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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 887714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091544

RESUMO

Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (IDD) comprise 1-2% of the population worldwide. IDD is a significant risk factor for premature morbidity or mortality. This is likely due in part to preventable health conditions, which are modifiable with the intervention of direct care providers in areas including nutrition, promotion of an active lifestyle and effective identification of health or functional deterioration. Adults with IDD are also at increased risk for neglect or mistreatment, a finding that has been documented across multiple countries and in a variety of care settings. Contributing factors include resource availability, lack of person-centered care, management culture and care worker training. Practical and economical interventions may address the known disparities and challenges facing the large community of adults with IDD. To promote person-centered care, improve record-keeping/documentation, and aid in protecting the health and safety of this vulnerable population, we propose incorporation of a video into the evaluation of adults with IDD living outside the home.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Deficiência Intelectual , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Morbidade , Fatores de Risco
2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 301, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The revised-Risk Analysis Index (RAI-rev) can accurately predict postoperative mortality risk. However, the association of RAI-rev with composite outcome of major morbidity and mortality (MMM) among older surgical patients is largely unknown. This study investigated the association between RAI-rev and postoperative MMM in older patients undergoing abdominal surgery. It also assessed the predictive value of RAI-rev combined with other preoperative risk factors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed the medical records of all patients aged 65 and older who underwent abdominal surgery between January 2018 and December 2019. The primary outcome was the postoperative MMM during hospitalization, and its association with preoperative RAI-rev scores was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The prediction of postoperative outcomes was used the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2225 older patients were analyzed, and 258 (11.6%) developed postoperative MMM. After adjusting for confounders, each unit increase in RAI-rev scores resulted in a 2.3% increase in the MMM risk and a 3.0% increase in the odds of life-threatening complications and mortality (both P < 0.05). The area under the curves (AUCs) of RAI-rev scores in predicting MMM and life-threatening complications and mortality was 0.604 (95% CI: 0.567 to 0.640) and 0.633 (95% CI: 0.592 to 0.675), respectively (both P < 0.001); when the RAI-rev was combined with age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, operative stress, and urgency status of surgery (emergency or elective), the AUCs were 0.694 (95% CI: 0.659 to 0.729) and 0.739 (95% CI: 0.702 to 0.777), respectively (both P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher RAI-rev scores were independently associated with increased risk of MMM. When combined with age, gender, ASA classification, operative stress, and urgency status of surgery, RAI-rev had improved performance in predicting the risk of MMM, particularly the life-threatening complications and mortality.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Humanos , Morbidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941977, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119098

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, diabetes, and neuropsychiatric diseases cause significant global morbidity and mortality which disproportionately affect those living in low resource regions including low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In order to reduce NCD morbidity and mortality in LMIC it is imperative to understand risk factors associated with the development of NCDs. Certain infections are known risk factors for many NCDs. Several parasitic helminth infections, which occur most commonly in LMICs, have been identified as potential drivers of NCDs in parasite-endemic regions. Though understudied, the impact of helminth infections on the development of NCDs is likely related to helminth-specific factors, including species, developmental stage and disease burden. Mechanical and chemical damage induced by the helminth in combination with pathologic host immune responses contribute to the long-term inflammation that increases risk for NCD development. Robust studies from animal models and human clinical trials are needed to understand the immunologic mechanisms of helminth-induced NCDs. Understanding the complex connection between helminths and NCDs will aid in targeted public health programs to reduce helminth-induced NCDs and reduce the high rates of morbidity that affects millions of people living in parasite-endemic, LMICs globally.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Morbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1151, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to generate new evidence on the economic consequences of multimorbidity on households in terms of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures and their implications for catastrophic OOP expenditure. METHODS: We analyzed Social Consumption Health data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) 75th round conducted in the year 2017-2018 in India. The sample included 1,13,823 households (64,552 rural and 49,271 urban) through a multistage stratified random sampling process. Prevalence of multimorbidity and related OOP expenditure were estimated. Using Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM) we estimated the mean OOP expenditure for individuals reporting multimorbidity and single morbidity for each episode of outpatient visits and hospital admission. We also estimated implications in terms of catastrophic OOP expenditure for households. RESULTS: Results suggest that outpatient OOP expenditure is invariably lower in the presence of multimorbidity as compared with single conditions of the selected Non-Communicable Diseases(NCDs) (overall, INR 720 [USD 11.3] for multimorbidity vs. INR 880 [USD 14.8] for single). In the case of hospitalization, the OOP expenditures were mostly higher for the same NCD conditions in the presence of multimorbidity as compared with single conditions, except for cancers and cardiovascular diseases. For cancers and cardiovascular, OOP expenditures in the presence of multimorbidity were lower by 39% and 14% respectively). Furthermore, around 46.7% (46.674-46.676) households reported incurring catastrophic spending (10% threshold) because of any NCD in the standalone disease scenario which rose to 63.3% (63.359-63.361) under the multimorbidity scenario. The catastrophic implications of cancer among individual diseases was the highest. CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity leads to high and catastrophic OOP payments by households and treatment of high expenditure diseases like cancers and cardiovascular are under-financed by households in the presence of competing multimorbidity conditions. Multimorbidity should be considered as an integrated treatment strategy under the existing financial risk protection measures (Ayushman Bharat) to reduce the burden of household OOP expenditure at the country level.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Multimorbidade , Autorrelato
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 978760, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172383

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected half a billion people, including vulnerable populations such as cancer patients. While increasing evidence supports the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 months after a negative nasopharyngeal swab test, the effects on long-term immune memory and cancer treatment are unclear. In this report, we examined post-COVID-19 tissue-localized immune responses in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient and a colorectal cancer (CRC) patient. Using spatial whole-transcriptomic analysis, we demonstrated spatial profiles consistent with a lymphocyte-associated SARS-CoV-2 response (based on two public COVID-19 gene sets) in the tumors and adjacent normal tissues, despite intra-tumor heterogeneity. The use of RNAscope and multiplex immunohistochemistry revealed that the spatial localization of B cells was significantly associated with lymphocyte-associated SARS-CoV-2 responses within the spatial transcriptomic (ST) niches showing the highest levels of virus. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing data obtained from previous (CRC) or new (HCC) ex vivo stimulation experiments showed that patient-specific SARS-CoV-2 memory B cells were the main contributors to this positive association. Finally, we evaluated the spatial associations between SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological effects and immunotherapy-related anti-tumor immune responses. Immuno-predictive scores (IMPRES) revealed consistent positive spatial correlations between T cells/cytotoxic lymphocytes and the predicted immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) response, particularly in the HCC tissues. However, the positive spatial correlation between B cells and IMPRES score was restricted to the high-virus ST niche. In addition, tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) analysis revealed marked T cell dysfunction and inflammation, alongside low T cell exclusion and M2 tumor-associated macrophage infiltration. Our results provide in situ evidence of SARS-CoV-2-generated persistent immunological memory, which could not only provide tissue protection against reinfection but may also modulate the tumor microenvironment, favoring ICB responsiveness. As the number of cancer patients with COVID-19 comorbidity continues to rise, improved understanding of the long-term immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on cancer treatment is much needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Comorbidade , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Memória Imunológica , Morbidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143844

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease development. We aimed at determining the effect of two different sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on ambulatory arterial stiffness in individuals with T2DM. Materials and Methods: In this single-center, single-arm, prospective study performed from January 2020 to August 2021, we planned to enroll adult subjects with T2DM and stable antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatment, assigned either to empagliflozin or dapagliflozin for 6 months. All eligible subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. We set as the primary efficacy outcome the change in ambulatory pulse wave velocity (PWV) from baseline to week 24. Results: We finally enrolled 46 diabetic subjects, with a mean age of 62.89 (8.53) years and mean T2DM duration of 9.72 (6.37) years. Thirty patients received dapagliflozin, while sixteen patients received empagliflozin. Due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures during the study, the mean follow-up period extended from 6 months to 9.98 (3.27) months. Regarding the prespecified primary efficacy outcome, we found that the SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment did not have a significant effect on PWV (p = 0.65). Prior history of cardiovascular disease did not significantly affect the observed effects. Other indices of arterial stiffness, such as augmentation index and central pulse pressure, were not significantly affected, neither by empagliflozin nor by dapagliflozin. Conclusions: SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment with empagliflozin or dapagliflozin in subjects with T2DM failed to improve ambulatory PWV over a mean follow-up of 10 months. Registration number: ISRCTN88851713.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Simportadores , Rigidez Vascular , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Simportadores/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 73(5): 310-322, septiembre 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208770

RESUMO

Introduction: The gracilis muscle free flap has gained popularity in head and neck reconstruction due to minimal donor-site morbidity, reliable vascular pedicle, strong muscular component, and possibility to perform nerve coaptation. However, almost all the existing evidence in the literature is related to its use for facial palsy reanimation. The aim of this study was therefore to review and provide a comprehensive summary of all the possible indications and outcomes of this versatile free flap in head neck reconstructive surgery.Materials and methodsA systematic review of the literature was conducted including articles from 1970 to 2019. All articles were examined and described.ResultsTwenty-seven papers published between 1994 and 2019 were identified for analysis. The evidence highlights the use of the gracilis muscle free flap for parotid, forehead and midface defects, oral tongue, oral sphincter, lower and upper lip, cheek, and oral commissure defects, among others, as the most common defects reconstructed.ConclusionThis flap represents an easy to harvest and versatile free flap with low donor-site morbidity and multiple proven uses in head & neck reconstruction. We therefore encourage reconstructive surgeons to include this flap in their armoury, either as a first or as a second-line option. (AU)


Introducción: El colgajo libre de músculo gracilis ha ganado popularidad en la reconstrucción de cabeza y cuello debido a una mínima morbilidad en el sitio donante, un pedículo vascular confiable, un componente muscular fuerte y la posibilidad de realizar una coaptación nerviosa. Sin embargo, casi toda la evidencia existente en la literatura está relacionada con su uso para la reanimación de la parálisis facial. El objetivo de este estudio fue, por tanto, revisar y proporcionar un resumen completo de todas las posibles indicaciones y resultados de este versátil colgajo libre en cirugía reconstructiva de cabeza y cuello.Materiales y métodosSe realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura incluyendo artículos de 1970 a 2019. Todos fueron examinados y descritos.ResultadosSe identificaron 27 artículos publicados entre 1994 y 2019 para su análisis. La evidencia destaca el uso del colgajo libre de músculo gracilis para defectos de parótida, frente y región medio facial, lengua oral, esfínter oral, labio inferior y superior, defectos de mejilla y comisura oral, como los defectos reconstruidos más comunes.ConclusiónEste colgajo representa un colgajo libre versátil y fácil de elevar con baja morbilidad a nivel del sitio donante y múltiples posibilidades en la reconstrucción de cabeza y cuello. Por lo tanto, representa una herramienta útil en el arsenal reconstructivo de cualquier cirujano, ya sea como una opción de primera o de segunda línea. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Morbidade , Pacientes
9.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 67, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paraquat is a non-selective herbicide that causes severe tissue damage in various organs including the liver and kidney. The aim of this study was to determine the trend of the liver and kidney injury in patients with paraquat poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed at the Khorshid Hospital referral poisoning emergency center. The medical records of all patients with acute paraquat poisoning admitted from March 2017 to October 2020 were reviewed. Demographic factors, liver and kidney function tests and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups based on the outcome of mortality (death or survived). The two groups were compared in terms of changes in creatinine and liver enzymes during hospitalization. RESULTS: A significant difference in mean creatinine levels between the two groups was observed from the third day after admission. The peak median Cr was 3.5 mg/dl for deceased patients in day 6 and 1.47 mg/dl for survived patients on 4th day. Minor elevations of ALT and AST were present in those who died. Logistic regression analysis shows patients who had level of creatinine higher than normal from the 2nd to 6th day post overdose, the risk of mortality was 4.83 to 7.44 times more than patients with normal creatinine level. The mean (SD) area under the curve for outcome prediction was reported to be excellent for creatinine on the 8th day post overdose (85.7 ± 13.2). Creatinine was higher than 2 on the 8th day post ingestion and had a sensitivity 100% and specificity 85.7% for mortality prediction (P value, 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of mortality secondary to paraquat ingestion was highly associated with a rise in creatinine. Minor elevations of ALT and AST were also present in those who died. The creatinine concentration on different days post overdose can be helpful in predicting the severity of poisoning especially when the serum paraquat levels are not available.


Assuntos
Paraquat , Intoxicação , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Rim , Fígado , Morbidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity increases with age and enhances the burden of health problems that result in new challenges to meet additional demands. In the ageing population, health problems, and health care utilization should be assessed carefully and addressed. This study aimed to identify chronic morbidities, health problems, health care seeking behaviour and health care utilization among the elderly. METHODS: We conducted a community based, cross-sectional study in urban areas of the Sunsari district using face-to-face interviews. A total of 530 elderly participants were interviewed and selected by a simple proportionate random sampling technique. RESULTS: About half, 48.3%, elderly were suffering from pre-existing chronic morbidities, of which, 30.9% had single morbidity, and 17.4% had multi-morbidities. This study unfurled more than 50.0% prevalence of health ailments like circulatory, digestive, eye, musculoskeletal and psychological problems each representing the burden of 68.7%, 68.3%, 66.2%, 65.8% and 55.7% respectively. Our study also found that 58.7% preferred hospitals as their first contact facility. Despite the preferences, 46.0% reported visiting traditional healers for treatment of their ailments. About 68.1% reported having difficulty seeking health care and 51.1% reported visits to a health care facility within the last 6 months period. The participants with pre-existing morbidity, health insurance, and an economic status above the poverty line were more likely to visit health care facilities. CONCLUSION: Elderly people had a higher prevalence of health ailments, but unsatisfactory health care seeking and health care utilization behaviour. These need further investigation and attention by the public health system in order to provide appropriate curative and preventive health care to the elderly. There is an urgent need to promote geriatric health services and make them available at the primary health care level, the first level of contact with a national health system.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Morbidade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079903

RESUMO

While probiotics are reported to reduce the risks of neonatal morbidities, less is known about probiotics and feeding tolerance. With this retrospective cohort study, we investigate whether introduction of probiotic supplementation as the standard of care was associated with fewer neonatal morbidities and improved feeding tolerance in very preterm infants. Using the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 345 live-born very preterm infants (28-31 weeks' gestation), from January 2019-August 2021, in NICUs in Stockholm, Sweden, either received probiotic supplementation (Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium lactis, Streptococcusthermophilus) (139) or no supplementation (206); they were compared regarding a primary composite outcome of death, sepsis, and/or necrotising enterocolitis and secondary outcomes: time to full enteral feeding and antibiotics use. Probiotics seemed associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome (4.3% versus 9.2%, p = 0.08). In the subgroup of 320 infants without the primary outcome, probiotics were associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding (6.6 days versus 7.2 days) and less use of antibiotics (5.2 days versus 6.1 days). Our findings suggest that probiotics improve feeding tolerance and further support that very preterm infants may benefit from probiotic supplementation.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Doenças do Prematuro , Probióticos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morbidade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 179, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has maternal health implications reaching beyond the perinatal period. We aimed to investigate the incidence and severity of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in women with previous GDM in a Danish population and to study whether proxies of impaired beta cell function-insulin treatment during GDM pregnancy and development of subsequent manifest diabetes mellitus-influence incident risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. METHODS: A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted on the complete cohort of 700,648 women delivering in Denmark during 1997-2018. The exposure variable was GDM and primary outcome was overall cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. Secondary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and/or stroke/transient cerebral ischemia), hypertension, dyslipidemia, and venous thrombosis. Severity of morbidity was assessed using number of hospital contacts with diagnosis codes related to cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and number of redemptions of prescribed medication related to cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in women who developed cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity after pregnancy. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 10.2-11.9 years with a total range of 0-21.9 years. GDM was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity (adjusted HR 2.13 [95% CI 2.07-2.20]), major cardiovascular disease (adjusted HR 1.69 [95% CI 1.55-1.84]), hypertension (adjusted HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.82-1.96], dyslipidemia (adjusted HR 4.48 [95% CI 4.28-4.69]), and venous thrombosis (adjusted HR 1.32 [95% CI 1.16-1.50]). Insulin treatment during pregnancy and subsequent development of manifest diabetes exacerbated the risk estimates. Previous GDM was associated with more hospital contacts and more redeemed prescriptions in women developing cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Previous GDM was associated with significantly higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, especially incident dyslipidemia. Risks were exacerbated by proxies of beta cell impairment. Severity of morbidity was significantly worse if GDM preceded cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão , Insulinas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
13.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 230, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imbalance in L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and both diseases impact the other's morbidity. We sought to determine whether L-arginine/NO metabolism differs between adults with asthma with or without comorbid OSA, and its association with asthma morbidity. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 322 adults with asthma recruited in Denver, CO and New York City, NY. Data were collected on OSA status, spirometry, and metrics of asthma control and morbidity. L-Arginine metabolites were quantified in patient serum. Bivariate analyses and multiple regression were performed to determine differences between L-arginine metabolism, OSA and association with asthma morbidity. RESULTS: Among the 322 participants, 92 (28.5%) had OSA. The cohort was 81.6% female, 23.4% identified as Black and 30.6% as Latino. Patients with asthma and OSA had significantly higher serum concentrations of NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) (p-value = 0.019), lower L-arginine to ornithine ratios (p-value = 0.003), and increased ornithine (p-value = 0.001) and proline levels (p-value < 0.001) compared to those without OSA. In adjusted models, OSA was associated with worse asthma control, adjusted mean difference in asthma control questionnaire of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06 to 0.65), and asthma quality of life questionnaire, adjusted mean difference: - 0.53 (95% CI: - 0.85 to - 0.21), after adjusting for relevant covariates including body mass index and L-arginine metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with asthma and OSA had increased ADMA, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and greater metabolism of L-arginine via the arginase pathway compared to those with asthma alone, indicating a possible shared pathophysiological mechanism of these diseases.


Assuntos
Asma , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Arginina , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Ornitina , Qualidade de Vida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
14.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish short-term and medium-term complications 1-year postdiagnosis, of acute pancreatitis (AP) in children aged 0-14 years. DESIGN: One-year follow-up of a prospective monthly surveillance of new cases of AP in children under 15 years through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) from April 2013 to April 2014. SETTING: A monthly surveillance of >3700 consultant paediatricians and paediatric surgeons in the UK and Ireland using the BPSU. PATIENTS: Children aged 0-14 years with a new diagnosis of AP. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcomes following AP, including the incidence of complications and comorbidity at diagnosis and at 1 year. RESULTS: Of the 94 new confirmed cases of AP identified in the UK during the study period, 90 cases (96%) were included in the 1-year follow-up. 30 patients (32%) developed further episode(s) of AP. Over one-fifth of patients developed one or more major complication. At initial admission, the most common of these was pancreatic necrosis (n=8, 9%), followed by respiratory failure (n=7, 7%). Reported complications by 1 year were pseudocyst formation (n=9, 10%), diabetes requiring insulin therapy (n=4, 4%) and maldigestion (n=1, 1%). At 1-year postdiagnosis, only 59% of children made a full recovery with no acute or chronic complications or recurrent episodes of AP. Two patients died, indicating a case fatality of ~2.0%. CONCLUSIONS: AP in childhood is associated with significant short-term and medium-term complications and comorbidities including risk of recurrence in approximately a third of cases.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Doença Aguda , Criança , Humanos , Morbidade , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
PLoS Med ; 19(9): e1004087, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) aims to reduce maternal hyperglycaemia. The TARGET Trial assessed whether tighter compared with less tight glycaemic control reduced maternal and perinatal morbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised trial, identification number ACTRN12615000282583, 10 hospitals in New Zealand were randomised to 1 of 5 implementation dates. The trial was registered before the first participant was enrolled. All hospitals initially used less tight targets (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <5.5 mmol/L (<99 mg/dL), 1-hour <8.0 mmol/L (<144 mg/dL), 2 hour postprandial <7.0 mmol/L (<126 mg/dL)) and every 4 months, 2 hospitals moved to use tighter targets (FPG ≤5.0 mmol/L (≤90 mg/dL), 1-hour ≤7.4 mmol/L (≤133 mg/dL), 2 hour postprandial ≤6.7 mmol/L) (≤121 mg/dL). Women with GDM, blinded to the targets in use, were eligible. The primary outcome was large for gestational age. Secondary outcomes assessed maternal and infant health. Analyses were by intention to treat. Between May 2015 and November 2017, data were collected from 1,100 women with GDM (1,108 infants); 598 women (602 infants) used the tighter targets and 502 women (506 infants) used the less tight targets. The rate of large for gestational age was similar between the treatment target groups (88/599, 14.7% versus 76/502, 15.1%; adjusted relative risk [adjRR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66 to 1.40, P = 0.839). The composite serious health outcome for the infant of perinatal death, birth trauma, or shoulder dystocia was apparently reduced in the tighter group when adjusted for gestational age at diagnosis of GDM, BMI, ethnicity, and history of GDM compared with the less tight group (8/599, 1.3% versus 13/505, 2.6%, adjRR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88, P = 0.032). No differences were seen for the other infant secondary outcomes apart from a shorter stay in intensive care (P = 0.041). Secondary outcomes for the woman showed an apparent increase for the composite serious health outcome that included major haemorrhage, coagulopathy, embolism, and obstetric complications in the tighter group (35/595, 5.9% versus 15/501, 3.0%, adjRR 2.29, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.59, P = 0.020). There were no differences between the target groups in the risk for pre-eclampsia, induction of labour, or cesarean birth, but more women using tighter targets required pharmacological treatment (404/595, 67.9% versus 293/501, 58.5%, adjRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.44, P = 0.047). The main study limitation is that the treatment targets used may vary to those in use in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: Tighter glycaemic targets in women with GDM compared to less tight targets did not reduce the risk of a large for gestational age infant, but did reduce serious infant morbidity, although serious maternal morbidity was increased. These findings can be used to aid decisions on the glycaemic targets women with GDM should use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12615000282583.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Austrália , Glicemia , Cesárea , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Morbidade , Gravidez
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2229532, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053536

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) use during pregnancy may be associated with worse obstetrical outcomes, possibly because of differences in access to health care. It is not known whether ED use before pregnancy is associated with serious adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Objective: To study the association between prepregnancy ED use and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, and included all livebirths and stillbirths from April 2003 to January 2020. Exposures: Main exposure was any ED encounter within 90 days preceding the start of the index pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was a composite of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) from 20 weeks' gestation to 42 days' post partum. Secondary outcomes included severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) from 0 to 27 days, neonatal death, and stillbirth. Relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for maternal age, income, and rurality. Results: Of 2 130 245 births, there were 2 119 335 livebirths (99.5%) and 10 910 stillbirths (0.5%). The mean (SD) maternal age was 29.6 (5.4) years, 212 478 (9.9%) were rural dwelling, and 498 219 (23%) had 3 or more comorbidities. Among all births, 218 011 (9.7%) had a prepregnancy ED visit. The rate of SMM was higher among women with a prepregnancy ED visit than those without (22.3 vs 16.5 per 1000 births), with an RR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.30-1.38) and an adjusted RR (aRR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.33-1.42). Compared with no prepregnancy ED visit, the aRR was higher in those with 1 (1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34), 2 (1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.61), and 3 or more (1.74; 95% CI, 1.61-1.90) ED visits. Prepregnancy ED visits for a hematological (aRR, 13.60; 95% CI, 10.48-17.64), endocrine (aRR, 4.96; 95% CI, 3.72-6.62), and circulatory (aRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.68-3.07) conditions were associated with the highest aRRs for SMM. The rate of SNM was higher among newborns whose mother visited the ED within 90 days before pregnancy (68.2 vs 55.4 per 1000 births; aRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.22-1.26) as was the risk of neonatal death (aRR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.37) and stillbirth (aRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ED use was common before pregnancy. These findings suggest that ED use may not only reflect a woman's access to prepregnancy care but also higher future risk of severe maternal and perinatal morbidity, potentially offering a useful trigger for health system interventions to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 244: 114025, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049332

RESUMO

Several literatures have examined the risk of chronic respiratory diseases in association with short-term ambient PM2.5 exposure in China. However, little evidence has examined the chronic impacts of PM2.5 exposure on morbidity of chronic respiratory diseases in cohorts from high pollution countries. Our study aims to investigate the associations. Based on a retrospective cohort among adults in northern China, a Cox regression model with time-varying PM2.5 exposure and a concentration-response (C-R) curve model were performed to access the relationships between incidence of chronic respiratory diseases and long-term PM2.5 exposure during a mean follow-up time of 9.8 years. Individual annual average PM2.5 estimates were obtained from a satellite-based model with high resolution. The incident date of a chronic respiratory disease was identified according to self-reported physician diagnosis time and/or intake of medication for treatment. Among 38,047 urban subjects analyzed in all-cause chronic respiratory disease cohort, 482 developed new cases. In CB (38,369), asthma (38,783), and COPD (38,921) cohorts, the onsets were 276, 89, and 14, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for morbidity of all-cause chronic respiratory disease, CB, asthma, and COPD were 1.15 (1.01, 1.31), 1.20 (1.00, 1.42), 0.76 (0.55, 1.04), and 0.66 (0.29, 1.47) with each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5, respectively. Stronger effect estimates were suggested in alcohol drinkers across stratified analyses. Additionally, the shape of C-R curve showed an increasing linear relationship before 75.00 µg/m3 concentrations of PM2.5 for new-onset all-cause chronic respiratory disease, and leveled off at higher levels. These findings indicated that long-term exposure to high-level PM2.5 increased the risks of incident chronic respiratory diseases in China. Further evidence of C-R curves is warranted to clarify the associations of adverse chronic respiratory outcomes involving air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Morbidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 136: 102248, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055153

RESUMO

Rifampicin is one of the most important drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 and SLC10A1 genes are associated with impaired transporter function of drug compounds such as rifampicin. The relationship between genetic variation, clinical comorbidities, and rifampicin exposures in TB patients has not been completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SLCO1A1 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms in TB and TB-DM patients and to determine their relationship with rifampicin pharmacokinetics on patients from México. Blood samples were collected in two hospitals in Baja California, Mexico from February through December 2017. Sampling included 19 patients with TB, 11 with T2DM and 17 healthy individuals. Polymorphisms genotype rs2306283, rs11045818, rs11045819, rs4149056, rs4149057, rs72559746,rs2291075 and rs4603354 of SLCO1B1 and rs4646285 and rs138880008 of SLC10A1 were analyzed by Sanger's sequencing. None of the SLCO1B1 and SLC10A1 variants were significantly associated with rifampicin Cmax. TB and T2DM patients with suboptimal Cmax rifampicin levels showed wild alleles in rs11045819 and rs2291075 in SLCO1B1 SLC10A1 and SLC10A1. This is the first study to analyze SLC10A1 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms in TB and TB-T2DM patients and healthy individuals in Mexico. Further research to confirm and extend these findings is necessary.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , México/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rifampina , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2233331, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156145

RESUMO

Importance: The provision of antenatal corticosteroids to pregnant patients at gestational age (GA) 22 6/7 weeks or less remains controversial and lacks support from randomized clinical trials. Objective: To compare rates of survival and survival without major morbidities among infants born at GA 22 0/7 to 23 6/7 weeks after exposure to antenatal steroids at 22 6/7 weeks' gestation or less vs no exposure to antenatal steroids. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study enrolled infants born at GA 22 0/7 to 23 6/7 weeks between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019, at centers in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Infants who did not receive intensive care and infants with antenatal steroid exposure after GA 22 6/7 weeks were excluded. Exposure: Infants were classified as having no, partial, or complete exposure to antenatal steroids. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival to discharge. The main secondary outcome was survival without major neonatal morbidity. The associations of differential exposures to antenatal steroids with outcomes were evaluated using logistic regression, adjusting for GA, sex, race, maternal education, small for GA status, mode of delivery, multiple birth, prolonged rupture of membranes, year of birth, and Neonatal Research Network center. Results: A total of 431 infants (mean [SD] GA, 22.6 [0.5] weeks; 232 [53.8%] boys) were included, with 110 infants (25.5%) receiving no antenatal steroids, 80 infants (18.6%) receiving partial antenatal steroids, and 241 infants (55.9%) receiving complete antenatal steroids. Seventeen infants were exposed to antenatal steroids at GA 21 weeks. Among infants exposed to complete antenatal steroids, 130 (53.9%) survived to discharge, compared with 30 infants (37.5%) with partial antenatal steroid exposure and 239 infants (35.5%) with no antenatal steroids. Infants born after complete antenatal steroid exposure, compared with those without antenatal steroid exposure, were more likely to survive to discharge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.95 [95% CI, 1.07-3.56]) and to survive without major morbidity (aOR, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.19-6.30]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective cohort study, among infants born between GA 22 0/7 and 23 6/7 weeks who received intensive care, exposure to a complete course of antenatal steroids at GA 22 6/7 weeks or less was independently associated with greater odds of survival and survival without major morbidity. These data suggest that the use of antenatal steroids in patients at GA 22 6/7 weeks or less could be beneficial when active treatment is considered.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Esteroides , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Morbidade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos
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