure. Rate of force development (RFD; absolute and 100ms) was calculated in the rung condition. TG4 improved maximal force in the jug condition (effect size (ES) = 0.40, p = 0.043), and absolute RFD more than CG (ES = 2.92, p = 0.025), whereas TG2 improved bouldering performance (ES = 2.59, p = 0.016) and maximal moves to failure on the campus board more than CG (ES = 1.65, p = 0.008). No differences between the training groups were found (p = 0.107-1.000). When merging the training groups, the training improved strength in the rung condition (ES = 0.87, p = 0.002), bouldering performance (ES = 2.37, p = 0.006), maximal reach (ES = 1.66, p = 0.006) and moves to failure (ES = 1.43, p = 0.040) more than CG. In conclusion, a five-week campus board training-block is sufficient for improving climbing-specific attributes among advanced-to-elite climbers. Sessions should be divided over four days to improve RFD or divided over two days to improve bouldering performance, compared to regular climbing training.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Braço/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 250-257, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211317

RESUMO

Competitive ski mountaineering (SKIMO) has achieved great popularity within the past years. However, knowledge about the predictors of performance and physiological response to SKIMO racing is limited. Therefore, 21 male SKIMO athletes split into two performance groups (elite: VO2max 71.2 ± 6.8 ml· min-1· kg-1 vs. sub-elite: 62.5 ± 4.7 ml· min-1· kg-1) were tested and analysed during a vertical SKIMO race simulation (523 m elevation gain) and in a laboratory SKIMO specific ramp test. In both cases, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate and cycle characteristics were measured. During the race simulation, the elite athletes were approximately 5 min faster compared with the sub-elite (27:15 ± 1:16 min; 32:31 ± 2:13 min; p < 0.001). VO2 was higher for elite athletes during the race simulation (p = 0.046) and in the laboratory test at ventilatory threshold 2 (p = 0.005) and at maximum VO2 (p = 0.003). Laboratory maximum power output is displayed as treadmill speed and was higher for elite than sub-elite athletes (7.4 ± 0.3 km h-1; 6.6 ± 0.3 km h-1; p < 0.001). Lactate values were higher in the laboratory maximum ramp test than in the race simulation (p < 0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between race time and performance parameters was highest for velocity and VO2 related parameters during the laboratory test (r > 0.6). Elite athletes showed their superiority in the race simulation as well as during the maximum ramp test. While HR analysis revealed a similar strain to both cohorts in both tests, the superiority can be explainable by higher VO2 and power output. To further push the performance of SKIMO athletes, the development of named factors like power output at maximum and ventilatory threshold 2 seems crucial.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Esqui/fisiologia , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Aptidão Física , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208925

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the agreement in maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) between a running protocol and a ski mountaineering (SKIMO) protocol. Eighteen (eleven males, seven females) ski mountaineers (age: 25 ± 3 years) participated in the study. V˙O2max, maximum heart rate (HRmax), and maximum blood lactate concentration (BLAmax) were determined in an incremental uphill running test and an incremental SKIMO-equipment-specific test. V˙O2max did not differ between the SKIMO and uphill running protocols (p = 0.927; mean difference -0.07 ± 3.3 mL/min/kg), nor did HRmax (p = 0.587, mean difference -0.7 ± 5.1 bpm). A significant correlation was found between V˙O2max SKIMO and V˙O2max running (p ≤ 0.001; ICC = 0.862 (95% CI: 0.670-0.946)). The coefficient of variation was 4.4% (95% CI: 3.3-6.5). BLAmax was significantly lower for SKIMO compared to running (12.0 ± 14.1%; p = 0.002). This study demonstrates that V˙O2max determined with a traditional uphill running protocol demonstrates good agreement with an equipment-specific SKIMO protocol.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Corrida , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
7.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 25(2): 203-215, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082447

RESUMO

Tendon injuries represent the second most common injury of the hand (after fractures) and are a common scanning indication in radiology. Pulley injuries are very frequent in rock climbers with the A2 pulley the most commonly affected. Tendon and pulley injuries can be reliably evaluated using ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). US can be postulated as a first-line imaging modality, allowing dynamic examination. MRI is essential for cases with ongoing diagnostic doubt post-US and also for preoperative pulley reconstruction assessment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos dos Dedos , Montanhismo , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Traumatismos dos Dedos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Dedos/cirurgia , Humanos , Ruptura , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/cirurgia
8.
High Alt Med Biol ; 22(3): 342-345, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097498

RESUMO

West, John B. High altitude limits of living things. High Alt Med Biol. 22:342-345, 2021.-The tolerance of animals to high altitude is generally limited by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the air. Plant growth at high altitude is also limited but by different mechanisms. This article is a brief survey of the limiting factors of all living things. By a curious coincidence, the highest point on earth, that is Mt. Everest at 8,848 m, appears to be right at the limit of human tolerance to hypoxia. The altitude of the highest permanent human habitation, that is a town, is 5,100 m. This altitude is partly determined by the hypoxia, but also by economic factors. For other terrestrial mammals, birds, and insects, the highest altitudes for permanent habitation apparently belong to field mice (Phyllotis xanthopygus rupestris) and jumping spiders (Euophrys omnisuperstes) at about 6,700 m. Birds have been known to fly as high as 11,000 m although how much they are elevated by atmospheric updrafts is not clear. The record for animals for survival in extreme hypoxia is arguably held by the primitive invertebrate, the tardigrade (Hypsibius dujardini). This has been shown to tolerate the hard vacuum of space where the PO2 is essentially zero for many days. Less is known about the tolerance of plants to extreme altitude. However, vascular plants have been collected at >6,000 m in the Himalayas, and moss grows even higher. Lichens are very tolerant of severe hypoxia. There is evidence that global warming is increasing the highest altitudes at which plants can survive.


Assuntos
Altitude , Montanhismo , Animais , Hipóxia , Camundongos , Oxigênio , Pressão Parcial
9.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(3): 278-283, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175211

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prior research identified possible interstitial pulmonary fluid, concerning for early high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), in a large percentage of trekkers above 3000 m using a comprehensive 28-view pulmonary ultrasound protocol. These trekkers had no clinical symptoms of HAPE despite these ultrasound findings. The more common 4-view lung ultrasound protocol (LUP) is accurate in rapidly detecting interstitial edema during resource-rich care. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the 4-view LUP detects interstitial fluid in trekkers ascending to Everest Base Camp. METHODS: Serial 4-view LUP was performed on 15 healthy trekkers during a 9-d ascent from Kathmandu to Everest Base Camp. Ascent protocols complied with Wilderness Medical Society guidelines for staged ascent. A 4-view LUP was performed in accordance with the published 2012 international consensus protocols on lung ultrasound. Symptom assessment and 4-view LUP were obtained at 6 waypoints along the staged ascent. A 4-view LUP was positive for interstitial edema if ≥3 B-lines were detected in 2 ultrasound windows. RESULTS: A single participant had evidence of interstitial lung fluid at 5380 m as defined by the 4-view LUP. There was no evidence of interstitial fluid in any participant below 5380 m. One participant was evacuated for acute altitude sickness at 4000 m but showed no preceding sonographic evidence of interstitial fluid. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, sonographic detection of interstitial fluid, suggestive of early HAPE, was not identified by the 4-view LUP protocol.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Montanhismo , Edema Pulmonar , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/diagnóstico por imagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(10): 1941-1948, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only a small proportion of lung transplant recipients achieve a physical status comparable to healthy individuals in the long term. It is reasonable to hypothesize that the necessary cardiopulmonary adaptation required for strenuous physical exercise may be impaired. Exposure to high altitude provides an optimal platform to study the physiological cardiopulmonary adaptation in lung transplant recipients under aerobic conditions. To gain a deeper understanding, 14 healthy lung transplant recipients and healthcare professionals climbed the highest peak in North Africa (Mount Jebel Toubkal; 4167 m) in September 2019. METHODS: Monitoring included daily assessment of vital signs, repeated transthoracic echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and capillary blood sampling throughout the expedition. RESULTS: Eleven out of fourteen lung transplant recipients reached the summit. All recipients showed a stable lung function and vital parameters and physiological adaptation of blood gases. Similar results were found in healthy controls. Lung transplant recipients showed worse results in the 6-minute walk test at low and high altitude compared to controls (day 1: 662 m vs. 725 m, p < 0.001, day 5: 656 m vs. 700 m, p = 0.033) and a lack of contractile adaptation of right ventricular function with increasing altitude as measured by tricuspid plane systolic excursion on echocardiography (day 2: 22 mm vs. 24 mm, p = 0.202, day 5: 23 mm vs. 26 mm, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Strenuous exercise in healthy lung transplant recipients is safe. However, the poorer cardiopulmonary performance in the 6-minute walk test and the lack of right ventricular cardiac adaptation may indicate underlying autonomic dysregulation.


Assuntos
Altitude , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Transplantados , Sinais Vitais/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Teste de Caminhada
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13530, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188125

RESUMO

Improving climbing performance strongly depends upon effective training methods. Hangboard training is one of the most popular approaches to increase finger and forearm strength. Training protocols are based on maximizing weight or minimizing edges. We aimed to evaluate which of these protocols was superior. We prospectively analyzed 30 intermediate to advanced climbing athletes [Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) VI-VIII] and randomized them into three groups: control group C (Control, normal climbing training), hangboard group HE (Hang endurance, grips to hold for a determined time decreased every week), and hangboard group HW (Hang weight, + 1.25 kg weight were added each week to hold for a determined time). As endpoints, we measured the grip strength before and after an 8-week training protocol in seven different pinches. Over the 8-week training period, HW hangboard training significantly improved the climbers' grip strength compared to C [p = 0.032, effect size (ES) 0.36]. Maximizing weight improved the strength in I/II + III, I/II + III + IV and fist significantly. HW was superior compared to C in terms of grip strength improvement in three out of seven pinches and overall grip strength. The overall changes in the HE group did not differ significantly from the C group. An 8-week training protocol with increasing weights (HW) significantly improved overall grip strength more than a regular climbing training without the use of a hangboard.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Exp Biol ; 224(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160049

RESUMO

Previous studies in primates and other animals have shown that mass-specific cost of transport (J kg-1 m-1) for climbing is independent of body size across species, but little is known about within-species allometry of climbing costs or the effects of difficulty and velocity. Here, we assessed the effects of velocity, route difficulty and anatomical variation on the energetic cost of climbing within humans. Twelve experienced rock climbers climbed on an indoor wall over a range of difficulty levels and velocities, with energy expenditure measured via respirometry. We found no effect of body mass or limb proportions on mass-specific cost of transport among subjects. Mass-specific cost of transport was negatively correlated with climbing velocity. Increased route difficulty was associated with slower climbing velocities and thus higher costs, but there was no statistically significant effect of route difficulty on energy expenditure independent of velocity. Finally, human climbing costs measured in this study were similar to published values for other primates, suggesting arboreal adaptations have a negligible effect on climbing efficiency.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983977

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether novice, intermediate, and advanced bouldering athletes would differ in their decision-making abilities and to what extent distinct problem-solving tactics would affect the athletes' bouldering performances. Seventy-seven male bouldering athletes participated in a multi-experimental study with the conceptual replication of three bouldering tasks. Participants were allocated according to their ability levels to the novice group (NOV with n = 18), the intermediate group (INT with n = 18), or the advanced group (ADV with n = 41). The data collected for movement analysis via video consisted of the pre-ascent decision-making times, the number of movement deviations from the best solution, the number of movement mistakes, the average gripping times, the bouldering times to the top, the number of successful ascents, and the number of attempts to complete the tasks. Results among all three experiments revealed shorter decision-making times, fewer movement mistakes, and shorter average gripping and bouldering times to the top in the ADV group than in the NOV group and the INT group. Furthermore, participants from the ADV group demonstrated fewer movement deviations than participants from the NOV group (in all three experiments) and the INT group (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Moreover, participants from the ADV group and the INT group were characterized, in all three experiments, by a higher number of successful ascents and a lower number of attempts to complete the tasks than participants from the NOV group. In total, these findings emphasize that accomplished decision-making abilities consist of a key determinant in successful indoor bouldering performances.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Montanhismo
14.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(2): 168-175, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Campus board training in adolescent climbers is controversial. Evidence, albeit limited, suggests this type of training may lead to the development of finger epiphyseal stress fractures. The purpose of the present study was to investigate coaches' attitudes toward campus board training in the United States. METHODS: Surveys were sent to 116 coaches at gyms across the United States with affiliated adolescent climbing teams. Outcomes collected included demographic information, training time, campus board use prevalence, coaches' attitudes toward campus board use, and willingness to participate in future research. RESULTS: Seventy-three coaches representing 3090 adolescent climbers completed the survey. Forty-six coaches (63%) reported using full weight (no foot contact) campus board training in some or all of their climbers. A variety of factors were cited by coaches when deciding which climbers should or should not use the campus board, including physical maturity, climbing ability, and age, among others. CONCLUSIONS: Climbing coaches in the United States disagree on the use of campus board training in adolescent climbers. Some coaches avoid using this training modality entirely, whereas others believe certain climbers can use it safely. There is lack of consensus in determining who those certain climbers are.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Adolescente , Atitude , Dedos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(2): 181-186, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As a close relative to the sports of mountaineering and rock climbing, water ice climbing has been traditionally considered "high risk." There is little data to support or refute this assertion. Prior estimates of the injury rate range from 4.8 to 248 injuries per 1000 participation hours. In this study, we characterized the types of injuries and determined an injury incidence among water ice climbing participants at the 2019 Ouray Ice Festival climbing manmade ice walls. METHODS: A survey was distributed during the 2019 Ouray Ice Festival in Ouray, Colorado. Respondents were asked to include festival-related injuries and estimate their participation time at the 4-d festival. Individuals who reported an injury were asked to provide additional details with regard to injury type, location, and timing. The injury incidence rate was calculated as the total number of injuries reported divided by the total number of participation hours and is reported as injuries per 1000 participation hours. RESULTS: A total of 75 surveys were analyzed. A total of 16 injuries, all which were minor, and 912 participation hours were reported, resulting in an injury incidence of 17.6 injuries per 1000 participation hours. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports an injury incidence based on an unselected sample of water ice climbers at an ice climbing festival. Water ice climbing at festivals appears to result in injuries of minor severity with no major accidents or fatalities. This study could be repeated to confirm its validity with a larger sample size.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Montanhismo , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Gelo
16.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(2): 247-258, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966972

RESUMO

Finger flexor pulley system injuries are the most common overuse injury in rock climbers. These injuries occur rarely outside of rock climbing, owing to the sport's unique biomechanical demands on the finger. As rock climbing continues to grow and earn recognition as a mainstream sport, an understanding of how to diagnose and treat these injuries also has become important. Our purpose is to describe current concepts in anatomy, biomechanics, clinical evaluation, imaging, prevention, and treatment strategies relating to finger flexor pulley system injuries. Our literature search was performed on PubMed with MeSH terms and keywords as subject headings to meet the objectives of this review. The "crimp grip" used in rock climbing is the mechanism for these injuries. The A2, A3, and A4 pulleys are at the highest risk of injury, especially when loaded eccentrically. Physical examination may reveal clinical "bowstringing," defined as the volar displacement of the flexor tendons from the phalanges; however, imaging is required for characterization of the underlying injury. Ultrasound is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis and is recommended as the initial imaging technique of choice. Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended as an additional imaging study if ultrasound is inconclusive. Properly warming up increases the amount of physiologic bowstringing and is thought to prevent injury from occurring. Pulley injuries may be classified as grade I through IV. Conservative treatment, including immobilization, the H-tape method, and the use of a protective pulley splint, is recommended for grade I to III injuries. Surgical repair is reserved for grade IV injuries that are not amenable to conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos dos Dedos , Montanhismo , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Traumatismos dos Dedos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Dedos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Dedos/terapia , Humanos , Ruptura , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/terapia , Tendões , Ultrassonografia
17.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(2): 160-167, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966976

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bouldering has become a sport of growing interest, but little prospective evidence exists about injury proportions and patterns. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the cause of injuries sustained during indoor bouldering, proportion of affected body location, and injury severity. METHODS: Proportions and patterns of injury among German-speaking indoor boulderers were evaluated prospectively in an explorative cohort study. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire assessing anthropometric data and sport-specific potential preventive and risk factors, followed by monthly injury questionnaires including injury location and injury severity over a period of 12 mo. RESULTS: Out of 507 boulderers, 222 (44%) sustained 305 injuries. Of those, 78% (n=238) were classified as Union Internationale de Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) 1, 19% (n=57) as UIAA 2, and 3% (n=10) as UIAA 3. Injuries of the upper extremities accounted for 63% (n=191) of all injuries. Injuries of the lower extremities accounted for 23% (n=71) but were more often classified as UIAA≥2 (P=0.0071; odds ratio [OR] 2.23; 95% CI 1.23-4.04) and were more often caused by falling (P=0.0005; OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.57-5.42) and jumping off the wall (P<0.0001; OR 4.39; 95% CI 2.25-8.56) than injuries of other body locations. There was no statistically significant protective effect of the evaluated potential preventive measures. Participants who used heavily downturned climbing shoes had a higher risk of sustaining a UIAA ≥2 injury (P=0.0034; OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.34-4.95). CONCLUSIONS: Injuries in indoor bouldering are common. Lower extremity injuries are associated with higher injury severity. Preventive measures need to be established to reduce bouldering injuries, especially during falls and landings.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Montanhismo , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809531

RESUMO

(1) Background: Today's elite alpinists target K2 and Everest in midwinter. This study aimed to asses and compare weather at the summits of both peaks in the climbing season (Everest, May; K2, July) and the midwinter season (January and February). (2) Methods: We assessed environmental conditions using the ERA5 dataset (1979-2019). Analyses examined barometric pressure (BP), temperature (Temp), wind speed (Wind), perceived altitude (Alt), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), vertical climbing speed (Speed), wind chill equivalent temperature (WCT), and facial frostbite time (FFT). (3) Results: Most climbing-season parameters were found to be more severe (p < 0.05) on Everest than on K2: BP (333 ± 1 vs. 347 ± 1 hPa), Alt (8925 ± 20 vs. 8640 ± 20 m), VO2max (16.2 ± 0.1 vs. 17.8 ± 0.1 ml·kg-1·min-1), Speed (190 ± 2 vs. 223 ± 2 m·h-1), Temp (-26 ± 1 vs. -21 ± 1°C), WCT (-45 ± 2 vs. -37 ± 2 °C), and FFT (6 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 2 min). Wind was found to be similar (16 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 3 m·s-1). Most midwinter parameters were found to be worse (p < 0.05) on Everest vs. K2: BP (324 ± 2 vs. 326 ± 2 hPa), Alt (9134 ± 40 vs. 9095 ± 48 m), VO2max (15.1 ± 0.2 vs. 15.3 ± 0.3 ml·kg-1·min-1), Speed (165 ± 5 vs. 170 ± 6 m·h-1), Wind (41 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 4 m·s-1), and FFT (<1 min vs. 1 min). Everest's Temp of -36 ± 2 °C and WCT -66 ± 3 °C were found to be less extreme than K2's Temp of -45 ± 1 °C and WCT -76 ± 2 °C. (4) Conclusions: Everest presents more extreme conditions in the climbing and midwinter seasons than K2. K2's 8° higher latitude makes its midwinter BP similar and Temp lower than Everest's. K2's midwinter conditions are more severe than Everest's in the climbing season.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Altitude , Pressão Atmosférica , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(2): 321-327, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201876

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: durante los últimos 20 años se ha producido un incremento en el número de pruebas de deportes de resistencia, así como en el de participantes en las mismas. Un plan nutricional adecuado es esencial para la realización satisfactoria de este tipo de pruebas, tanto en deportistas profesionales como en amateurs. OBJETIVOS: el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar, evaluar y comparar con las recomendaciones científicas actuales el consumo de carbohidratos, agua y sodio por parte de los participantes de una prueba de carrera de montaña. METODOLOGÍA: la competición realizada por los deportistas fue el "Medio Trail de Alcoy 2019" (Alcoy, España), con un recorrido de 30 km. Tras la realización de la prueba, los participantes rellenaron un cuestionario sobre el consumo de alimentos y bebidas realizado durante la misma, además de contestar a otras preguntas sobre hábitos nutricionales en general. En el estudio se incluyeron 11 participantes que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. RESULTADOS: el resultado obtenido para la ingesta media de carbohidratos fue de 14,93 g/h, para la de sodio de 146,42 mg/h y para la de agua de 399,73 mL/h. El 27 % de los participantes acudía al dietista-nutricionista de manera habitual y ninguno de ellos reportó problemas del tracto gastrointestinal durante la prueba. CONCLUSIONES: el consumo de carbohidratos y de sodio realizado por los participantes fue bajo con respecto a las recomendaciones científicas actuales; no obstante, el consumo de agua fue adecuado conforme a las mismas. Se aconseja a los deportistas de resistencia acudir a un dietista-nutricionista especializado para alcanzar un rendimiento óptimo en las competiciones


INTRODUCTION: there has been an increase in the number of endurance sports events during the last 20 years, as well as in the number of their participants. An adequate nutritional plan is essential for a satisfactory performance in this type of events, both in professional and amateur athletes. OBJECTIVES: the objective was to determine, evaluate, and compare with the current scientific recommendations the consumption of carbohydrates, water, and sodium by participants in a trail-running event. METHODS: the competition completed by the athletes was the "Medio Trail de Alcoy 2019" (Alcoy, Spain), with a distance of 30 km. After completing the race, participants filled out a questionnaire about their food and drink consumption during the event, in addition to other questions about their nutritional habits in general. Eleven participants who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. RESULTS: the result obtained for average carbohydrate intake was 14.93 g/h, for sodium intake was 146.42 mg/h, and for water intake was 399.73 mL/h. In all, 27 % of participants visited a dietitian-nutritionist on a regular basis, and none reported gastrointestinal tract issues during the race. CONCLUSIONS: the carbohydrate and sodium consumption of participants was low as compared to current scientific recommendations; however, water consumption was adequate according to them. Our advice for endurance athletes is visit a specialized dietitian-nutritionist to achieve optimal performance in competitions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , 24457 , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem
20.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 16(7): 942-949, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The fatigue resistance of the finger flexors is known to be a key determinant of climbing performance. This study set out to establish the association between the single all-out assessment of finger flexor critical force (ff-CF) and the impulse above CF (W') on climbing performance (self-reported sport and boulder climbing ability). METHODS: A total of 129 subjects completed an assessment of dominant arm ff-CF, comprised of a series of rhythmic isometric maximum voluntary contractions (CF defined as mean end-test force [in kilograms]; W' impulse above CF [in kilogram second]). RESULTS: The ff-CF protocol resulted in the same force decay to a plateau seen in previous isometric critical torque and critical force tests. Linear regression analysis, adjusting for sex, revealed that CF percentage of body mass explained 61% of sport and 26% of bouldering performance and W' per kilogram body mass explained 7% sport and 34% bouldering performance. A combined model of CF as a percentage of body mass and W' per kilogram body mass, after adjustment for sex differences, was able to explain 66% of sport climbing and 44% of bouldering performance. CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrate the relevance of the CF threshold in describing the fatigue resistance of the finger flexors of rock climbers. Given ff-CF ability to describe a considerable proportion of variance in sport climbing and bouldering ability, the authors expect it to become a common test used by coaches for understanding exercise tolerance and for determining optimal training prescription.


Assuntos
Montanhismo , Esportes , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino
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