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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26(spe): e20210208, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1292780

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a ausência de rituais fúnebres na pandemia de COVID-19 no processo de viver o luto das famílias brasileiras que perderam entes queridos por COVID-19. Método: pesquisa qualitativa documental realizada em três jornais disponibilizados online. Foram analisadas 67 reportagens, divididas em duas categorias; a primeira trata dos sofrimentos psicológicos derivados do isolamento social, como ansiedade, depressão, solidão e medo; e a segunda trata das diferentes manifestações do luto e o efeito psicológico das perdas em meio à pandemia. Resultado: a ritualização da morte é indissociável do processo de elaboração das perdas. A ausência de rituais fúnebres, aliada ao distanciamento social, repercute de forma desafiadora para a sociedade e para os profissionais da saúde mental. Estratégias não presenciais de demonstração de afeto e elaboração da perda podem amenizar o isolamento imposto pela pandemia. Conclusões e implicações para a prática: o processo de viver humano é repleto de ritos de passagem e a ritualística na morte-morrer se mostra necessária para a vivência da despedida, da certeza do distanciamento ocorrido entre entes e família. Implica em modos resolutivos de registro emocional, mental e mesmo físico da expressão pública de sofrimento do enlutado e do não esquecimento do Ser à morte. Impacta na prática assistencial para o acolhimento, orientação e elaboração das perdas para a manutenção de vida saudável das pessoas enlutadas, o que propõe argumentos teórico-reflexivos no cuidado em saúde mental e na guarida de pessoas enlutadas decorrentes da pandemia


Objective: to understand the absence of funeral rituals in the process of living the grief process of Brazilian families who lost loved ones by COVID-19. Method: this is a qualitative documental research carried out in three newspapers available online. Sixty-seven reports were analyzed, divided into two categories; the first deals with psychological suffering derived from social isolation, such as anxiety, depression, loneliness and fear; and the second deals with the different manifestations of grief and the psychological effect of losses amidst the pandemic. Result: the ritualization of death is inseparable from the process of elaboration of the losses. The absence of funeral rituals combined with social dictatorship can have a challenging impact on society and mental healthcare professionals. Non-presential strategies for showing affection and elaborating the loss can ease the isolation imposed by the pandemic. Conclusions and implications for practice: the human living process is full of rites of passage and death-dying rituals prove to be necessary for the experience of farewell, of the certainty of the distance between loved ones and family. It implies resolving modes of emotional, mental and even physical recording of the public expression of the griever's suffering and not forgetting the Being's to death. It impacts care practice for reception, guidance and elaboration of losses for the maintenance of a healthy life for grievers, which proposes theoretical-reflective arguments in mental healthcare and in the shelter of grievers resulting from the pandemic


Objetivo: comprender la ausencia de rituales funerarios en el proceso de dolor de las familias brasileñas que perdieron a sus seres queridos por COVID-19. Método: una investigación documental cualitativa realizada en tres periódicos disponibles en línea. Se analizaron 67 informes, divididos en dos categorías; el primero trata sobre el sufrimiento psicológico derivado del aislamiento social, como la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad y el miedo; y el segundo trata de las diferentes manifestaciones del dolor y el efecto psicológico de las pérdidas en medio de la pandemia. Resultado: la ritualización de la muerte es inseparable del proceso de elaboración de las pérdidas. La ausencia de rituales funerarios combinada con la dictadura social puede tener un impacto desafiante en la sociedad y los profesionales de la salud mental. Las estrategias no presenciales para mostrar afecto y explicar la pérdida pueden aliviar el aislamiento impuesto por la pandemia. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica: el proceso del vivir humano está lleno de ritos de paso y los rituales de la muerte-morir resultan necesarios para la experiencia de la despedida, de la certeza de la distancia entre los seres queridos y la familia. Implica resolver modos de registro emocional, mental e incluso físico de la expresión pública del sufrimiento del doliente y del no olvido del Ser hasta la muerte. Incide en la práctica asistencial para la recepción, orientación y elaboración de las pérdidas para el mantenimiento de una vida sana de las personas en dolor, el cual propone argumentos teórico-reflexivos en la atención de la salud mental y en el refugio de personas en dolor producto de la pandemia


Assuntos
Humanos , Luto , Família/psicologia , Morte , Pandemias , Rituais Fúnebres/psicologia , COVID-19 , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distanciamento Físico
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210203, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339876

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo analisar as características individuais, clínicas e os fatores associados à mortalidade de pacientes com COVID-19, em hospital público do estado do Paraná, Brasil. Métodos estudo seccional, retrospectivo, documental (n= 86), com pacientes adultos internados, de março a junho de 2020. Resultados a mortalidade foi de 12,8%, o grupo de maior risco foi de idosos com comorbidades, especialmente, cardiovasculares. A chance de óbito foi 58 vezes maior em idosos, comparada aos adultos, e oito vezes maior naqueles com comorbidades, comparadas aos hígidos. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou sintomatologia respiratória, febre e mialgia. Tratamento à base de antibióticos, anticoagulantes e antivirais, associado ao suporte ventilatório. As principais complicações foram hipóxia, insuficiência renal aguda e infecção secundária. Conclusão e implicações para a prática idosos com comorbidades cardiovasculares que necessitaram de cuidados intensivos apresentaram maior chance de óbito. Os resultados de um dos centros de referência na pandemia possibilitam discutir medidas epidemiológicas adotadas, com ênfase em conceitos restritivos nos primeiros meses.


RESUMEN Objetivo analizar las características individuales, clínicas y los factores asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 en un hospital público del estado de Paraná. Métodos estudio transversal, retrospectivo, documental (n = 86), con pacientes adultos hospitalizados, de marzo a junio de 2020. Resultados la mortalidad fue del 12,8%, grupo de mayor riesgo para los ancianos con comorbilidades, especialmente enfermedades cardiovasculares. La probabilidad de muerte fue 58 veces mayor en los ancianos en comparación con los adultos y ocho veces mayor en aquellos con comorbilidades en comparación con los sanos. La mayoría de los pacientes presentaban síntomas respiratorios, fiebre y mialgia. Tratamiento a base de antibióticos, anticoagulantes y antivirales, asociado al soporte ventilatorio. Las principales complicaciones fueron hipoxia, insuficiencia renal aguda e infección secundaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los ancianos con comorbilidades cardiovasculares que requirieron cuidados intensivos tenían una mayor probabilidad de muerte. Los resultados de uno de los centros de referencia pandémica permiten discutir las medidas epidemiológicas adoptadas, con énfasis en conceptos restrictivos en los primeros meses.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the individual and clinical characteristics and the factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19, in a public hospital in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods a cross-sectional, retrospective, documentary study (n= 86), with adult inpatients, from March to June 2020. Results mortality was 12.8%, the highest risk group was the elderly with comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones. The chance of death was 58 times higher in the elderly compared to adults, and eight times higher in those with comorbidities compared to the healthy ones. Most patients presented with respiratory symptoms, fever, and myalgia. Treatment was based on antibiotics, anticoagulants and antivirals, associated with ventilatory support. The main complications were hypoxia, acute renal failure, and secondary infection. Conclusion and implications for practice elderly people with cardiovascular comorbidities who required intensive care had a higher chance of death. The results from one of the reference centers in the pandemic make it possible to discuss epidemiological measures adopted, with emphasis on restrictive concepts in the first months.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Morte , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Comorbidade , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e52717, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224536

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a construção dos significados da morte pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao cuidado à pessoa com câncer. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em ambiente online, com a participação de 34 profissionais de saúde. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, interpretadas segundo análise temática. Resultados: duas categorias analíticas emergiram dos dados, indicando que os significados atribuídos à morte pelos participantes foram: como um processo inerente ao ciclo da vida humana, passagem para a outra vida, e fim do sofrimento tanto do paciente quanto dos profissionais de saúde. As dificuldades que apontaram em lidar com a morte se referem à falta de suporte psicológico, escassez de conhecimento sobre morte, cuidados paliativos e comunicação de más notícias. Conclusão: os profissionais construíram diferentes significados à morte de seus pacientes, tais como um processo natural da vida, vontade de um ser superior, passagem para uma nova existência e término do sofrimento dessas pessoas.


Objective: to understand the construction of meanings of death by healthcare professionals caring for people with cancer. Method: this qualitative study was carried out in an online environment through semi-structured interviews of 34 health professionals, which were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results: two analytical categories emerged from the data, indicating that the meanings attributed to death by the participants were: a process inherent in the human life cycle, a transition to the next life, and an end to the suffering of both patient and health professionals. The difficulties they pointed to in dealing with death related to lack of psychological support, lack of knowledge about death, palliative care, and communicating bad news. Conclusion: the professionals constructed different meanings to their patients' deaths: a natural process of life, the will of a higher being, a transition to a new existence, and an end to these people's suffering.


Objetivo: comprender la construcción de los significados de la muerte desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la salud ante el cuidado a la persona con cáncer. Metodología: estudio cualitativo realizado en un entorno online, con la participación de 34 profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, interpretadas según análisis temático. Resultados: de los datos surgieron dos categorías analíticas que indicaron que los significados atribuidos a la muerte por los participantes fueron: como u proceso inherente al ciclo de vida humano, transición a otra vida y fin al sufrimiento tanto del paciente como de los profesionales de la salud. Las dificultades que señalaron para afrontar la muerte se refieren a la falta de apoyo psicológico, escasez de conocimiento sobre la muerte, cuidados paliativos y comunicación de malas noticias. Conclusión: los profesionales han construido diferentes significados para la muerte de sus pacientes: un proceso natural de la vida, la voluntad de un ser superior, un paso a una nueva existencia y el fin del sufrimiento de estas personas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática Profissional , Atitude Frente a Morte , Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Oncologistas , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Oncologistas/psicologia , Hospitais , Neoplasias/psicologia
4.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9317

RESUMO

Un vistazo a los primeros tres minutos de la versión española de nuestro nuevo documental, EL SUSTO.


Assuntos
Férias e Feriados , Morte , Documentários Cinematográficos , Homicídio , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , México
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-04. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0034).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55111

RESUMO

Esta hoja informativa ofrece información sobre el alcohol no registrado, es decir, el que no se contabiliza en los sistemas oficiales del gobierno y suele producirse, distribuirse y venderse fuera de los canales formales bajo control gubernamental. En ella se describen los tipos de alcohol no registrado y los peligros para la salud asociados a su consumo, y se ofrecen recomendaciones para los consumidores sobre los productos alcohólicos no comerciales y para los gobiernos sobre la regulación del alcohol no registrado.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Regulamentação Governamental , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Etanol , Metanol , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Antissépticos Bucais , Higienizadores de Mão , Cegueira , Morte , América
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-04. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0034).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55110

RESUMO

This fact sheet provides information on unrecorded alcohol. Unrecorded alcohol is alcohol that is not accounted for by official government systems and is usually produced, distributed, and sold outside the formal channels under government control. The fact sheet outlines the types of unrecorded alcohol and the dangers to health associated with its consumption. It also provides recommendations for consumers on non-commercial alcohol products and for governments on the regulation of unrecorded alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Regulamentação Governamental , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Etanol , Antissépticos Bucais , Higienizadores de Mão , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Metanol , Cegueira , Morte
8.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 48(5): 441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755998

Assuntos
Morte , Humanos
9.
J Telemed Telecare ; 27(10): 631-637, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726997

RESUMO

The purpose of this rapid evidence check was to identify virtual care modalities that are safe and effective in the delivery of end of life and palliative care. Thirty-three peer reviewed articles which were either review articles or interventional/evaluative studies presenting comparative data were identified through PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar searches. Extracted data was synthesized narratively and outcomes were categorised separately for patients, healthcare providers, caregivers and health system. Included studies reported on a wide range of virtual care modalities, including video consultation, mobile apps, videos, websites, telephone support, email and alert messages. Generally, studies reported similar or favourable quality of life outcomes to face-to-face palliative care, especially when virtual care was used as a supplement rather than a substitute for face-to-face care. Positive attitudes for perceived usefulness and helpfulness were reported by patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. Challenges identified related to technology limitations, trust, ethical concerns, administrative burden and evidence gaps. Overall, most studies found virtual care modalities to be safe and effective in end of life and palliative care with no detrimental adverse outcomes, when used as a supplement to face-to-face care.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Qualidade de Vida , Cuidadores , Morte , Humanos , Telefone
10.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 160(5): 176-184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674531

RESUMO

The quality of end-of-life care of hospitalized patients is an important topic, but so far little explored in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to map the factors influencing the end-of-life care decision-making process in selected Czech hospitals and to describe it based on data from medical records and from the perspective of a doctor. The research included data obtained from the medical records of 240 deceased patients (mean age 76.9 years, 41.6% women). The research sample of medical doctors who commented on the decision-making about end-of-life care for these patients consisted of 369 physicians (mean age 35.9 years, 61% women). The results pointed to persistent deficiencies in the written recording of the care goals, prognosis, and possible decision to limit care. Medical doctors limit health care primarily based on consensus among physicians, the patient is usually not invited to the decision-making process. Patient preferences for the end-of-life period are in most cases not ascertained or this question is postponed. The institute of a previously stated wish did not appear in the examined group at all. It can be concluded that decisions about end-of-life care usually take place without knowledge of patients' values ​​and preferences. The results indicate the need to improve the training of doctors and medical students, which should, in addition to building professional competencies, include training in effective communication with patients at the end of life.


Assuntos
Médicos , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Idoso , República Tcheca , Morte , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 168, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people with multi-morbidities commonly experience an uncertain illness trajectory. Clinical uncertainty is challenging to manage, with risk of poor outcomes. Person-centred care is essential to align care and treatment with patient priorities and wishes. Use of evidence-based tools may support person-centred management of clinical uncertainty. We aimed to develop a logic model of person-centred evidence-based tools to manage clinical uncertainty in older people. METHODS: A systematic mixed-methods review with a results-based convergent synthesis design: a process-based iterative logic model was used, starting with a conceptual framework of clinical uncertainty in older people towards the end of life. This underpinned the methods. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA were searched from 2000 to December 2019, using a combination of terms: "uncertainty" AND "palliative care" AND "assessment" OR "care planning". Studies were included if they developed or evaluated a person-centred tool to manage clinical uncertainty in people aged ≥65 years approaching the end of life and quality appraised using QualSyst. Quantitative and qualitative data were narratively synthesised and thematically analysed respectively and integrated into the logic model. RESULTS: Of the 17,095 articles identified, 44 were included, involving 63 tools. There was strong evidence that tools used in clinical care could improve identification of patient priorities and needs (n = 14 studies); that tools support partnership working between patients and practitioners (n = 8) and that tools support integrated care within and across teams and with patients and families (n = 14), improving patient outcomes such as quality of death and dying and satisfaction with care. Communication of clinical uncertainty to patients and families had the least evidence and is challenging to do well. CONCLUSION: The identified logic model moves current knowledge from conceptualising clinical uncertainty to applying evidence-based tools to optimise person-centred management and improve patient outcomes. Key causal pathways are identification of individual priorities and needs, individual care and treatment and integrated care. Communication of clinical uncertainty to patients is challenging and requires training and skill and the use of tools to support practice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cuidados Paliativos , Idoso , Comunicação , Morte , Humanos , Incerteza
12.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 161, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients' end-of-life care may involve complex decision-making processes. Colombia has legislation regarding provision of and access to palliative care and is the only Latin American country with regulation regarding euthanasia. We describe medical end-of-life decision-making practices among cancer patients in three Colombian hospitals. METHODS: Cancer patients who were at the end-of-life and attended in participating hospitals were identified. When these patients deceased, their attending physician was invited to participate. Attending physicians of 261 cancer patients (out of 348 identified) accepted the invitation and answered a questionnaire regarding end-of-life decisions: a.) decisions regarding the withdrawal or withholding of potentially life-prolonging medical treatments, b.) intensifying measures to alleviate pain or other symptoms with hastening of death as a potential side effect, and c.) the administration, supply or prescription of drugs with an explicit intention to hasten death. For each question addressing the first two decision types, we asked if the decision was fully or partially made with the intention or consideration that it may hasten the patient's death. RESULTS: Decisions to withdraw potentially life-prolonging treatment were made for 112 (43%) patients, 16 of them (14%) with an intention to hasten death. For 198 patients (76%) there had been some decision to not initiate potentially life-prolonging treatment. Twenty-three percent of patients received palliative sedation, 97% of all patients received opioids. Six patients (2%) explicitly requested to actively hasten their death, for two of them their wish was fulfilled. In another six patients, medications were used with the explicit intention to hasten death without their explicit request. In 44% (n = 114) of all cases, physicians did not know if their patient had any advance care directives, 26% (n = 38) of physicians had spoken to the patient regarding the possibility of certain treatment decisions to hasten death where this applied. CONCLUSIONS: Decisions concerning the end of life were common for patients with cancer in three Colombian hospitals, including euthanasia and palliative sedation. Physicians and patients often fail to communicate about advance care directives and potentially life-shortening effects of treatment decisions. Specific end-of-life procedures, patients' wishes, and availability of palliative care should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias , Colômbia , Morte , Hospitais , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 162, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family caregivers are crucial in providing end-of-life care at home. Without their care, it would be difficult for many patients to die at home. In addition to providing care, family caregivers also need support for themselves. Nurses could play an important role in supporting family caregivers, but little is known about if and how they do so. The aim of this study is to explore how nurses currently approach and support family caregivers in end-of-life home care and which factors influence their support of family caregivers. METHODS: Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 14 nurses from nine home care organisations in the Netherlands, in 2018. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: We identified two underlying nursing perspectives on supporting family caregivers: an instrumental perspective (seeing family caregivers mostly as collaborative partners in care) and a relational perspective (seeing family caregivers as both providing and needing support). All the interviewed nurses stated that they pay attention to family caregivers' needs. The activities mentioned most often were: identification of support needs, practical education, support in decision-making about the patient's treatment, emotional support, and organising respite care, such as night care, to relieve the family caregiver. The provision of support is usually based on intuition and experience, rather than on a systematic approach. Besides, nurses reported different factors at the individual, organisational and societal levels that influenced their support of family caregivers, such as their knowledge and experience, the way in which care is organised, and laws and regulations. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses tend to address family caregivers' needs, but such care was affected by various factors at different levels. There is a risk that nursing support does not meet family caregivers' needs. A more reflective approach is needed and evidence-based needs assessment tools may help nurses to systematically assess family caregivers' needs and to provide appropriate support.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Terminal , Cuidadores , Morte , Humanos , Apoio Social
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639457

RESUMO

Suicide poses a serious problem globally, especially among the elderly population. To tackle the issue, this study aimed to develop a model for predicting suicide by using machine learning based on the elderly population. To obtain a large sample, the study used the big data health screening cohort provided by the National Health Insurance Sharing Service. By applying a machine learning technique, a predictive model that comprehensively utilized various factors was developed to select the elderly aged > 65 years at risk of suicide. A total of 48,047 subjects were included in the analysis. Individuals who died by suicide were older, and the number of men was significantly greater. The suicide group had a more prominent history of depression, with the use of medicaments significantly higher. Specifically, the prescription of benzodiazepines alone was associated with a high suicide risk. Furthermore, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein level were lower in the suicide group. We developed a model for predicting suicide by using machine learning based on the elderly population. This suicide prediction model can satisfy the performance to some extent by employing only the medical service usage behavior without subjective reports.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Idoso , Morte , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino
15.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(3): 418-440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665091

RESUMO

Controlled donation after circulatory determination of death (cDCDD) is an important strategy for increasing the pool of eligible organ donors.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Morte , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 141, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative sedation and analgesia are employed in patients with refractory and intractable symptoms at the end of life to reduce their suffering by lowering their level of consciousness. The doctrine of double effect, a philosophical principle that justifies doing a "good action" with a potentially "bad effect," is frequently employed to provide an ethical justification for this practice. MAIN TEXT: We argue that palliative sedation and analgesia do not fulfill the conditions required to apply the doctrine of double effect, and therefore its use in this domain is inappropriate. Furthermore, we argue that the frequent application of the doctrine of double effect to palliative sedation and analgesia reflects physicians' discomfort with the complex moral, intentional, and causal aspects of end-of-life care. CONCLUSIONS: We are concerned that this misapplication of the doctrine of double effect can consequently impair physicians' ethical reasoning and relationships with patients at the end of life.


Assuntos
Intenção , Assistência Terminal , Morte , Princípio do Duplo Efeito , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos
20.
JAMA ; 326(13): 1268-1276, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609452

RESUMO

Importance: Death rattle, defined as noisy breathing caused by the presence of mucus in the respiratory tract, is relatively common among dying patients. Although clinical guidelines recommend anticholinergic drugs to reduce the death rattle after nonpharmacological measures fail, evidence regarding their efficacy is lacking. Given that anticholinergics only decrease mucus production, it is unknown whether prophylactic application may be more appropriate. Objective: To determine whether administration of prophylactic scopolamine butylbromide reduces the death rattle. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 6 hospices in the Netherlands. Patients with a life expectancy of 3 or more days who were admitted to the participating hospices were asked to give advance informed consent from April 10, 2017, through December 31, 2019. When the dying phase was recognized, patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria were randomized. Of the 229 patients who provided advance informed consent, 162 were ultimately randomized. The date of final follow-up was January 31, 2020. Interventions: Administration of subcutaneous scopolamine butylbromide, 20 mg four times a day (n = 79), or placebo (n = 78). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the occurrence of a grade 2 or higher death rattle as defined by Back (range, 0-3; 0, no rattle; 3, rattle audible standing in the door opening) measured at 2 consecutive time points with a 4-hour interval. Secondary outcomes included the time between recognizing the dying phase and the onset of a death rattle and anticholinergic adverse events. Results: Among 162 patients who were randomized, 157 patients (97%; median age, 76 years [IQR, 66-84 years]; 56% women) were included in the primary analyses. A death rattle occurred in 10 patients (13%) in the scopolamine group compared with 21 patients (27%) in the placebo group (difference, 14%; 95% CI, 2%-27%, P = .02). Regarding secondary outcomes, an analysis of the time to death rattle yielded a subdistribution hazard ratio (HR) of 0.44 (95% CI, 0.20-0.92; P = .03; cumulative incidence at 48 hours: 8% in the scopolamine group vs 17% in the placebo group). In the scopolamine vs placebo groups, restlessness occurred in 22 of 79 patients (28%) vs 18 of 78 (23%), dry mouth in 8 of 79 (10%) vs 12 of 78 (15%), and urinary retention in 6 of 26 (23%) vs 3 of 18 (17%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients near the end of life, prophylactic subcutaneous scopolamine butylbromide, compared with placebo, significantly reduced the occurrence of the death rattle. Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR6264.


Assuntos
Brometo de Butilescopolamônio/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Morte , Sons Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brometo de Butilescopolamônio/administração & dosagem , Brometo de Butilescopolamônio/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Intervalos de Confiança , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Humanos , Incidência , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Injeções Subcutâneas , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Placebos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
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