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1.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 35: e1706, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occlusion is the most common complication of colon cancer. Surgical treatment is associated with the highest morbidity and mortality rate (10-27%) and has the worst prognosis. It is necessary for immediate management, avoiding colic perforation and peritonitis. The increase in mortality in emergency colon cancer surgery is multifactorial. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for early postoperative mortality that highlights the therapeutic strategy in the management of obstructive colon cancer. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted from 2008 to 2020 at the Department of General Surgery due to obstructive colon cancer and operated on as an emergency (within 24 h of admission). RESULTS: In all, 118 patients with colon cancer were operated, and the early postoperative mortality was 10.2%. The univariate analysis highlighted that the American Society of Anesthesiology score III or IV, perforation tumor, one postoperative complication, and two simultaneous postoperative complications were considered significant risk factors for early postoperative mortality after emergent surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that only tumor perforation and the occurrence of two postoperative complications were significant risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study showed that postoperative complication is the leading cause of early postoperative mortality after emergency surgery for obstructive colon cancer. Optimizing the postoperative management of these higher risk patients is still necessary and may reduce the mortality rate.


Assuntos
Colectomia , Neoplasias do Colo , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Morbidade
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD008986, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A medication review can be defined as a structured evaluation of a patient's medication conducted by healthcare professionals with the aim of optimising medication use and improving health outcomes. Optimising medication therapy though medication reviews may benefit hospitalised patients. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of medication review interventions in hospitalised adult patients compared to standard care or to other types of medication reviews on all-cause mortality, hospital readmissions, emergency department contacts and health-related quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: In this Cochrane Review update, we searched for new published and unpublished trials using the following electronic databases from 1 January 2014 to 17 January 2022 without language restrictions: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). To identify additional trials, we searched the reference lists of included trials and other publications by lead trial authors, and contacted experts. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials of medication reviews delivered by healthcare professionals for hospitalised adult patients. We excluded trials including outpatients and paediatric patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted trial authors for data clarification and relevant unpublished data. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data (with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)). We used the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach to assess the overall certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review, we included a total of 25 trials (15,076 participants), of which 15 were new trials (11,501 participants). Follow-up ranged from 1 to 20 months. We found that medication reviews in hospitalised adults may have little to no effect on mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.05; 18 trials, 10,108 participants; low-certainty evidence); likely reduce hospital readmissions (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98; 17 trials, 9561 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); may reduce emergency department contacts (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.03; 8 trials, 3527 participants; low-certainty evidence) and have very uncertain effects on health-related quality of life (SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.30; 4 trials, 392 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Medication reviews in hospitalised adult patients likely reduce hospital readmissions and may reduce emergency department contacts. The evidence suggests that mediation reviews may have little to no effect on mortality, while the effect on health-related quality of life is very uncertain. Almost all trials included elderly polypharmacy patients, which limits the generalisability of the results beyond this population.


Assuntos
Revisão de Medicamentos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Idoso , Readmissão do Paciente , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Morbidade
3.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 16, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Technical challenges and a perceived higher risk of complications hinder a wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy. We aim to further define the place of minimally invasive pancreatoduodenectomy by comparison with the traditional open approach. METHODS: A comparison of the surgical outcomes and survival after laparoscopic (LPD) versus open pancreatoduodenectomy (OPD) was retrospectively performed from a prospectively kept database. To reduce the effect of bias and confounding, baseline characteristics of both groups were matched using propensity score matching (NCT05110573; Nov 8, 2021; retrospectively registered). RESULTS: From a total of 67 LPD and 105 OPD patients, propensity score matching resulted in two balanced groups of 38 patients. In both groups, 87% of surgeries were performed for cancer. In the LPD group, conversion rate was 22.4%. Mean operative time was significantly longer after LPD versus OPD (320.1 ± 53.8 vs. 277.7 ± 63.8 min; p = .008). Hospital stay was significantly shorter after LPD versus OPD (median 13.5 vs. 17.0 days; p = .039). No significant differences were observed in blood loss, total complication rate (73.7% vs. 86.8%; p = .249), major complication rate (26.5% vs. 10.5%; p = .137), postoperative pancreatic fistula rate (13.2% vs. 7.9%; p = .711), 90-day mortality rate (5.3% vs. 0%; p = .493), R0 resection rate (85.4% vs. 85.8%), or number of lymph nodes (median 10.0 vs. 8.5; p = .273). In cancer patients, no significant differences were observed in overall survival (median 27.1 vs. 23.9 months; p = .693), disease-free survival, or recurrence rate. CONCLUSION: LPD provided acceptable short-term and oncological outcomes. Compared to OPD, we noted a higher major complication rate, without compromising surgical safety or oncological outcomes.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Tempo de Internação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Morbidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(1): e36-e46, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is harmful and can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis identified 428 comorbidities in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and reported pooled prevalence estimates. We aimed to investigate overall risk of morbidities in heavy prenatal alcohol-exposed children by estimating risk of the identified comorbidities, and previously unidentified diseases and health-related problems. METHODS: Our Danish nationwide register-based cohort study included all singleton births. Individuals were followed up to age 18 years, between 1996 and 2018. Stillbirths and children of immigrants were not included in the study, and births of women who migrated within 1 year before or during pregnancy were also excluded due to loss to follow-up. Data on health and education were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Danish National Patient Registry, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, and the Population Education Register. We estimated crude and standardised risk differences of hospital diagnoses. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was defined by hospital contacts with alcohol-attributable diagnoses given to the mother or her child, or by maternal redeemed prescriptions for drugs to treat alcohol dependence 1 year before or during pregnancy. FINDINGS: Of 1 407 689 identified singleton births, 219 186 were excluded for reasons including they were born to immigrants, lost to follow-up, or were stillbirths. Of the remaining 1 188 503 children, 4799 (0·4%) had heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 1 183 704 (99·6%) were classified as non-alcohol-exposed births. 578 179 (48·6%) babies were female and 610 324 (51·4%) were male. We found 234 of 428 previously identified comorbidities in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, of which 29 conditions had a standardised risk difference of at least 0·5%, predominantly related to brain function, behavioural disorders, infections, and neonatal conditions. The four highest standardised risk differences were found for low birthweight (4·70% [95% CI 3·70-5·71]), small for gestational age (4·63% [3·72-5·55]), delayed milestone (3·81% [2·99-4·64]), and other preterm infants (2·69% [1·71-3·68]). Of previously unidentified diseases and health-related problems, 32 of 719 had a standardised risk difference of at least 1·0%, mainly related to brain function, some injuries, substance-related conditions, and childhood adversities. INTERPRETATION: Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with an overall increased risk of child morbidities and previously unrecognised alcohol-related health problems. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a key public health issue with a potential negative impact on child and adolescent health. This study urges for renewed efforts and substantiates the profound degree to which pre-conceptional care is mandatory. FUNDING: The Obel Family Foundation, The Health Foundation, TrygFonden, Aase and Ejnar Danielsens Foundation, The North Denmark Region Health Science and Research Foundation, Holms Memorial Foundation, Dagmar Marshalls Foundation, the A.P. Møller Foundation, King Christian X Foundation, Torben and Alice Frimodts Foundation, the Axel and Eva Kastrup-Nielsens Foundation, and the A.V. Lykfeldts Foundation.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Lactente , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Estudos de Coortes , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 203-208, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588237

RESUMO

Purpose: To obtain epidemiological data on children with ocular morbidity attending a nodal district early intervention center (DEIC). Methods: : After parental consent, we recruited children with ocular morbidity. After detailed history and clinical evaluation, along with pediatric consultation and relevant neuro-radiological and ancillary investigation, information was entered in a pretested proforma: especially looking for perinatal morbidity, including developmental delay (DD). Visual acuity (VA) was assessed by age-appropriate means by an ophthalmic assistant trained to work with children with special needs. We diligently looked for strabismus and performed dilated ophthalmoscopy. Using JASP, we summarized data as means and proportions and reported 95% CIs. We explored the association of disability percentage with possible predictor variables using regression. Results: We enrolled 320 children, with a mean age of 34.43 ± 31.35 months; two-thirds were male; one-third belonged to lower socioeconomic status (36%), with most parents being illiterate. The mean presenting VA was 1.8 logMAR for both eyes, range: 0 to 3. Sixty-one percent were hyperopic and 27% were myopic. High refractive error, (>±6D) occurred in nine; anisometropia in one; strabismus in 149, mostly esotropia; congenital cataract in 25, whereas 63 had abnormal fundus. Seventy-six received a diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment (CVI). On multivariate linear regression (MLR), younger age, presence of DD, and CVI significantly predicted a higher disability percentage. Logistic regression revealed that statutory disability is likely associated with DD (odds ratio [OR]:13.43); whereas older age was protective (OR: 0.977). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in DEIC children with ocular morbidity, younger children, and the presence of DD significantly predict both greater disability and the likelihood of statutory levels.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Estrabismo , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Acuidade Visual , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/epidemiologia , Morbidade
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 263-267, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588247

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was conducted to report on the pattern of spectacles use and compliance among the elderly (aged ≥60 years) in homes for the aged in Hyderabad region in Telangana State, India. Methods: Participants were recruited from 41 homes for the aged centres for comprehensive eye health assessments. A questionnaire was used to collect information on current and past use of spectacles, type of spectacles, spectacles provider and amount paid for the spectacles. For those that reported using spectacles in the past, information was collected on the reasons for their discontinuation. Compliance with spectacles use was assessed after eight months of provision of the spectacles. Results: A total of 1182/1513 participants were examined from 41 homes for the aged in Hyderabad, India. The mean age of the participants examined was 75 years (standard deviation (SD): 8.8 years; range: 60-108 years); 764 (64.6%) of them were women and 240 participants (20.3%) had no formal education. The prevalence of spectacles use was 69.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.1-72.4; n = 825). Bifocals were the most commonly used type of spectacles (86.7%) followed by single vision glasses for distance vision (7.4%). Private eye clinics were the largest service provider (85.5%) followed by local optical outlets (6.9%) and other service providers (7.7%). The prevalence of spectacles compliance was 81.5% (211/259). Conclusion: Use of spectacles and compliance are high among the elderly living in residential care homes in the Hyderabad region. Spectacles use can be further improved by periodic eye assessments along the lines similar to school eye programs, which can immensely benefit this vulnerable, aged population.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Idoso , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Acuidade Visual , Óculos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Morbidade , Índia/epidemiologia
8.
Saudi Med J ; 44(1): 67-73, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on clinical outcomes of patients admitted with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We carried out a single center, observational, retrospective study. We included adult patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from April 2020 to December 2020. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, clinical status, hospital course, and outcome; and they were compared between the patients with or without DM. RESULTS: Out of 198 patients included in the study, 86 (43.4%) were diabetic and 112 (56.5%) were non-diabetic. Majority of the patients were males 139 (70.2%) with a mean age of 54.14±14.89 years. In-hospital mortality rate was higher in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients (40 vs. 32; p=0.011). The most common comorbidity was hypertension (n=95, 48%) followed by ischemic heart disease (n=35, 17.7%), chronic kidney disease (n=17, 9.6%), and bronchial asthma (n=10, 5.1%). CONCLUSION: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is higher among diabetic patients; particularly, those with preexisting co-morbidities or geriatric patients. Diabetic patients are prone to a severe clinical course of COVID-19 and a significantly higher mortality rate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Surg ; 23(1): 4, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computer Assisted Design and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) have revolutionized oncologic surgery of the head and neck. A multitude of benefits of this technique has been described, but there are only few reports of donor site comorbidity following CAD/CAM surgery. METHODS: This study investigated comorbidity of the hip following deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) graft raising using CAD/CAM techniques. A cross-sectional examination was performed to determine range of motion, muscle strength and nerve disturbances. Furthermore, correlations between graft volume and skin incision length with postoperative donor site morbidity were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation, linear regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Fifteen patients with a mean graft volume of 21.2 ± 5.7 cm3 and a mean incision length of 228.0 ± 30.0 mm were included. Patients reported of noticeable physical limitations in daily life activities (12.3 ± 11.9 weeks) and athletic activities (38.4 ± 40.0 weeks in mean) following surgery. Graft volume significantly correlated with the duration of the use of walking aids (R = 0.57; p = 0.033) and impairment in daily life activities (R = 0.65; p = 0.012). The length of the scar of the donor-site showed a statistically significant association with postoperative iliohypogastric nerve deficits (F = 4.4, p = 0.037). Patients with anaesthaesia of a peripheral cutaneous nerve had a larger mean scar length (280 ± 30.0 mm) than subjects with hypaesthesia (245 ± 10.1 mm) or no complaints (216 ± 27.7 mm). CONCLUSIONS: Despite sophisticated planning options in modern CAD/CAM surgery, comorbidity of the donor site following  iliac graft harvesting is still a problem. This study is the first to investigate comorbidity after DCIA graft raising in a patient group treated exclusively with CAD/CAM techniques. The results indicate that a minimal invasive approach in terms of small graft volumes and small skin incisions could help to reduce postoperative symptomatology. Trial registration Retrospectively registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00029066); registration date: 23/05/2022.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Artéria Ilíaca , Humanos , Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Cicatriz/etiologia , Computadores , Estudos Transversais , Artéria Ilíaca/cirurgia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Morbidade
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(2): e32571, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637925

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A gestational age of 22 to 23 weeks is the lower threshold for selective active intervention. Few infants delivered at a gestational age of 22 to 23 weeks survive if resuscitated. Among those who survive, most develop severe complications, especially in cases of multiple births at the limit of viability. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the intact survival of extremely preterm twins, a girl (Twin A) and a boy (Twin B), weighing 504g and 475g, respectively, born at the edge of viability at 22 2/7 weeks gestation without significant morbidity. DIAGNOSES: extremely preterm twins born at the edge of viability at 22 2/7 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Twin A required 6 weeks of mechanical ventilation. She received conventional and high-frequency oscillation ventilation. She was extubated to noninvasive positive airway pressure ventilation at 28 weeks and 2 days post conception. Twin B required longer duration of invasive ventilation lasting 11 weeks. Moreover, he had several episodes of feeding intolerance and abdominal distension. However, his serial abdominal radiographs showed nonspecific findings. The gastric tubes were eventually removed from both twins. Full oral feeding was successful on discharge. OUTCOMES: Both infants are presently in good condition.They were discharged home with a full oral feeding, and without any respiratory support. Now they are 18-month-old with unimpaired development. LESSONS: This report would support healthcare providers in decision-making. It highlights the importance of perinatal and neonatal management optimization to improve survival rates and clinical outcomes of periviable birth. In addition it emphasize the individuality of each case and the need to consider the parents' wishes in the management decision.


Assuntos
Parto , Gravidez Múltipla , Gravidez , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Idade Gestacional , Gêmeos , Morbidade
11.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 32, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is still a gap in knowledge of the impact that child marriage could have on the mortality and morbidity of children in Afghanistan. This study used the data from the latest Afghanistan demographic health survey conducted in 2015 (ADHS) to address this gap and advance the current knowledge. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2015 ADHS, including the births in the past 5 years to ever-married women aged 15-24 years old, was carried out. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association of child marriage (< 18y) with morbidities (diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and fever in the last 2 weeks), mortality (neonatal, infant, child), and size at birth among the children under 5 born to women aged 15-24 years, before and after adjusting for the effect of sociodemographic and structural inequalities. RESULTS: Approximately two-thirds of births in the past 5 years belong to 15-24 years old mothers who married at ages < 18. The majority of them were born to mothers residing in rural areas (75.67%) with no education (51.68%) from poor households (39.39%). As compared to the births to women married at ages ≥ 18, there was a significantly higher likelihood of neonatal mortality among births to women married at ages < 18 (crude OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.52-3.49 & adjusted OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.01) and higher infant mortality among the births to the women married at ages ≤ 14y (crude OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.06-3.53). However, it disappeared for neonatal mortality after adjustment for adequacy of antenatal care (ANC) and infant mortality after adjustment for sociodemographic inequalities. CONCLUSION: Although the births to women married as a child (< 18) were more likely to die at an early age, this association disappeared after adjustment for the adequacy of ANC. Given the unavoidable practice of child marriage in Afghanistan, this finding emphasizes the importance of providing adequate ANC for young brides to prevent child mortality. In addition, strong global advocacy is required to empower and support young Afghan women in negotiating their reproductive and maternity rights with their partners by reducing social and gender-based inequalities.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Casamento , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Mortalidade da Criança , Morbidade
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 471, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627330

RESUMO

Malnutrition and morbidity are substantial problems in Ethiopia and are still pervasive and persistent. Despite this, there has been scant research on the coexistence of malnutrition and morbidity indicators. Moreover, previous studies were based on all data records of measurements from manifest data. Thus, this study aims to identify the correlates and coexistence of child malnutrition and morbidity within this country. Cross-sectional data which is collected by Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey were used. The generalized structural equation models were used to examine the association between child malnutrition, morbidity, and potential risk factors. The generalized structural equation models help to provide latent effects of child malnutrition and morbidity within a combined modeling framework. In addition, the generalized structural equation models make it possible to analyze malnutrition as a mediator of the association between selected risk factors and latent variable morbidity. The data analysis was done using SPSS AMOS and R software. The analysis indicated that children born to nourished mothers (AOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.68-0.75), born to enough birth space between 24 and 47 months and (AOR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99), 48 months and above (AOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.65-0.76), being from middle-income households (AOR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.91), high-income households (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.61-0.72), from mother with primary or secondary (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.75-0.85) and higher education level (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.78) were less affected by malnutrition. It also revealed that a child born second to third (AOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99), fourth and higher (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99) and children from a husband-educated higher level (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.89) were less likely to be ill. Children who breastfeed (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.80-0.99), from nourished mothers (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.097), from middle income (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99), high-income households (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.93-0.96), birth spacing 24-47 months (AOR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00) and 48 months and above (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97) were indirectly affected by morbidity via malnutrition. This investigation has revealed that childhood malnutrition and morbidity remain major child health challenges in Ethiopia with demographic, socioeconomic, maternal, child, and geographic variables playing significant roles. Efforts to resolve these issues need to take these factors into account. Therefore, malnutrition and morbidity prevention should include encouraging birth spacing, mother education programs, and breastfeeding practices.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Desnutrição , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Mães , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Morbidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Prevalência
13.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 18(1): 38, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Fontan operation has improved the survival of children born with congenital heart disease with single ventricle physiology. The most widely adopted variations of the Fontan procedure are the extracardiac conduit, the lateral tunnel ve the intra/extracardiac conduit with fenestration. Despite advances in the treatment and prevention of early and late complications that may develop after Fontan surgery, morbidity still remains an important problem. METHODS: 304 patients who underwent Fontan surgery in our center between 1995 and 2022 were included in our study. The complications that developed in patients who underwent primary Fontan or lateral tunnel surgery and extracardiac conduit Fontan application were compared. RESULTS: Classic Fontan surgery and lateral tunnel surgery were performed in 26 of the patients, and extracardiac Fontan surgery was performed in 278 patients. 218 of 304 cases were patients with single ventricular pathology. 86 cases were patients with two ventricular morphologies but complex cardiac pathology. Fenestration was performed in only 6 patients, other patients did not require fenestration. The mean follow-up period of our patients was 12 years (3 months-27 years). When the complications between Fontan procedures were compared in our study, it was found that the length of hospital stay and mortality were statistically significantly reduced in patients who underwent extracardiac Fontan surgery. There was no significant difference in terms of complications that can be seen after Fontan surgery and the length of stay in the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: Fontan complex is a palliative surgery for children with complex heart disease. Palliative surgical operations aimed at the preparation of the Fontan circulation lead to the preparation of the pulmonary vascular bed and the preservation of ventricular function. The techniques applied in Fontan surgery affect the early and long-term complications and the survival of the patients. In our study, when we examined the patients who extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure for the non-cardiac route, we found that mortality and morbidity were minimal.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Criança , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Técnica de Fontan/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 36(1): 2167073, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of SMM have been steadily increasing in Arkansas, a southern rural state, which has the 5th highest maternal death rate among the US states. The aims of the study were to test the functionality of the Bateman index in association to SMM, in clustering the risks of pregnancies to SMM, and to study the predictability of SMM using the Bateman index. STUDY DESIGN: From the ANGELS database, 72,183 pregnancies covered by Medicaid in Arkansas between 2013 and 2016 were included in this study. The expanded CDC ICD-9/ICD-10 criteria were used to identify SMM. The Bateman comorbidity index was applied in quantifying the comorbidity burden for a pregnancy. Multivariable logistic regressions, KMeans method, and five widely used predictive models were applied respectively for each of the study aims. RESULTS: SMM prevalence remained persistently high among Arkansas women covered by Medicaid (195 per 10,000 deliveries) during the study period. Using the Bateman comorbidity index score, the study population was divided into four groups, with a monotonically increasing odds of SMM from a lower score group to a higher score group. The association between the index score and the occurrence of SMM is confirmed with statistical significance: relative to Bateman score falling in 0-1, adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% CIs are: 2.1 (1.78, 2.46) for score in 2-5; 5.08 (3.81, 6.79) for score in 6-9; and 8.53 (4.57, 15.92) for score ≥10. Noticeably, more than one-third of SMM cases were detected from the studied pregnancies that did not have any of the comorbid conditions identified. In the prediction analyses, we observed minimal predictability of SMM using the comorbidity index: the calculated c-statistics ranged between 62% and 67%; the Precision-Recall AUC values are <7% for internal validation and <9% for external validation procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The comorbidity index can be used in quantifying the risk of SMM and can help cluster the study population into risk tiers of SMM, especially in rural states where there are disproportionately higher rates of SMM; however, the predictive value of the comorbidity index for SMM is inappreciable.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Gestantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medicaid , Comorbidade , Prevalência , Morbidade
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(4): 722-732, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640074

RESUMO

Empirical data suggest that rectal prolapse (RP) is common in captive Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) in Europe, resulting in the euthanasia of animals that experience repeat occurrences. However, the prevalence, etiology, and risk factors of RP remain unidentified. The aims of this retrospective study were to assess the morbidity and mortality of RP, to provide an overview of management practices, and to identify risk factors for RP in this species. A questionnaire was sent to all European Ex situ Programme institutions that housed M. nigra between 01 January 2014 and 31 December 2020. Zoological Information Management System medical records and the studbook were used to obtain additional information. The questionnaire had a response rate of 65%, accounting for 204 animals. Of these animals, 25 (12.3%) suffered from at least one RP event during the study period and recurrence was noted in 72%. The majority of prolapses reverted naturally, but 28% of afflicted animals were euthanized for this ailment. Institutions with M. nigra with high frequencies of diarrhea (P= 0.035), those that provided diets of ≥90% vegetables and high-fiber pellet (P < 0.001), and those with more male than female M. nigra (P < 0.001) had increased odds of RP. Institutions that provided fruits daily (P < 0.002) had reduced odds of having RP cases. Although correlation of RP with diet was identified, confounding cannot be excluded, and a detailed dietary analysis needs to take place before altering feeding practices. Acute stressors and detection of protozoa in fecal samples were common findings before an RP event. Demographic analysis indicated that aged females, young males, and subordinate individuals were most affected by this condition. Where tested during an RP intervention, animals had low serum levels of vitamin D. Pedigree analysis hinted at genetic predisposition in this species and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Macaca , Prolapso Retal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Macaca/fisiologia , Indonésia , Prolapso Retal/epidemiologia , Prolapso Retal/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Morbidade
16.
BMC Surg ; 23(1): 11, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernia repair is a common procedure in surgery. Patients with cardiovascular disease have an increased operative risk for postoperative morbidity. The study aimed to identify the most beneficial surgical procedure for these patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective surgery for unilateral or bilateral inguinal hernia between December 2015 and February 2020 were included. The cohort was divided into the group of patients with (CVD group) and without (NO group) cardiovascular disease and analyzed according to the postoperative morbidity distribution and correlated to the surgical technique used. RESULTS: Of the 474 patients included 223 (47%) were operated on using the Lichtenstein technique and 251 (53%) using TAPP, respectively. In the CVD group the Lichtenstein procedure was more common (n = 102, 68.9%), in the NO group it was TAPP (n = 205, 62.9%; p < 0.001). 13 (8.8%) patients in the CVD group and 12 (3.7%) patients in the NO group developed a postoperative hematoma (p = 0.023). In the further subgroup analysis within the CVD group revealed cumarine treatment as a risk factor for postoperative hematoma development, whereas the laparoscopic approach did not elevate the morbidity risk. CONCLUSION: CVD is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity in general surgery, however, the TAPP method does not elevate the individual perioperative risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hérnia Inguinal , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Laparoscopia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Hérnia Inguinal/complicações , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Herniorrafia/efeitos adversos , Herniorrafia/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Morbidade , Hematoma/cirurgia
17.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 10(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global pandemic has diverted resources away from management of chronic diseases, including cirrhosis. While there is increasing knowledge on COVID-19 infection in liver cirrhosis, little is described on the impact of the pandemic on decompensated cirrhosis admissions and outcomes, which was the aim of this study. METHODS: A single-centre, retrospective study, evaluated decompensated cirrhosis admissions to a tertiary London hepatology and transplantation centre, from October 2018 to February 2021. Patients were included if they had an admission with cirrhosis decompensation defined as new-onset jaundice or ascites, infection, encephalopathy, portal hypertensive bleeding or renal dysfunction. RESULTS: The average number of admissions stayed constant between the pre-COVID-19 (October 2018-February 2020) and COVID-19 periods (March 2020-February 2021). Patients transferred in from secondary centres had consistently higher severity scores during the COVID-19 period (UK Model for End-Stage Liver Disease 58 vs 54; p=0.007, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium 22 vs 18; p=0.006, EF-CLIF Acute Decompensation (AD) score 55.0 vs 51.0; p=0.055). Of those admitted to the intensive care without acute-on-chronic liver failure, there was a significant increase in AD scores during the COVID-19 period (58 vs 48, p=0.009). In addition, there was a trend towards increased hospital readmission rates during the COVID-19 period (29.5% vs 21.5%, p=0.067). When censored at 30 days, early mortality postdischarge was significantly higher during the COVID-19 period (p<0.001) with a median time to death of 35 days compared with 62 days pre-COVID-19. DISCUSSION: This study provides a unique perspective on the impact that the global pandemic had on decompensated cirrhosis admissions. The findings of increased early mortality and readmissions, and higher AD scores on ICU admission, highlight the need to maintain resourcing for high-level hepatology care and follow-up, in spite of other disease pressures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Hepática Terminal , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência ao Convalescente , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Hospitais
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 141(2): 245-252, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether immediate or delayed pushing in the second-stage results in higher risk of pelvic floor morbidity. METHODS: This study was a planned secondary aim of a multicenter randomized clinical trial that included nulliparous patients at 37 weeks of gestation or greater in labor with neuraxial analgesia. Participants were randomized in the second stage to initiate pushing immediately or wait 60 minutes before pushing. Participants had pelvic floor assessments at 1-5 days postpartum, 6 weeks postpartum, and 6 months postpartum. Rates of perineal lacerations, pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) measures, and scores on validated symptom-specific distress and quality-of-life questionnaires (PFDI-20 [Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory], PFIQ [Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire], FISI [Fecal Incontinence Severity Index], and MMHQ [Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire]) were compared. It was estimated that 630 participants would provide more than 80% power to detect a 40% difference in second-degree or greater perineal lacerations and approximately 80% power to detect a 40% difference in stage 2 or greater pelvic organ prolapse (POP). RESULTS: Among 2,414 participants in the primary trial conducted between May 19, 2014, and December 16, 2017, 941 (39%) had pelvic floor assessments: 452 immediate pushing and 489 delayed pushing. The mean age was 24.8 years, and 93.4% had vaginal delivery. There were no significant differences in perineal lacerations at delivery and POP at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Changes from baseline in total and subscale scores for the PFDI-20, the PFIQ, and the MMHQ were not significantly different at 6 weeks postpartum and 6 months postpartum. The change in FISI score was higher in the immediate pushing group at 6 months (2.9±5.7 vs 2.0±4.5, difference 0.9, P =.01), but less than the minimum important difference of 4. CONCLUSION: Among nulliparous patients in the second stage with neuraxial analgesia, immediate pushing, compared with delayed pushing, did not increase perineal lacerations, POP-Q measures, or patient-reported pelvic floor symptoms at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02137200.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Diafragma da Pelve/lesões , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Qualidade de Vida , Morbidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 76: 76-87, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of patients undergoing total mastectomy in the US opt for implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR). A two-stage reconstruction with tissue expander (TE) remains the most common technique. Since the implementation of ADMs, a prepectoral approach has gained popularity and is becoming the standard of care. Herein, we compared the surgical and postoperative outcomes of prepectoral versus subpectoral two-stage IBBR. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed between January 2011 and December 2020. We included female patients undergoing immediate two-stage IBBR. The primary outcomes of this study were to compare the 30-day morbidity and the overall rate of complications during the first and second stages of reconstruction, and to compare the time to initiate postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Propensity score matching was implemented. RESULTS: After matching, 154 reconstructions were analyzed, 77 in each group. The two matched groups exhibited comparable (p > 0.05) characteristics for all analyzed demographic and intraoperative independent variables. Reconstructions in the prepectoral group had a shortened median time for drain removal (13-days vs. 15-days, p = 0.001). The intraoperative expansion volumes were higher in the prepectoral group (300 ml versus 200 ml, p = 0.025). The 30-day morbidity and first- and second-stage complication rates were not significantly different between groups. The time to start postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) was not significantly different between groups (134-days versus 126.5-days, p = 0.58). CONCLUSION: Prepectoral and subpectoral TE placement had comparable complication rates during the first and second stages of IBBR. Timing for TE-to-Implant exchange and initiation of PMRT were comparable between the two approaches.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário , Implantes de Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Implante Mamário/métodos , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pontuação de Propensão , Mastectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Morbidade
20.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114746, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive studies have linked PM2.5 and PM10 with respiratory diseases (RD). However, few is known about causal association between PM1 and morbidity of RD. We aimed to assess the causal effects of PM1 on cause-specific RD. METHODS: Hospital admission data were obtained for RD during 2014 and 2019 in Beijing, China. Negative control exposure and extreme gradient boosting with SHapley Additive exPlanation was used to explore the causality and contribution between PM1 and RD. Stratified analysis by gender, age, and season was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 1,183,591 admissions for RD were recorded. Per interquartile range (28 µg/m3) uptick in concentration of PM1 corresponded to a 3.08% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66%-4.52%] increment in morbidity of total RD. And that was 4.47% (95% CI: 2.46%-6.52%) and 0.15% (95% CI: 1.44%-1.78%), for COPD and asthma, respectively. Significantly positive causal associations were observed for PM1 with total RD and COPD. Females and the elderly had higher effects on total RD, COPD, and asthma only in the warm months (Z = 3.03, P = 0.002; Z = 4.01, P < 0.001; Z = 3.92, P < 0.001; Z = 2.11, P = 0.035; Z = 2.44, P = 0.015). Contribution of PM1 ranked first, second and second for total RD, COPD, and asthma among air pollutants. CONCLUSION: PM1 was causally associated with increased morbidity of total RD and COPD, but not causally associated with asthma. Females and the elderly were more vulnerable to PM1-associated effects on RD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Morbidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Masculino
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