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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158439, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113788

RESUMO

Tumours are nowadays the second world­leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. During the last decades of cancer research, lifestyle and random/genetic factors have been blamed for cancer mortality, with obesity, sedentary habits, alcoholism, and smoking contributing as supposed major causes. However, there is an emerging consensus that environmental pollution should be considered one of the main triggers. Unfortunately, all this preliminary scientific evidence has not always been followed by governments and institutions, which still fail to pursue research on cancer's environmental connections. In this unprecedented national-scale detailed study, we analyzed the links between cancer mortality, socio-economic factors, and sources of environmental pollution in Italy, both at wider regional and finer provincial scales, with an artificial intelligence approach. Overall, we found that cancer mortality does not have a random or spatial distribution and exceeds the national average mainly when environmental pollution is also higher, despite healthier lifestyle habits. Our machine learning analysis of 35 environmental sources of pollution showed that air quality ranks first for importance concerning the average cancer mortality rate, followed by sites to be reclaimed, urban areas, and motor vehicle density. Moreover, other environmental sources of pollution proved to be relevant for the mortality of some specific cancer types. Given these alarming results, we call for a rearrangement of the priority of cancer research and care that sees the reduction and prevention of environmental contamination as a priority action to put in place in the tough struggle against cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Veículos Automotores , Itália/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade
2.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378478

RESUMO

Objetivos: descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, espaciais e temporais da leishmaniose visceral humana, no município de Sobral, no período de 2007 a 2019. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo e ecológico de análise espacial e temporal, com uso dos programas Quantum-Gis e Joinpoint. Resultados: foram confirmados 316 casos novos, predominantemente, no sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias de 1 a 4 anos (26,3%) e de 20 a 39 anos (24,0%), na zona urbana. Febre (95,9%), fraqueza (85,1%), emagrecimento (80,1%), palidez (73,7%), esplenomegalia (75,6%) e hepatomegalia (69,3%) foram os sinais clínicos mais frequentes. A doença se concentrou em quatro bairros: Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa e Sinhá Saboia, expressando áreas mais densas (quentes). A incidência e a letalidade foram crescentes no início do período e decrescentes no final, com uma inversão destes indicadores no ano de 2014. Conclusão: em Sobral, a leishmaniose visceral humana é um agravo considerado relevante para o serviço de vigilância em saúde com necessidade de intensificação das ações de controle entomológico, zoonótico e de manejo ambiental, principalmente nas áreas mais densas.


Objectives: the objective was to describe the epidemiological, spatial, and temporal aspects of human visceral leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Sobral, from 2007 to 2019. Methods: A descriptive, spatial and temporal ecological study was carried out using Quantum-Gis and Joinpoint programs. Results: 316 new cases were confirmed, predominantly in males, in the age groups of 1 to 4 years (26.3%) and 20 to 39 years (24.0%), mainly in the urban area. Fever (95.9%), weakness (85.1%), weight loss (80.1%), pallor (73.7%), splenomegaly (75.6%), and hepatomegaly (69.3%) were the most frequent clinical signs. The disease was concentrated in four neighborhoods (Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa, and Sinhá Saboia), hot spots. The incidence and case-fatality increased at the beginning of the period but decreased at the end, with an inversion in these in the year 2014. Conclusion: In Sobral, human visceral leishmaniasis is a disease considered relevant to the health surveillance service, with the need to intensify entomological, zoonotic, and environmental management actions, especially in denser areas.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Sinais e Sintomas , Vigilância Sanitária , Epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Indicadores e Reagentes , Grupos Etários
4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(5-6): In press, 2022.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a generalised mortality excess was recorded in 2020. However, the mortality for COVID-19 cannot fully explain the observed excesses. The analysis of cause-specific mortality could contribute to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and to the monitoring mortality trends. OBJECTIVES: to describe the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in overall and cause-specific mortality in population residing in the Agency for Health Protection (ATS) of Milan. Descriptive analysis of cause-specific mortality within thirty days of SARS-COV-2 infection. DESIGN: descriptive analysis of overall and cause-specific mortality in the ATS of Milan area in 2020 and comparison with a reference period (2015-2019). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: overall deaths in ATS of Milan in 2020 were collected, using the Local Registry of Causes of Death, and were classified according to the ICD-10 codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: total and weekly overall and cause-specific mortality, by age. RESULTS:  in 2020, 44,757 deaths for all causes were observed in people residing in the ATS of Milan with percentage change of 35%. The leading cause of death in 2020 were cardiovascular disease and neoplasm; COVID-19 infection was the third cause. An excess of mortality was observed for most of all causes of deaths. Starting from 40-49-year age group, an increase of mortality was observed; the largest increase was observed in the group 70+ years. The largest increases were observed for endocrine, respiratory, and hypertensive diseases. On the contrary, for neoplasm, infectious (not COVID-19) diseases, traffic-related mortality, and cerebrovascular disease and ictus, a decrease of mortality was observed. The greater mortality increase was observed during the first pandemic wave. The leading cause of death after positive swab was COVID-19 infection, with little variation with age class. Other frequent causes of death were respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and neoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: the study showed a generalised increase for most causes of death; observed mortality trends may indicate delay in access to health care system, in diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Causas de Morte , SARS-CoV-2 , Itália/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18559, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329082

RESUMO

Both the USA and Europe experienced substantial excess mortality in 2020 and 2021 related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods used to estimate excess mortality vary, making comparisons difficult. This retrospective observational study included data on deaths from all causes occurring in the USA and 25 European countries or subnational areas participating in the network for European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO). We applied the EuroMOMO algorithm to estimate excess all-cause mortality in the USA and Europe during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020-2021, and compared excess mortality by age group and time periods reflecting three primary waves. During 2020-2021, the USA experienced 154.5 (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 154.2-154.9) cumulative age-standardized excess all-cause deaths per 100,000 person years, compared with 110.4 (95% UI: 109.9-111.0) for the European countries. Excess all-cause mortality in the USA was higher than in Europe for nearly all age groups, with an additional 44.1 excess deaths per 100,000 person years overall from 2020-2021. If the USA had experienced an excess mortality rate similar to Europe, there would have been approximately 391 thousand (36%) fewer excess deaths in the USA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Algoritmos , Mortalidade
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2003, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of women in Japan who continue working after childbirth is on the rise. Over the past few years, Japan's cancer mortality rate has increased. About 50% of all cancer deaths among Japanese women aged 25-64 are caused by lung, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. This study aims to examine the difference in mortality risk for key cancers among women and explore the effect of the economic crisis in the mid-1990s separately for occupational and industrial categories. METHODS: Data from 1980 to 2015 were gathered from the Japanese Population Census and National Vital Statistics conducted in the same year. A Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate mortality risk and mortality trends for lung, gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancer among Japanese working women aged 25-64 years. RESULTS: Across most industrial and occupational groups, the trends in age-standardised cancer mortality rate for women have declined. Workers in management, security and transportation have a higher cancer mortality risk than sales workers. The risk of death from all four cancers is higher for workers in the mining and electricity industries than for wholesale and retail workers. CONCLUSION: To improve the health and well-being of employed Japanese women, it is crucial to monitor cancer mortality trends. Using these population-level quantitative risk estimates, industry- and occupation-specific prevention programmes can be developed to target women at higher cancer risk and enable the early detection and treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Ocupações , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Indústrias , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
8.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1123, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is rising globally, while mortality rates show a geographical heterogenous pattern. Early detection and treatment have been proven to have a profound impact on breast cancer prognosis. The aim of his study was to compare breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates in two contrasting corners of Europe, Sweden and Crete, to better understand cancer determinants with focus on disease burden and sociocultural factors. METHODS: Breast cancer data from Sweden and Crete was derived from registries. Incidence and mortality were expressed as Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIR), Age-Standardized Mortality Rates (ASMR). FINDINGS: Breast cancer incidence has for decades risen in Sweden and on Crete. In 2019, ASIR was 217.5 in Sweden and 58.9 on Crete, (p < 0.001). Mortality rates showed opposite trends. ASMR in Sweden was reduced from 25.5 to 16.8 (2005-2019) while on Crete, ASMR increased from 22.1 to 25.3. A successive rise in survival rate in Sweden with a 5-year survival rate of 92% since 2015, but a converse development on Crete with 85% 5-year survival rate the same year. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of breast cancer is slowly rising in both studied regions, but mortality increases on Crete in contrast to Sweden with sinking mortality rates. The interpretation of these findings is that differences in health care systems and health policies including differences in early detection like screening programs and early treatment, as well as sociocultural factors in the two countries might play an important role on the differences found in breast cancer burden.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Incidência , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 25: e220034, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend in incidence, mortality and Disability Adjusted Life Years of oral cancer in Latin America according to sex between 2000 and 2020. METHODS: This ecological study extracted oral cancer information from 20 Latin American countries from the GBD-2020 database. Oral cancer burden was described by age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence, mortality, and DALYs. The data was compared according to sex and countries. Trends (Average Annual Percentage Change-AAPC) were estimated for each indicator, sex, and country between 2000 and 2020 using Joint-point software. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2020, the highest incidence of oral cancer (ASR) occurred in Cuba (5.18), Brazil (4.38) and Uruguay (4.62). The countries with the highest mortality for both sexes were (ASR): Cuba (2.89), Brazil (2.71) and the Dominican Republic (2.58). The DALYs registered an average of 37.52 (Women: 22.39; Men: 52.62). The Dominican Republic reports increasing trends in incidence (AAPC: Men: 2.2; Women: 1.4), in mortality (AAPC: Men: 1.8; Women: 1.1), and in DALYs (AAPC: Men: 1.0; Women: 2.0). Costa Rica shows decreasing trends in men in incidence (AAPC: -1.3), mortality (AAPC: -1.6), and DALYs (AAPC: -1.8). CONCLUSION: Oral cancer shows increasing trends in: the incidence in both sexes in 10 countries, in mortality and DALYs in 6 countries, while the affectation between sexes does not show differences in trends.


Assuntos
Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Neoplasias Bucais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
10.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 44(10): 1096-1101, 2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319455

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the epidemic characteristics of esophageal cancer mortality in Qidong from 1972 to 2016, and to provide baseline for making control measures and strategies for prevention. Methods: The cancer registry data were collected and analyzed on mortality of oesophagus cancer during 1972-2016 in Qidong in different sex, age and time. Indices of statistics included crude mortality rate (CR), China age-standardized rate (CASR), world age-standardized rate (WASR), 35-64 years truncated rate, 0-74 years cumulative rate, cumulative risk, average annual percentage change (AAPC), mortality by period and mortality in the birth cohort. Results: A total of 4 795 esophageal cancer cases (male: 3 315, female: 1 480) died during the 45 years, accounting for 4.85% of all cancer deaths. The crude mortality was 9.48/10(5) (CASR: 3.62/10(5,) WASR: 6.30/10(5)) from 1972 to 2016. The crude mortality was significantly increased with age. In 2016, the crude mortality was 11.61/10(5) (CASR: 2.64/10(5,) WASR: 4.89/10(5)), respectively. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) were 0.99%、-2.03%、-1.72%. The mortalities of esophageal cancer in all age groups from 35 to 74 have been decreasing since the 1980s. The age-birth cohort analysis showed a decline in mortality rates in age groups from 40 to 79. Conclusions: The crude mortality rate of esophageal cancer increases slightly in Qidong, while the China age-standardized rate and world age-standardized rate decrease significantly. However, esophageal cancer is still one of the malignant tumors that affects the health of residents and seriously threatens the people's lives and health. The situation of cancer prevention and control is still serious in Qidong.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos de Coortes , Coorte de Nascimento , Incidência , População Rural , Mortalidade , População Urbana
11.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 299, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of ambient temperature on respiratory mortality has been consistently observed throughout the world under different climate change scenarios. Countries experiencing greater inter-annual variability in winter temperatures (and may not be lowest winter temperatures) have greater excess winter mortality compared to countries with colder winters. This study investigates the association between temperature and respiratory deaths in Malta which has one of the highest population densities in the world with a climate that is very hot in summer and mild in winter. METHODS: Daily number of respiratory deaths (7679 deaths) and meteorological data (daily average temperature, daily average humidity) were obtained from January 1992 to December 2017. The hot and cold effects were estimated at different temperatures using distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) with a Poisson distribution, controlling for time trend, relative humidity and holidays. The reference temperature (MMT) for the minimum response-exposure relationship was estimated and the harvesting effects of daily temperature (0-27 lag days) were investigated for daily respiratory mortality. Effects were also explored for different age groups, gender and time periods. RESULTS: Cooler temperatures (8-15 °C) were significantly related to higher respiratory mortality. At 8.9 °C (1st percentile), the overall effect of daily mean temperature was related to respiratory deaths (RR 2.24, 95%CI 1.10-4.54). These effects were also found for males (95%CI 1.06-7.77) and males across different age groups (Males Over 65 years: RR 4.85, 95%CI 2.02-11.63 vs Males between 16 and 64 years: RR 5.00, 95%CI 2.08-12.03) but not for females. Interestingly, colder temperatures were related to respiratory deaths in the earliest time period (1992-2000), however, no strong cold effect was observed for later periods (2000-2017). In contrast, no heat effect was observed during the study period and across other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for cold-related respiratory mortality observed in this study could be due to greater inter-annual variability in winter temperatures which needs further exploration after adjusting for potential physical and socio-demographic attributes. The study provides useful evidence for policymakers to improve local warning systems, adaptation, and intervention strategies to reduce the impact of cold temperatures.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Doenças Respiratórias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Temperatura , Densidade Demográfica , Temperatura Alta , Malta , Doença Iatrogênica , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Mortalidade
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355800

RESUMO

Mortality forecasts are essential part for policymaking in any aging society. In recent years, methods to model and forecast mortality have improved considerably. Among them, Lee-Carter method is one of the most influential method. In this paper, Lee-Carter method is applied to forecast mortality and life expectancy of Bangladesh. A functional data analysis approach is used to decompose the smoothed log-mortality rates in Lee-Carter framework for higher goodness-of-fit of the models and for longer forecast horizons. Bangladesh has been experiencing a mortality transition and has gained life expectancy in last few decades. The fitted model here showed higher pace of mortality decline for women in Bangladesh than that of men. The forecasts showed continuation of mortality improvement in long run and by 2060 life expectancy at birth is expected to reach over 80 years for both sexes in Bangladesh. The study also predicts the effect of reduction in infant mortality on the life expectancy in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Previsões , Envelhecimento , Mortalidade
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277441, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378655

RESUMO

Socioeconomic factors have exacerbated the impact of COVID-19 worldwide. Brazil, already marked by significant economic inequalities, is one of the most affected countries, with one of the highest mortality rates. Understanding how inequality and income segregation contribute to excess mortality by COVID-19 in Brazilian cities is essential for designing public health policies to mitigate the impact of the disease. This paper aims to fill in this gap by analyzing the effect of income inequality and income segregation on COVID-19 mortality in large urban centers in Brazil. We compiled weekly COVID-19 mortality rates from March 2020 to February 2021 in a longitudinal ecological design, aggregating data at the city level for 152 Brazilian cities. Mortality rates from COVID-19 were compared across weeks, cities and states using mixed linear models. We estimated the associations between COVID-19 mortality rates with income inequality and income segregation using mixed negative binomial models including city and week-level random intercepts. We measured income inequality using the Gini index and income segregation using the dissimilarity index using data from the 2010 Brazilian demographic census. We found that 88.2% of COVID-19 mortality rates variability was between weeks, 8.5% between cities, and 3.3% between states. Higher-income inequality and higher-income segregation values were associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates before and after accounting for all adjustment factors. In our main adjusted model, rate ratios (RR) per 1 SD increases in income inequality and income segregation were associated with 17% (95% CI 9% to 26%) and 11% (95% CI 4% to 19%) higher mortality. Income inequality and income segregation are long-standing hallmarks of large Brazilian cities. Risk factors related to the socioeconomic context affected the course of the pandemic in the country and contributed to high mortality rates. Pre-existing social vulnerabilities were critical factors in the aggravation of COVID-19, as supported by the observed associations in this study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Segregação Social , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Mortalidade
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 106 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399675

RESUMO

La norma contiene el esquema completo, ordenado y cronológico de vacunación, de cumplimiento obligatorio a nivel nacional para disminuir las tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad causadas por enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, logrando el control, la eliminación y erradicación de estas enfermedades


Assuntos
Saúde , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Vacinação , Erradicação de Doenças
15.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2022. 37 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1399990

RESUMO

El documento contiene la estrategia de preparación y respuesta frente a la viruela del mono, para reducir el impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad por viruela del mono en la población del país. Deroga R.M 421-2022-MINSA.


Assuntos
Morbidade , Mortalidade , Preparação em Desastres , Varíola dos Macacos , Testa
16.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-11-23. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0038).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56755

RESUMO

Cette fiche d’information présente des faits sur l’épidémiologie de l’alcool ventilés par population totale, chez les buveurs et entre les hommes et les femmes dans la Région des Amériques. Il comprend des statistiques relatives à la consommation d’alcool, à la morbidité et à la mortalité. La fiche d’information met ensuite en évidence l’indicateur de consommation d’alcool par habitant et fournit des informations au public sur ce que cet indicateur nous dit en termes de boissons consommées par an et par jour. Il se termine par quelques recommandations et comprend une courte liste de références utilisées pour élaborer le contenu.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Indústria do Álcool , Estatística , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Epidemiologia Analítica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Dados , América
17.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56706

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess factors associated with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and death from corona- virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in fully vaccinated patients with severe COVID-19 in Brazil and the association between ICU admission and death from COVID-19. Methods. This was retrospective study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from February 12, 2021 to Jan- uary 10, 2022 across Brazil who were fully vaccinated against COVID-19 before hospitalization. Outcomes were admission in an ICU for COVID-19 and death from COVID-19. Variables evaluated were: sex; age; self-re- ported skin color; macroregion; comorbidities; time between full vaccination and onset of symptoms; and time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Results. Of 74 991 patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 67.28% were ≥ 70 years and 68.32% had at least one comorbidity. Men, patients aged 60–69 years, and patients aged 18–39 years with obesity had the greatest risk of ICU admission. Patients aged 18–39 years with obesity, diabetes, or renal diseases had the highest risk of death from COVID-19. When age and time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization were considered effect modifiers, patients admitted to an ICU 9–13 days after symptom onset in each age category had the greatest risk of death from COVID-19. Conclusion. Although older patients were at greatest risk of ICU admission and death from COVID-19, the difference in the risk of dying from COVID-19 between patients admitted to an ICU and those not admitted was greatest for young adults.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar los factores asociados con el ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y la muerte por la enfermedad del coronavirus del 2019 (COVID-19) en pacientes con el esquema completo de vacunación que presentan un cuadro grave de COVID-19, así como la relación entre el ingreso en la UCI y la muerte por esta enfermedad en Brasil. Métodos. Se realizó en Brasil un estudio retrospectivo de pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 del 12 de febrero del 2021 al 10 de enero del 2022 que habían recibido el esquema completo de vacunación contra la COVID-19 antes de ser hospitalizados. Los resultados fueron el ingreso en la UCI debido a la COVID-19 y la muerte por esta enfermedad. Las variables evaluadas fueron sexo, edad, color de piel autonotificado, mac- rorregión, comorbilidades, período entre el esquema completo de vacunación y la aparición de los síntomas y período entre el inicio de los síntomas y la hospitalización. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión de Poisson para estimar los cocientes de riesgo crudo y ajustado. Resultados. De los 74 991 pacientes hospitalizados con un cuadro grave de COVID-19, 67,28% tenía 70 años o más y 68,32% tenía al menos una comorbilidad. Los varones, los pacientes de 60 a 69 años y los paci- entes de 18 a 39 años con obesidad presentaron el mayor riesgo de ingreso en la UCI. Los pacientes de 18 a 39 años con obesidad, diabetes o enfermedades renales presentaban el mayor riesgo de muerte por esta enfermedad. Cuando la edad y el período entre el inicio de los síntomas y la hospitalización se consideraron modificadores del efecto, los pacientes ingresados en la UCI entre 9 y 13 días después del inicio de los sín- tomas en cada categoría de edad presentaron el mayor riesgo de muerte debido a la COVID-19. Conclusión. Aunque los pacientes de mayor edad presentaron el mayor riesgo de ingreso en la UCI y muerte debido a la COVID-19, la diferencia en el riesgo de morir por esta enfermedad entre pacientes ingresados en la UCI y pacientes no ingresados fue más elevada en adultos jóvenes.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar fatores associados à admissão em unidade de tratamento intensivo (UTI) e óbito por doença do coronavírus 2019 em pacientes com COVID-19 grave, totalmente vacinados, no Brasil, bem como a relação entre a entrada na UTI e a morte por COVID-19. Métodos. Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19, de 12 de fevereiro de 2021 a 10 de janeiro de 2022, em todo o Brasil, que tinham o esquema vacinal completo contra a COVID-19 antes da hospitalização. Os desfechos foram a admissão em UTI devido à COVID-19 e a morte em decorrência da doença. As variáveis avaliadas foram sexo, idade, cor da pele autodeclarada, macrorregião, comorbidades, tempo entre a vacinação completa e o início dos sintomas, e tempo entre o início dos sintomas e a internação. Para estimar os coeficientes de risco bruto e ajustado foi usado um modelo de regressão de Poisson. Resultados. Dos 74.991 pacientes internados com quadro de COVID-19 grave, 67,28% tinham ≥ 70 anos e 68,32% apresentavam pelo menos uma comorbidade. Os homens, pacientes entre 60-69 anos e pacientes entre 18-39 anos com obesidade tinham o maior risco de internação na UTI. Os pacientes de 18-39 anos de idade com obesidade, diabetes ou doenças renais apresentavam o maior risco de morte por COVID-19. Quando a idade e o intervalo entre o início dos sintomas e a hospitalização foram considerados modificadores de efeito, os pacientes admitidos em UTI entre 9 e 13 dias após o início dos sintomas em cada categoria de idade tinham o maior risco de morte devido à COVID-19. Conclusão. Embora os pacientes mais velhos tivessem maior risco de admissão na UTI e morte por COVID- 19, a diferença no risco de óbito pelo coronavírus entre os pacientes admitidos em uma UTI e aqueles não admitidos foi maior para os adultos jovens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Mortalidade , Brasil , Vacinação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Mortalidade , Brasil , Vacinação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Mortalidade
18.
Rev. esp. cir. ortop. traumatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(6): 429-437, Nov-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-210653

RESUMO

Introducción: La fascitis necrosante es una infección de partes blandas potencialmente letal que afecta principalmente a la fascia y a los planos profundos, con una tasa muy alta de mortalidad y de complicaciones graves derivadas. Objetivo: Evaluar las características clínicas y demográficas de pacientes con fascitis necrosante en nuestro centro y describir su manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico. Material y métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de 21 pacientes diagnosticados de fascitis necrosante con afectación de extremidades entre enero de 2003 y febrero de 2021 en nuestro centro. Se recogieron datos demográficos y clínicos del proceso y de la evaluación del manejo en cada paciente. Resultados: De 21 pacientes incluidos, 15 eran varones (71,43%), con una edad media al diagnóstico de 54,38±19,55 años. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron diabetes mellitus insulinodependiente en 7 pacientes (33,33%) y procesos oncológicos en 5 pacientes (23,81%). La infección fue monomicrobiana en 14 casos (66,66%), siendo Streptococcus pyogenes el microorganismo más frecuente; en 2 casos (9,52%) fue polimicrobiana, y en 5 pacientes (23,81%) no se identificó el patógeno causante. Todos los pacientes fueron intervenidos en nuestro centro, con una media de 4,14±3,98 cirugías, con un único caso de amputación de la extremidad afecta. La estancia hospitalaria media fue de 23,14±16,44 días, situándose la mortalidad global en el 47,62% (10 casos). Conclusiones: Pese a tratarse de una condición poco frecuente, la fascitis necrosante es una patología muy agresiva, con una elevada tasa de mortalidad, especialmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Una edad avanzada y padecer un cuadro oncológico son factores potenciales de peor pronóstico en la evolución de este cuadro.(AU)


Background: Necrotising fasciitis is a potentially life-threatening soft tissue infection that mainly affects the fascia and deep planes, with a very high mortality rate and severe related complications. Aim: To evaluate clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with necrotising fasciitis in our hospital and to describe their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 21 patients diagnosed with necrotising fasciitis with limb involvement between January 2003 and February 2021 in our hospital. Demographic data, clinical features and details of management and prognosis were collected for each patient. Results: Of 21 patients included, 15 were male (71.43%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 54.38±19.55 years. The most frequent comorbidities were insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in 7 patients (33.33%) and a history of cancer in 5 patients (23.81%). Infection was monomicrobial in 14 cases (66.66%), with Streptococcus pyogenes being the most frequent microorganism; multiple pathogens were isolated in 2 patients (9.52%) and no microorganism was identified in 5 patients (23.81%). All patients underwent surgery at our hospital, with a mean of 4.14±3.98 surgeries. Only one patient underwent amputation of the affected limb. The mean hospital stay was 23.14±16.44 days, with an overall mortality of 47.62% (10 cases). Conclusions: Despite being a rare disease, necrotising fasciitis is a very aggressive pathology, with a high mortality rate, especially in immunocompromised patients. Advanced age and oncological disease are potential factors of worse prognosis in the evolution of this condition.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fasciite Necrosante , Fáscia , Terapêutica , Gerenciamento Clínico , 29161 , Comorbidade , Mortalidade , Pele/lesões , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Traumatologia , Cirurgia Geral , Ortopedia
19.
Rev. esp. cir. ortop. traumatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(6): T11-T19, Nov-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-210667

RESUMO

Introducción: La fascitis necrosante es una infección de partes blandas potencialmente letal que afecta principalmente a la fascia y a los planos profundos, con una tasa muy alta de mortalidad y de complicaciones graves derivadas. Objetivo: Evaluar las características clínicas y demográficas de pacientes con fascitis necrosante en nuestro centro y describir su manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico. Material y métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de 21 pacientes diagnosticados de fascitis necrosante con afectación de extremidades entre enero de 2003 y febrero de 2021 en nuestro centro. Se recogieron datos demográficos y clínicos del proceso y de la evaluación del manejo en cada paciente. Resultados: De 21 pacientes incluidos, 15 eran varones (71,43%), con una edad media al diagnóstico de 54,38±19,55 años. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron diabetes mellitus insulinodependiente en 7 pacientes (33,33%) y procesos oncológicos en 5 pacientes (23,81%). La infección fue monomicrobiana en 14 casos (66,66%), siendo Streptococcus pyogenes el microorganismo más frecuente; en 2 casos (9,52%) fue polimicrobiana, y en 5 pacientes (23,81%) no se identificó el patógeno causante. Todos los pacientes fueron intervenidos en nuestro centro, con una media de 4,14±3,98 cirugías, con un único caso de amputación de la extremidad afecta. La estancia hospitalaria media fue de 23,14±16,44 días, situándose la mortalidad global en el 47,62% (10 casos). Conclusiones: Pese a tratarse de una condición poco frecuente, la fascitis necrosante es una patología muy agresiva, con una elevada tasa de mortalidad, especialmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Una edad avanzada y padecer un cuadro oncológico son factores potenciales de peor pronóstico en la evolución de este cuadro.(AU)


Background: Necrotising fasciitis is a potentially life-threatening soft tissue infection that mainly affects the fascia and deep planes, with a very high mortality rate and severe related complications. Aim: To evaluate clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with necrotising fasciitis in our hospital and to describe their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Material and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of 21 patients diagnosed with necrotising fasciitis with limb involvement between January 2003 and February 2021 in our hospital. Demographic data, clinical features and details of management and prognosis were collected for each patient. Results: Of 21 patients included, 15 were male (71.43%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 54.38±19.55 years. The most frequent comorbidities were insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in 7 patients (33.33%) and a history of cancer in 5 patients (23.81%). Infection was monomicrobial in 14 cases (66.66%), with Streptococcus pyogenes being the most frequent microorganism; multiple pathogens were isolated in 2 patients (9.52%) and no microorganism was identified in 5 patients (23.81%). All patients underwent surgery at our hospital, with a mean of 4.14±3.98 surgeries. Only one patient underwent amputation of the affected limb. The mean hospital stay was 23.14±16.44 days, with an overall mortality of 47.62% (10 cases). Conclusions: Despite being a rare disease, necrotising fasciitis is a very aggressive pathology, with a high mortality rate, especially in immunocompromised patients. Advanced age and oncological disease are potential factors of worse prognosis in the evolution of this condition.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fasciite Necrosante , Fáscia , Terapêutica , Gerenciamento Clínico , 29161 , Comorbidade , Mortalidade , Pele/lesões , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Traumatologia , Cirurgia Geral , Ortopedia
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275967, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322565

RESUMO

Accurately counting the human cost of the COVID-19 at both the national and regional level is a policy priority. The Russian Federation currently reports one of the higher COVID-19 mortality rates in the world; but estimates of mortality differ significantly. Using a statistical method accounting for changes in the population age structure, we present the first national and regional estimates of excess mortality for 2021; calculations of excess mortality by age, gender, and urban/rural status for 2020; and mean remaining years of life expectancy lost at the regional level. We estimate that there were 351,158 excess deaths in 2020 and 678,022 in 2021 in the Russian Federation; and, in 2020, around 2.0 years of life expectancy lost. While the Russian Federation exhibits very high levels of excess mortality compared to other countries, there is a wide degree of regional variation: in 2021, excess deaths expressed as a percentage of expected deaths at the regional level range from 27% to 52%. Life expectancy loss is generally greater for males; while excess mortality is greater in urban areas. For Russia as whole, an average person who died due to the pandemic in 2020 would have otherwise lived for a further 14 more years (and as high as 18 years in some regions), disproving the widely held view that excess mortality during the pandemic period was concentrated among those with few years of life remaining-especially for females. At a regional level, less densely populated, more remote regions, rural regions appear to have fared better regarding excess mortality and life expectancy loss-however, a part of this differential could be owing to measurement issues. The calculations demonstrate more clearly the true degree of the human cost of the pandemic in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
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