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1.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680251

RESUMO

A genetic analysis of circulating measles virus (MeV) provides strong evidence of an interruption in endemic measles and supports the elimination status of this disease. This study investigated 219 MeVs isolated between 2015 and 2020. Based on the 450 nucleotide sequences of the nucleoprotein gene (N-450), three genotypes of the H1, D8 and B3 with 8, 18 and 6 different N-450 sequences, respectively, were identified. The H1 genotype virus has not circulated in Taiwan since 2017, and the D8 and B3 genotype MeVs became dominant between 2018 and 2019. Different D8 genotype variants were imported from neighboring countries, and the majority of MeV variants were detected only for a short period. However, MVs/Gir Somnath.IND/42.16[D8], a named strain designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), was detected over 2 years. To explore whether the endemic transmission of measles has been underestimated, another sequence window of the hypervariable, noncoding regions between the matrix (M) and fusion (F) genes (MF-NCR) was introduced to clarify the transmission chain. From the chronological sequence analysis of MeVs with N-450 and MF-NCR sequence windows, no endemic MeV variants lasted over 4 weeks, providing strong evidence to support the contention that Taiwan has reached the status for measles elimination.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Morbillivirus , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vírus do Sarampo/genética , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Filogenia
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 214-217, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573734

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) causes illness and death in cetaceans worldwide; the CeMV strains circulating in the Southern Hemisphere are poorly known. We detected a pilot whale CeMV strain in 3 short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) stranded in Brazil during July-October 2020. Our results confirm this virus circulates in this species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Baleias Piloto , Animais , Infecções por Morbillivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Morbillivirus/genética
3.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366501

RESUMO

Morbilliviruses are negative-sense single-stranded monosegmented RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae (order Mononegavirales). Morbilliviruses infect diverse mammals including humans, dogs, cats, small ruminants, seals, and cetaceans, which serve as natural hosts. Here, I report the identification and characterization of novel viruses detected in public RNAseq datasets of South American long-haired and olive field mice. The divergent viruses dubbed Ratón oliváceo morbillivirus (RoMV) detected in renal samples from mice collected from Chile and Argentina are characterized by an unusually large genome including long intergenic regions and the presence of an accessory protein between the F and H genes redounding in a genome architecture consisting in 3'-N-P/V/C-M-F-hp-H-L-5'. Structural and functional annotation, genetic distance, and evolutionary insights suggest that RoMV is a member of a novel species within genus Morbillivirus tentatively named as South American mouse morbillivirus. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mouse morbillivirus is closely related to and clusters into a monophyletic group of novel rodent-borne morbilliviruses. This subclade of divergent viruses expands the host range, redefines the genomic organization and provides insights on the evolutionary history of genus Morbillivirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Animais , Camundongos , Chile , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Filogenia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2209405119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251995

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) is a recently discovered pathogen of domestic cats and has been classified as a morbillivirus in the Paramyxovirus family. We determined the complete sequence of FeMVUS5 directly from an FeMV-positive urine sample without virus isolation or cell passage. Sequence analysis of the viral genome revealed potential divergence from characteristics of archetypal morbilliviruses. First, the virus lacks the canonical polybasic furin cleavage signal in the fusion (F) glycoprotein. Second, conserved amino acids in the hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein used by all other morbilliviruses for binding and/or fusion activation with the cellular receptor CD150 (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM]/F1) are absent. We show that, despite this sequence divergence, FeMV H glycoprotein uses feline CD150 as a receptor and cannot use human CD150. We demonstrate that the protease responsible for cleaving the FeMV F glycoprotein is a cathepsin, making FeMV a unique morbillivirus and more similar to the closely related zoonotic Nipah and Hendra viruses. We developed a reverse genetics system for FeMVUS5 and generated recombinant viruses expressing Venus fluorescent protein from an additional transcription unit located either between the phospho-protein (P) and matrix (M) genes or the H and large (L) genes of the genome. We used these recombinant FeMVs to establish a natural infection and demonstrate that FeMV causes an acute morbillivirus-like disease in the cat. Virus was shed in the urine and detectable in the kidneys at later time points. This opens the door for long-term studies to address the postulated role of this morbillivirus in the development of chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Aminoácidos , Animais , Catepsinas/genética , Gatos , Furina , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Rim , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817193

RESUMO

The impacts of environmental changes and anthropogenic threats in marine mammals are a growing concern for their conservation. In recent years, efforts have been directed to understand how marine mammals cope with stressors and to assess and validate stress biomarkers, mainly levels of glucocorticoid hormones (e.g. cortisol) in certain body tissues. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of different causes of stranding (chronically affected and bycaught striped dolphins) on cortisol concentrations in serum and in blubber; and to evaluate the association between cortisol levels in these tissues. Blubber and blood samples were collected from striped dolphins (n = 42) stranded on the Mediterranean coast between 2012 and 2018. Cortisol concentrations were measured by using enzyme immunoassay. A high correlation was found between circulating and blubber cortisol concentrations (R2 = 0.85, p < 0.01). Necropsies and pathological studies concluded that a third of the dolphins were bycaught in fishing nets and released by fishermen (Bycaught animals group), while the other two thirds were euthanized, or died, due to a disease or chronic condition (e.g. calves separated from the mother or animals infected with dolphin morbillivirus or Brucella ceti) that impeded survival (Chronically affected animals group). Cortisol concentrations (mean ± SD) were six times higher in chronically affected animals (35.3 ± 23 ng cortisol/g blubber and 6.63 ± 3.22 µg cortisol/dl serum) compared to those bycaught in fishing nets (6.2 ± 4.3 ng cortisol/g blubber and 1.15 ± 1.51 µg cortisol/dl serum). Results suggests that serum and blubber cortisol concentrations can contribute in inferring the overall health and welfare of free-ranging cetaceans. However, further research is required to understand better the kinetics of blubber cortisol incorporation and removal, the factors involved in these processes, and the local conversion of cortisol in the blubber.


Assuntos
Morbillivirus , Stenella , Animais , Cetáceos , Nível de Saúde , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Morbillivirus/metabolismo , Stenella/metabolismo
6.
Arch Virol ; 167(10): 1977-1987, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781557

RESUMO

As part of a broad One Health surveillance effort to detect novel viruses in wildlife and people, we report several paramyxovirus sequences sampled primarily from bats during 2013 and 2014 in Brazil and Malaysia, including seven from which we recovered full-length genomes. Of these, six represent the first full-length paramyxovirid genomes sequenced from the Americas, including two that are the first full-length bat morbillivirus genome sequences published to date. Our findings add to the vast number of viral sequences in public repositories, which have been increasing considerably in recent years due to the rising accessibility of metagenomics. Taxonomic classification of these sequences in the absence of phenotypic data has been a significant challenge, particularly in the subfamily Orthoparamyxovirinae, where the rate of discovery of novel sequences has been substantial. Using pairwise amino acid sequence classification (PAASC), we propose that five of these sequences belong to members of the genus Jeilongvirus and two belong to members of the genus Morbillivirus. We also highlight inconsistencies in the classification of Tupaia virus and Mòjiang virus using the same demarcation criteria and suggest reclassification of these viruses into new genera. Importantly, this study underscores the critical importance of sequence length in PAASC analysis as well as the importance of biological characteristics such as genome organization in the taxonomic classification of viral sequences.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Morbillivirus , Vírus , Animais , Brasil , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Malásia , Morbillivirus/genética , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Filogenia
7.
Virus Res ; 319: 198858, 2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809695

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a Morbillivirus (Canine morbillivirus) that greatly impacts domestic and wildlife carnivores worldwide. The CDV RNA genome has high genetic variability, evidenced by several lineages that follow a global geographic pattern. The evolutionary trajectories and population dynamics of CDV lineages are still unclear and debatable, particularly in South America, where relatively few sequences are available. We performed phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses using an updated dataset of the highly variable hemagglutinin (H) gene, including seven South American countries. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of the current CDV lineages was dated to the early 1900s in North America. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian maximum clade credibility phylogenies showed similar topologies with two main branches (L1 and L2) corresponding to the NA1 lineage (L1) and the remaining lineages worldwide (L2). The four circulating lineages in South America (EU1/SA1, SA2, SA3, NA4/SA4) arose from independent migration events from North America and Europe. North American strains colonized most northern South American countries via Ecuador and then Colombia and Peru, originating the SA3 and NA4/SA4 lineages during their spread. The entry and expansion in the southern part of South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) occurred through three independent migration events and gave rise to the EU1/SA1 and SA2 lineages. South American lineages have specific combinations of amino acids under positive selection that constitute signatures of taxonomic and evolutionary relevance. Our findings provide a comprehensive scenario for the origin and migration routes of Canine morbillivirus in South America and highlight the importance of phylodynamics in understanding the geographic patterns of modern genetic variability.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Morbillivirus , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cães , Morbillivirus/genética , Filogenia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891483

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) is a recently discovered virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus of the virus family Paramyxoviridae. Often, the virus has been detected in urine of cats with a history of urinary disease and has a worldwide distribution. Currently, it is unclear which receptor the virus uses to enter the target cells. Furthermore, many aspects of FeMV biology in vivo, including tissue tropism, pathogenesis, and virus excretion in the natural host remain unclear. In this study we analyzed the replication of FeMV in various cell lines. Secondly, we tested if the presence of feline SLAMF1 (Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule family 1/CD150, principal entry receptor for other members of the Morbillivirus genus) improved FeMV replication efficiency in vitro. Finally, to elucidate in vivo biology in cats, as a natural host for FeMV, we experimentally infected a group of cats and monitored clinical symptoms, viremia, and excretion of the virus during the course of 56 days. Our study showed that FeMV shares some features with other morbilliviruses like the use of the SLAMF1 receptor. For the first time, experimental infection of SPF cats showed that FeMV does not induce an acute clinical disease like other morbilliviruses but can induce lesions in the kidneys, including tubulointerstitial nephritis. Further investigations are needed to confirm the site and dynamics of replication of FeMV in the urinary tract and the longer-term impact of FeMV-induced lesions on the renal function. Whether FeMV infection can result in chronic kidney disease will require the monitoring of cats over a longer period.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Rim , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Paramyxoviridae
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263712, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176050

RESUMO

The incidence of vaccine preventable disease in Pakistan remains high despite a long-standing Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). We describe vaccine completeness, timeliness and determinants of coverage from a remote rural cohort (2012-2014). Vaccination histories were taken from EPI records. Vaccination was complete if all doses were received according to the EPI schedule and timely if doses were not ≥3 days early or ≥ 28 days late. Three models are presented: a multivariable logistic regression of household demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with complete vaccination, a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression assessing whether or not the vaccine was administered late (versus on-time), and a mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression model analysing the interval (in days) between vaccine doses. Of 959 enrolled children with full vaccination histories, 88.2 and 65.1% were fully vaccinated following either the pentavalent or DPT/HBV schedules if measles was excluded; coverage dropped to 50.0 and 27.1% when both doses of measles were included. Sixty-four (6.7%) were unvaccinated. Coverage and timeliness declined with subsequent doses. Migrating into the village after 1995 (95%CI 1.88 to 5.17) was associated with late vaccination. Being male, having an older father, and having parents with at least some formal education reduced the likelihood of a late dose. The interval between doses was consistent at 5 weeks (compared with the 4 weeks recommended by EPI). None of the socio-demographic variables were related to the likelihood of receiving full coverage. Vaccine coverage in Oshikhandass was higher than national averages. Measles vaccine coverage and timeliness were low; special consideration should be paid to this vaccine. The local vaccination schedule differed from the EPI, but the consistency suggests good local administration.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/normas , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/virologia , Morbillivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Paquistão/epidemiologia
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e188941, fev. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380208

RESUMO

Canine Distemper is a disease caused by Canine morbillivirus (CM), a pantropic virus that can affect the central nervous system (CNS), causing demyelination. However, the pathogenesis of this lesion remains to be clarified. Brain samples of 14 naturally infected dogs by CM were analyzed to evaluate the presence of oxidative stress and demyelination. RT-PCR assay was performed to confirm a diagnosis of canine distemper in the brain, immunohistochemistry anti-CM was used to localize the viral proteins in the tissue, and anti-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) was a marker of a product of lipid peroxidation. The results showed the presence of viral proteins in the demyelinated area with the presence of 4-HNE. Our results suggest that the CM virus infection causes oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation, which causes tissue damage and demyelination. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a significant role in canine distemper pathogenesis in the CNS.(AU)


A cinomose canina é uma doença causada pelo Morbilivírus canino (CM), um vírus pantrópico que pode afetar o sistema nervoso central (SNC), causando desmielinização. No entanto, a patogênese dessa lesão não está totalmente esclarecida. RT-PCR e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas para confirmação do diagnóstico de cinomose em amostras de encéfalo de 14 cães naturalmente infectados. Após confirmação, foi realizada uma avaliação do estresse oxidativo por imuno-histoquímica com uso de anti-4-hidroxi-nonenal (4HNE) como marcador de produtos resultantes da peroxidação lipídica. Os resultados sugerem que a infecção pelo CM causa estresse oxidativo no tecido, levando a peroxidação lipídica, a qual causa danos ao tecido, culminando com desmielinização. Conclui-se que o estresse oxidativo tem papel importante na patogênese da cinomose canina no sistema nervoso central.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Cinomose/diagnóstico , Cães/virologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/instrumentação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Desmielinizantes/veterinária , Morbillivirus/patogenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/instrumentação , Cérebro/virologia
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(3): 1426-1437, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872470

RESUMO

Feline Morbillivirus (FeMV) was first detected in 2012 in domestic cats from Hong Kong and was found to be associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and chronic kidney disease. In subsequent studies in other countries, FeMV was detected in asymptomatic cats. However, it is not clear whether FeMV plays a role as a pathogen in the kidney diseases of cats, and other epidemiological data are still unknown. To date, studies have reported the presence of FeMV exclusively in domestic cats. This study is the first molecular detection of the FeMV RNA associated with pathological and immunohistochemical findings in a synanthropic marsupial, the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), inhabiting peri-urban areas of north-central Parana, Southern Brazil. Molecular techniques identified the viral RNA in the lungs and kidneys. Histopathologic evaluation of these tissues revealed interstitial pneumonia in the lungs with lymphocytic nephritis and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Immunohistochemistry assays detected positive intralesional immunoreactivity to N protein of FeMV within the lungs and kidneys. A FeMV opossum strain was isolated in Crandell Rees feline kidney lineage cells, resulting in syncytia formation and cell death. Therefore, these results support the ability of FeMV to infect other mammal species and reinforce the possibility of the opossum to be a disseminator of this virus among domestic and wild animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Didelphis , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Rim , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária
12.
Vet Pathol ; 59(1): 127-131, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521287

RESUMO

The association of feline morbillivirus (FeMV) with kidney disease in cats is controversial. Two cats with a history of severe hematuria had eosinophilic inclusion-like bodies in the renal tubular epithelial cells, without any inflammatory cellular reaction. Ultrastructurally, aggregations of electron-dense viral-like particles were found where the inclusion-like bodies were located. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against FeMV matrix protein labeled these inclusion-like bodies, and also labeled the cytoplasm of tracheal and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and lymphocytes and macrophages in spleen and mesenteric lymph node. Using double IHC, FeMV antigen was detected in astroglia and oligodendroglia but not in microglia. Phylogenetic characterization of the fusion and hemagglutinin gene sequences revealed FeMV-1A genotypes in both cats. These findings indicated an active viral infection with FeMV. We propose that FeMV is a renal epitheliotropic virus and also localizes in various other tissues.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Animais , Gatos , Rim , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Filogenia
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e96-e103, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331405

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was identified as the etiologic agent of several epizootic episodes worldwide. Most of these studies are based on unusual mortality events or identification of new viral strains. We investigated the occurrence of CeMV under non-epizootic circumstances at a world heritage in Southern Brazil by a combination of pathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular assays. From 325 stranded cetaceans, 40 were included. Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) was the most frequent species. Interstitial pneumonia and non-suppurative encephalitis were the main pathologic findings associated with CeMV infection. Intracytoplasmic immunolabelling anti-CeMV was observed mainly in lungs and lymph nodes. All samples were negative in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Diagnosis of CeMV is challenging in areas where epizootic episodes have not been recorded and due to post-mortem changes. We observed a CeMV prevalence of 27.5%. The results described here increase the knowledge about CeMV under non-epizootic conditions in Brazil and worldwide.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Animais , Cetáceos , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e175-e184, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355534

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus-1 (FeMV-1) is a viral pathogen associated with kidney disease in domestic cats and wild felids. We initially identified the FeMV-1 from the lung of a necropsied dog with severe pulmonary disease by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thereafter, we investigated FeMV-1 in nasal and oral swab samples from 73 healthy and 113 dogs with respiratory illnesses. We found polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive FeMV-1 from only 14/113 (12.39%) dogs with respiratory disease (p = .001). Of these 14 dogs, six were co-infected with other canine respiratory viruses (6/14; 42.86%). Two independent immunohistochemistry procedures, using antibodies against matrix and phosphoprotein of FeMV-1, confirmed the presence of FeMV-1 in lung tissues of two necropsied dogs (out of a total of 22 dogs, 9.09%) that died from respiratory disease. This finding corresponded to transmission electron microscopy findings that paramyxoviral particles exist in lung epithelia. FeMV-1 antigen localization was also evident in the kidney, lymphoid and brain tissues of two deceased dogs. FeMV-1 was successfully isolated from a necropsied dog and from two living dogs, all with respiratory illnesses, which supports FeMV infection in dogs. The detection of FeMV-1 in dog tissues expands the known tropism of this virus to a non-felid host. Our findings indicate that FeMV-1, alone or in co-infection with other viral pathogens, might contribute to respiratory illness and death in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Transtornos Respiratórios , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Rim , Infecções por Morbillivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária
15.
Microbiol Immunol ; 66(2): 52-58, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779039

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) infects marine mammals often causing a fatal respiratory and neurological disease. Recently, CeMV has expanded its geographic and host species range, with cases being reported worldwide among dolphins, whales, seals, and other aquatic mammalian species, and therefore has emerged as the most threatening nonanthropogenic factor affecting marine mammal's health and conservation. Extensive research efforts have aimed to understand CeMV epidemiology and ecology, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its transmission and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. In particular, the field suffers from a knowledge gap on the structural and functional properties of CeMV proteins and their host interactors. Nevertheless, the body of scientific literature produced in recent years has inaugurated new investigational trends, driving future directions in CeMV molecular research. In this mini-review, the most recent literature has been summarized in the context of such research trends, and categorized into four priority research topics, such as (1) the interaction between CeMV glycoprotein and its host cell receptors across several species; (2) the CeMV molecular determinants responsible for different disease phenotype; (3) the host molecular determinants responsible for differential susceptibility to CeMV infection; (4) the CeMV molecular determinants responsible for difference virulence among circulating CeMV strains. Arguably, these are the most urgent topics that need to be investigated and that most promisingly will help to shed light on the details of CeMV evolutionary dynamics in the immediate future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Animais , Cetáceos , Morbillivirus/genética , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Proteoma
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1962): 20211841, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753354

RESUMO

Phocine distemper virus (PDV) is a morbillivirus that circulates within pinnipeds in the North Atlantic. PDV has caused two known unusual mortality events (UMEs) in western Europe (1988, 2002), and two UMEs in the northwest Atlantic (2006, 2018). Infrequent cross-species transmission and waning immunity are believed to contribute to periodic outbreaks with high mortality in western Europe. The viral ecology of PDV in the northwest Atlantic is less well defined and outbreaks have exhibited lower mortality than those in western Europe. This study sought to understand the molecular and ecological processes underlying PDV infection in eastern North America. We provide phylogenetic evidence that PDV was introduced into northwest Atlantic pinnipeds by a single lineage and is now endemic in local populations. Serological and viral screening of pinniped surveillance samples from 2006 onward suggest there is continued circulation of PDV outside of UMEs among multiple species with and without clinical signs. We report six full genome sequences and nine partial sequences derived from harbour and grey seals in the northwest Atlantic from 2011 through 2018, including a possible regional variant. Work presented here provides a framework towards greater understanding of how recovering populations and shifting species may impact disease transmission.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Cinomose , Morbillivirus , Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Cinomose Focina/genética , Morbillivirus/genética , Filogenia
17.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834986

RESUMO

The monitoring of herpesvirus infection provides useful information when assessing marine mammals' health. This paper shows the prevalence of herpesvirus infection (80.85%) in 47 cetaceans stranded on the coast of the Valencian Community, Spain. Of the 966 tissues evaluated, 121 tested positive when employing nested-PCR (12.53%). The largest proportion of herpesvirus-positive tissue samples was in the reproductive system, nervous system, and tegument. Herpesvirus was more prevalent in females, juveniles, and calves. More than half the DNA PCR positive tissues contained herpesvirus RNA, indicating the presence of actively replicating virus. This RNA was most frequently found in neonates. Fourteen unique sequences were identified. Most amplified sequences belonged to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, but a greater variation was found in Alphaherpesvirinae sequences. This is the first report of systematic herpesvirus DNA and RNA determination in free-ranging cetaceans. Nine (19.14%) were infected with cetacean morbillivirus and all of them (100%) were coinfected with herpesvirus. Lesions similar to those caused by herpesvirus in other species were observed, mainly in the skin, upper digestive tract, genitalia, and central nervous system. Other lesions were also attributable to concomitant etiologies or were nonspecific. It is necessary to investigate the possible role of herpesvirus infection in those cases.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Tropismo , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Caniformia , Bovinos , Sistema Nervoso Central , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Gammaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/genética , Morbillivirus/genética , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espanha
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696412

RESUMO

The MMR vaccination program was introduced in Spain in 1981. Consistently high vaccination coverage has led to Spain being declared free of endemic measles transmission since 2014. A few imported and import-related cases were reported during the post-elimination phase (2014 to 2020), with very low incidence: three cases per million of inhabitants a year, 70% in adults. In the post-elimination phase an increasing proportion of measles appeared in two-dose vaccinated individuals (up to 14%), posing a challenge to surveillance and laboratory investigations. Severity and clinical presentation were milder among the vaccinated. The IgM response varied and the viral load decreased, making the virus more difficult to detect. A valid set of samples (serum, urine and throat swab) is strongly recommended for accurate case classification. One third of measles in fully vaccinated people was contracted in healthcare settings, mainly in doctors and nurses, consistent with the important role of high intensity exposure in measles breakthrough cases. Surveillance protocols and laboratory algorithms should be adapted in advanced elimination settings. Reinforcing the immunity of people working in high exposure environments, such as healthcare settings, and implementing additional infection control measures, such as masking and social distancing, are becoming crucial for the global aim of measles eradication.


Assuntos
Sarampo/diagnóstico , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/farmacologia , Vírus do Sarampo/patogenicidade , Morbillivirus/patogenicidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vacinação/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Eficácia de Vacinas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15986, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373473

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is a global threat to cetaceans. We report a novel morbillivirus from a Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) that stranded in Maui, Hawaii in 2018 that is dissimilar to the beaked whale morbillivirus previously identified from Hawaii and to other CeMV strains. Histopathological findings included intranuclear inclusions in bile duct epithelium, lymphoid depletion, rare syncytial cells and non-suppurative meningitis. Cerebellum and lung tissue homogenates were inoculated onto Vero.DogSLAMtag cells for virus isolation and cytopathic effects were observed, resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells (i.e., syncytia). Transmission electron microscopy of infected cell cultures also revealed syncytial cells with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions of viral nucleocapsids, consistent with the ultrastructure of a morbillivirus. Samples of the cerebellum, lung, liver, spleen and lymph nodes were positive for morbillivirus using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting 559 bp L gene sequence had the highest nucleotide identity (77.3%) to porpoise morbillivirus from Northern Ireland and the Netherlands. The resulting 248 bp P gene had the highest nucleotide identity to porpoise morbillivirus in Northern Ireland and the Netherlands and to a stranded Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) in Brazil (66.9%). As Fraser's dolphins are a pelagic species that infrequently strand, a novel strain of CeMV may be circulating in the central Pacific that could have additional population impacts through transmission to other small island-associated cetacean species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Baleias/virologia
20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452315

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) was isolated for the first time in 2012 with an association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) suggested. This study aimed at investigating in cats from southern Italy FeMV prevalence and risk factors for exposure to FeMV, including the relationship with CKD; sequencing amplicons and analyzing phylogeny of PCR positive samples. Blood serum, K3EDTA blood and urine samples from 223 cats were investigated. Ten carcasses were also evaluated. FeMV RNA was detected in 2.4% (5/211) blood and 16.1% (36/223) urine samples. One carcass tested positive by qPCRFeMV from kidney, urinary bladder, and submandibular lymph nodes. Antibodies against FeMV were detected in 14.5% (28/193) cats. We followed up 27 cats (13 FeMV positive cats) and documented in some cases urine shedding after up to 360 days. Older and foundling cats and cats living in rescue catteries, were more frequently infected with FeMV. A significant correlation between FeMV and higher serum creatinine values or low urine specific gravity was found. FeMV positivity was significantly associated with retroviral infection, and the presence of some clinical signs apart from CKD clinicopathological markers. Our study highlights the possibility of a link between FeMV exposure and CKD and a general impairment of feline health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/classificação , Morbillivirus/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Rim/virologia , Masculino , Morbillivirus/genética , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
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