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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 186: 252-256, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930937

RESUMO

The undesired presence of GM plants outside of cultivation is one of main concerns for the ecological risk assessment and regulation of GM plants, and how long transgenic volunteers can persist in the nature remains unknown. We conducted two long-term coexistence experiments of Bt-transgenic insect-resistant crops in populations of their wild relatives, using Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in wild mustard (B. juncea) populations from 2012 to 2019, and Bt-transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) in wild rice (O. rufipogon and O. minuta) populations from 2013 to 2019. Transgenic oilseed rape volunteers survived only in the 2012 winter, because it is a spring variety and not be resistant to cold climate and competition from weeds. Transgenic rice was not survived because of its low competitive ability compared to wild rice, but survived five years in one population of wild rice O. minuta who could not tolerant to cold temperature. Our results indicated that transgenic volunteers can persist in the wild populations under natural conditions, but the fate of transgenic volunteers in the nature depends on whether the growth environment is favorable, and they could not disperse over its niche or "tolerance zone".


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Humanos , Mostardeira/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Voluntários
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272914, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018849

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated genetic diversity in a panel of 87 Indian mustard varieties using 200 genomic-SSR markers. A total of 189 SSRs resulted into positive amplification with 174 (92.06%) SSRs generating polymorphic products and 15 (7.94%) SSRs producing monomorphic amplicons. A total of 552 alleles were obtained and allele number varied from 2-6 with an average number of 3.17 alleles per SSR marker. The major allele frequency ranged from 0.29 (ENA23) to 0.92 (BrgMS841) with an average value of 0.58 per SSR locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.10 (BrgMS841) to 0.68 (BrgMS519) with 0.39 as mean PIC value. The gene diversity per locus ranged from 0.13 (BrgMS841) to 0.72 (ENA23 & BrgMS519) with a mean value of 0.48 per SSR primer pair. Both Unweighted Neighbor Joining-based dendrogram and population structure analysis divided all the 87 varieties into two major groups/subpopulations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) inferred the presence of more genetic variation (98%) among individuals than among groups (2%). A total of 31 SSRs produced 36 unique alleles for 27 varieties which will serve as unique DNA-fingerprints for the identification and legal protection of these varieties. Further, the results obtained provided a deeper insight into the genetic structure of Indian mustard varieties in India and will assist in formulating future breeding strategies aimed at Indian mustard genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Mostardeira , Alelos , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(8): 3029-3040, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002429

RESUMO

Brassica juncea is a yearly or biennial vegetable in Brassica of Cruciferae. The yield and quality of its product organs are affected by flowering time. WRKY proteins family can respond to biological and abiotic stresses, developmental regulation and signal transduction. WRKY75 is an important member of WRKY family which can regulate flowering, but the flowering regulation mechanism in B. juncea has not been reported. In this study, a gene BjuWRKY75 in B. juncea was cloned, and the encoded-protein belonged to the group Ⅱ of WRKY protein with highly conserved domain. BjuWRKY75 had the highest homology with BriWRKY75 of Brassica nigra. The relative expression level of BjuWRKY75 in flowers was significantly higher than that in leaves and stems, and it was expressed stably in leaves. BjuWRKY75 protein was localized in the nucleus and interacted with the promoter of the flowering integrator BjuFT, which contained the W-box response element for the interaction between protein and DNA. Thus, it could transcriptionally activate the expression of the downstream genes. The overexpression of BjuWRKY75 in Arabidopsis led to earlier flowering significantly. In conclusion, BjuWRKY75 could directly target the promoter of BjuFT and accelerate flowering. These results may facilitate further study on the regulation of flowering molecules of BjuWRKY75.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Mostardeira , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mostardeira/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
4.
Environ Pollut ; 309: 119733, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820570

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at determining the efficacy of rock phosphate (RP) 3% loaded in a green coconut shell, chicken manure, and vegetable waste to make green coconut-modified biochar (GMB), chicken manure modified-biochar (CMB), and vegetable waste-modified biochar (VMB) in the fixation of Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd in Sharafi goth and Malir polluted soils. The impact of RP impregnated with organic waste material to produce modified biochars (MBs) on stabilizing PTEs from polluted soils and reducing their uptake by mustard plant has not yet been thoroughly investigated. All modified BCs in 0.5, 1, and 2% doses were used to stabilize Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd in two polluted soils and to reduce their uptake by the mustard plant. The obtained results revealed that the maximum mustard fresh biomass was 17.8% higher with GMB 1% in Sharafi goth polluted soil and 25% higher with VMB 0.5% in Malir polluted soil than in the control treatment. After applying modified BCs, immobilization of Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd was observed in both soils and it reduced the uptake of these elements by mustard plants. On the other hand, although Zn mobilization increased by 0.38% for CMB 0.5% and by 5.9% for VMB 0.5% in Sharafi goth polluted soil, as well as by 3.15% for GMB 1%, 6.34% for GMB 2%, and 4.78% for VMB 0.5% in Malir polluted soil, this was due to changes in soil pH and OM. It was found that GMB 1%, CMB 0.5%, and VMB 0.5% have the potential to increase Zn uptake by mustard, while VMB 2% can reduce the element uptake by the plant. Redundancy analysis showed that soil chemical parameters were negatively correlated with PTEs in both soils and reduced their uptake by mustard. The present study revealed that MBs can stabilize PTEs in industrial and wastewater soils polluted with multiple metals and reduce their uptake by plants.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo/análise , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Mostardeira , Fosfatos/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(1): 429-437, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891734

RESUMO

Growth promoters are used in the broiler industry of Iraq, and herbal plants are believed to be one of the safest growth-promoting agents in modern poultry production. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous mustard (Brassica juncea) seed (MS) extract on broiler production. A total of 160 unsexed day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were selected and exposed to different doses of MS included in drinking water for six weeks. Afterward, MS was added to the treatment groups of T1 (control), T2, T3, and T4 in the dosage of 0mL, 3mL, 5 mL, and 7 mL per liter of drinking water, respectively. Results indicated that the birds that were given extract (T2, T3, T4) for the three weeks were fed significantly more diet, compared to the control treatment group (189.4 g vs. 159.6g) (P<0.05). Accordingly, the Body Weight (BW) of these birds recorded on days 28 (1232, 1252, 1300g) and 35 (1840, 1900, 1960g) were significantly higher, compared to the birds in the control treatment on days 28 (1147g) and 35 (1657g), respectively. On days 28 and 35, the birds in T2, T3, T4 treatment groups had significantly higher Body Weight Gain (BWG) (P<0.05), compared to the control group (G1). Improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was observed in the 5th week for the birds that were administrated MS extract (5 and 7mL /liter), compared to the control group (P<0.05). The total serum level of protein, phosphorus, and calcium was increased in birds in the treatment group T4 (7.5 g/dL). Moreover, lower cholesterol values and higher values of alkaline phosphatase were obtained in birds in the treatment groups T2, T 3, and T4 (P<0.05). On day 35, higher meat peroxidation was observed in the fresh samples (after 24 h of slaughtering) of birds receiving different levels of MS extract, compared to the birds in the control group. The obtained results revealed that 5-7 mL of MS extract can be considered a functional growth- promoter for commercial broilers, although further studies are needed to confirm MS as a growth promoter.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Água Potável , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carne , Mostardeira , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 535, 2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) is widely present in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Plant PEBP genes are mainly involved in flowering transition and nutritional growth. These genes have been studied in several plants; however, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have explored them in Brassica juncea var. tumida. This study identified and characterized the entire PEBP gene family of Brassica juncea var. tumida. RESULTS: A total of 21 PEBP genes were identified from Brassica juncea var. tumida. Through phylogenetic analysis, the 21 corresponding proteins were classified into the following four clusters: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like proteins (n = 8), MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT)-like proteins (n = 5), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like proteins (n = 6), and ybhB-like proteins (n = 2). A total of 18 genes contained four exons and had similar gene structures in each subfamily except BjMFT1, BjPYBHB1, and Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homolog of Brassica juncea var. tumida (BjATC1). In the analysis of conserved motif composition, the BjPEBP genes exhibited similar characteristics, except for BjFT3, BjMFT1, BjPYBHB1, BjPYBHB2, and BjATC1. The BjPEBP promoter includes multiple cis-acting elements such as the G-box and I-box elements that respond to light, ABRE and GARE-motif elements that respond to hormones, and MBSI and CAT-box elements that are associated with plant growth and development. Analysis of RNA-Seq data revealed that the expression of a few BjPEBP genes may be associated with the development of a tumorous stem. The results of qRT-PCR showed that BjTFL1 and BjPYBHB1 were highly expressed in the flower tissue, BjFT1 and BjATC1 were mainly expressed in the root, and BjMFT4 were highly detected in the stem. The results of yeast two-hybrid screening suggested that BjFT interacts with Bj14-3-3. These results indicate that BjFT is involved in flowering regulation. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a genome-wide analysis of PEBP genes family in Brassica juncea var. tumida. The findings of this study may help improve the yield and molecular breeding of Brassica juncea var. tumida.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Mostardeira , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Mostardeira/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11713, 2022 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810218

RESUMO

Brassica juncea is an important oilseed crop, widely grown as a source of edible oil. Seed size is a pivotal agricultural trait in oilseed Brassicas. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying seed size determination are poorly understood. To elucidate the transcriptional dynamics involved in the determination of seed size in B. juncea, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis using developing seeds of two varieties, small-seeded Early Heera2 (EH2) and bold-seeded Pusajaikisan (PJK), at three distinct stages (15, 30 and 45 days after pollination). We detected 112,550 transcripts, of which 27,186 and 19,522 were differentially expressed in the intra-variety comparisons and inter-variety comparisons, respectively. Functional analysis using pathway, gene ontology, and transcription factor enrichment revealed that cell cycle- and cell division-related transcripts stay upregulated during later stages of seed development in the bold-seeded variety but are downregulated at the same stage in the small-seeded variety, indicating that an extended period of cell proliferation in the later stages increased seed weight in PJK as compared to EH2. Further, k-means clustering and candidate genes-based analyses unravelled candidates for employing in seed size improvement of B. juncea. In addition, candidates involved in determining seed coat color, oil content, and other seed traits were also identified.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Sementes , Ciclo Celular/genética , Divisão Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mostardeira/genética , Transcriptoma
8.
Food Chem ; 396: 133648, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843007

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that formulated and natural beverages containing mixtures of anti-oxidants can produce stable levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultimate anti-oxidant effects of proteins for suppressing H2O2, using a protein extract from mustard seed (Brassica juncea). The mustard seed protein isolate (MPI) contained âˆ¼51% protein, and 6.4 mg GAe/g TS of total reducible substances, presumably representing secondary metabolites, including polyphenolics. Dose-dependent suppression of H2O2 (present at 110 µM and 550 µM), in fresh and thermally-processed orange juice was complete in the presence of 0.1 mg/mL MPI after 24 hr, with slightly higher anti-oxidant efficacy than the fruit juice-derived reference protein, thaumatin. The combination of thiol-rich amino acid (methionine and cysteine)-containing proteins and other anti-oxidant species in the MPI were highly effective for inhibiting autoxidation-mediated production of H2O2 in orange juice, and may be useful for other manufactured beverages.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/análise , Citrus sinensis/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Mostardeira , Sementes/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(25): 7644-7652, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675570

RESUMO

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles are an efficient carrier system for atrazine. However, there is a gap regarding the effects of nanoencapsulation on herbicide-plant interactions. Here, we evaluate the fate and photosystem II inhibition of nano and commercial atrazine in hydroponically grown mustard (Brassica juncea) plants whose roots were exposed to the formulations. In addition, to quantify the endogenous levels of atrazine in plant organs, we measured the inhibition of photosystem II activity by both formulations. Moreover, the fluorescently labeled nanoatrazine was tracked in plant tissues using confocal microscopy. The nanoencapsulation induced greater inhibition of photosystem II activity as well as higher accumulation of atrazine in roots and leaves. The nanoparticles were quickly absorbed by the roots, being detected in the vascular tissues and the leaves. Overall, these results provide insights into the mechanisms involved in the enhanced preemergent herbicidal activity of nanoatrazine against target plants.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Atrazina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Mostardeira , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Raízes de Plantas
10.
Mycologia ; 114(4): 757-768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648633

RESUMO

White rust caused by Albugo candida, an oomycete pathogen, is a devastating disease of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) worldwide. There is a need to screen virulent white rust isolates to challenge the developed white rust-resistant B. juncea cultivars to screen their resistance potential. The current study explores pathogenic and biochemical response of Indian mustard to white rust isolates collected from three different geographic locations of India. The observations refine our understanding of the disease severity in India. Disease progression and biochemical responses were studied in the cotyledonary as well as true leaf stage of the B. juncea cultivar Varuna at different time points. The biochemical findings highlight the fluctuation of significant biochemical parameters such as total proteins, sugars, and phenols, superoxide dismutase, and hydrogen peroxide during the A. candida infection in B. juncea.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Oomicetos , Imunidade Inata , Mostardeira , Doenças das Plantas
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 185: 244-259, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717733

RESUMO

The involvement of auxin (IAA) in growth and development of plants is well known, but its role in the mitigation of metal stress, especially copper (Cu), is not fully understood; therefore, it is time to explore its involvement in minimizing the stress. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the protective function of IAA, applied to the foliage, on photosynthetic machinery, carbohydrate metabolism, and growth of Brassica juncea, grown with Cu (30 or 60 mg kg-1 of soil). Among the different concentrations (10-10, 10-8, or 10-6 M), 10-8 M of IAA alone enhanced the photosynthetic characteristics, sugar accumulation and vegetative growth with minimal cellular oxidative stress level. Moreover, the same concentration of auxin was most effective in decreasing the stress levels generated by Cu and maintained it nearly to that of the control in terms of photosynthetic attributes, gas exchange parameters, PSII activity, electron transport rate, and growth attributes. Auxin also maintained the membrane stability and ultrastructure of chloroplast, stomatal morphology with a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL) and cell death in test plants even under Cu stress. IAA also improved the translocation of Cu from root to the aerial parts, thus enhanced the Cu-reclamation in metal contaminated soils. Our findings suggest that the application of 10-8 M of IAA maintains the overall growth of plants and may be used as an effective agent to improve growth, photosynthesis and phyto-remediation potential of B. juncea in Cu contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Poluentes do Solo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Fotossíntese , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
12.
J Food Prot ; 85(10): 1404-1409, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749697

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Although essential oils exhibit antimicrobial properties, their application is limited, owing to their strong volatility and poor water solubility. Emulsification is a valid strategy for improving chemical stability. In this study, we prepared a mustard oil (MO) emulsion with egg yolk lecithin and evaluated its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and in cheese curd. The particle size of the MO emulsion was approximately 0.19 µm and remained stable for 30 days of storage. The MO emulsion showed strong antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes in vitro. Moreover, 40 ppm of MO was sufficient to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes in culture, and the addition of 160 ppm of MO decreased the population of L. monocytogenes. When 50 ppm of emulsified MO was added to milk during cheese curd production and it was stored at 10°C for 10 days, the growth of L. monocytogenes was suppressed. When the cheese curd with MO emulsion was stored at 4°C, the bacterial count was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and no bacterial growth was observed after 14 days of storage. Furthermore, the sensory characteristics of cheese curd with the MO emulsion were acceptable. These results indicate MO emulsions may be useful in controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes in fresh cheese.


Assuntos
Queijo , Listeria monocytogenes , Queijo/microbiologia , Emulsões , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Mostardeira , Óleos Vegetais
13.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 1299-1314, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652316

RESUMO

To discover new lead compounds with anti-tumour activities, in the present study, natural diosgenin was hybridised with the reported benzoic acid mustard pharmacophore. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the resulting newly synthesised hybrids (8-10, 14a-14f, and 15a-15f) was then evaluated in three tumour cells (HepG2, MCF-7, and HeLa) as well as normal GES-1 cells. Among them, 14f possessed the most potential anti-proliferative activity against HepG2 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.26 µM, which was 14.4-fold higher than that of diosgenin (IC50 = 32.63 µM). Furthermore, it showed weak cytotoxicity against GES-1 cells (IC50 > 100 µM), thus exhibiting good antiproliferative selectivity between normal and tumour cells. Moreover, 14f could induce G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells. From a mechanistic perspective, 14f regulated cell cycle-related proteins (CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1) as well mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, and caspase 3). These findings suggested that hybrid 14f serves as a promising anti-hepatoma lead compound that deserves further research.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Diosgenina , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Ácido Benzoico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mostardeira
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682925

RESUMO

The development of flower and pollen is a complex biological process that involves multiple metabolic pathways in plants. In revealing novel insights into flower and pollen development underlying male sterility (MS), we conducted an integrated profiling of gene and protein activities in developing buds in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) mutants of mustard (Brassica juncea). Using RNA-Seq and label-free quantitative proteomics, 11,832 transcripts and 1780 protein species were identified with significant differential abundance between the male sterile line 09-05A and its maintainer line 09-05B at the tetrad stage and bi-nucleate stage of B. juncea. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, including starch and sucrose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis, and oxidoreductase activity pathways, were significantly downregulated in 09-05A buds. The low expression of these DEGs or functional loss of DAPs, which can lead to an insufficient supply of critical substrates and ATP, could be associated with flower development, pollen development, and changes in fertility in B. juncea. Therefore, this study provided transcriptomic and proteomic information of pollen abortion for B. juncea and a basis for further research on the molecular regulatory mechanism of MS in plants.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Mostardeira , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Masculino , Mostardeira/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteômica , Transcriptoma
15.
Biosci Rep ; 42(7)2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737296

RESUMO

Heterotrimeric G-proteins interact with various upstream and downstream effectors to regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. G-protein effectors have been recently reported in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, less information is available from polyploid crop species having complex networks of G-protein components. Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) is a well-characterized GTPase accelerating protein, which plays an important role in the regulation of the G-protein cycle in plants. In the present study, four homologs encoding RGS proteins were isolated from the allotetraploid Brassica juncea, a globally important oilseed, vegetable, and condiment crop. The B. juncea RGS proteins were grouped into distinct BjuRGS1 and BjuRGS2 orthologous clades, and the expression of BjuRGS1 homologs was predominantly higher than BjuRGS2 homologs across the tested tissue types of B. juncea. Utilizing B. juncea Y2H library screening, a total of 30 nonredundant interacting proteins with the RGS-domain of the highly expressed BjuA.RGS1 was identified. Gene ontology analysis indicated that these effectors exerted various molecular, cellular, and physiological functions. Many of them were known to regulate cell wall metabolism (BjuEXP6, Bju-α-MAN, BjuPGU4, BjuRMS3) and phosphorylation-mediated cell signaling (BjuMEK4, BjuDGK3, and BjuKinase). Furthermore, transcript analysis indicated that the identified interacting proteins have a coexpression pattern with the BjuRGS homologs. These findings increase our knowledge about the novel targets of G-protein components from a globally cultivated Brassica crop and provide an important resource for developing a plant G-protein interactome network.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Proteínas RGS , Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Humanos , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 109: 108785, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533552

RESUMO

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic gas that has been used as a chemical weapon in wars. After many years, SM-exposed people are still suffering from its side effects such as biological and premature aging. This study was aimed to evaluate biological aging rate via involving biological health scoring (BHS), relative telomere length (TL) and different physical/social variables i.e. marital and smoking statuses, body mass index, salary and educational levels. BHS was calculated according to measurement of 18 biomarkers related to function of four physiological systems (endocrine, inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic systems) and two organs (liver and kidney). The volunteers were 442 individuals exposed to SM gas in 1987 and 119 healthy individuals as non-exposed group. Each group was divided based on leukocyte relative TL (short, intermediate and long). Our data showed an inverse correlation between BHS and relative TL in two groups. The BHS was significantly higher in SM-exposed group than non-exposed group, especially in the participants with short and intermediate TL. The BHS had also a positive correlation with smoking and BMI parameters, and a negative correlation with salary and educational levels in the participants with shorter telomeres; and SM strengthened these correlations in the shorter telomeres. It is concluded that the higher BHS along with shorter relative TL that are indices for lower health quality and biological aging, could be used in the health evaluation of non- and SM-exposed people; and involving of BHS, TL and physical/social covariates could be useful to make this evaluation more accurate.


Assuntos
Gás de Mostarda , Veteranos , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade , Mostardeira , Telômero , Encurtamento do Telômero
17.
Anal Chem ; 94(21): 7594-7600, 2022 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578745

RESUMO

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been implicated as an important biomarker and has been intensively studied for "liquid biopsy" applications in cancer diagnostics. Owing to its small fragment size and its low concentration in circulation, cfDNA extraction and purification from serum samples are complicated, and the extraction yield affects the precision of subsequent molecular diagnostic tests. Here, we report a novel approach using nitrogen-mustard-coated DNA capture beads (NMD beads) that covalently capture DNA and allow direct subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from the NMD bead without elusion. The complex DNA extraction and purification processes are not required. To illustrate the diagnostic use of the NMD beads, we detected short DNA fragments (142 bp) that were spiked into fetal bovine serum (as a model serum sample). The spiked DNAs were captured directly from serum samples and detected using real-time PCR at concentrations as low as 10 fg/mL. We anticipate that this DNA capture bead technique has the potential to simplify the preanalytical processes required for cfDNA detection, which could significantly expand the diagnostic applications of liquid biopsy.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Mostardeira , DNA , Mecloretamina , Microesferas , Nitrogênio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
18.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 1): 135046, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618056

RESUMO

As magnetic fields constantly act on living and biochemical processes, it is reasonable to hypothesize that magnetic field treatment of plant seeds would enhance the uptake capacity of non-essential elements. To verify this hypothesis, seeds of Brassica juncea were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 mT fields, and the dry weight, Cd uptake capacity, ferritin content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and phytoremediation effects of the plant were compared at the end of the experiment. Relative to the control, low- and moderate-intensity fields (50-200 mT) enhanced the dry weight of plant leaves by 15.1%, 24.5%, 35.8%, and 49.1%, respectively, whereas the high-intensity field (400 mT) decreased the biomass yield by 18.9%. The content of Cd in the above-ground tissues of B. juncea enhanced with the increasing field intensity, accompanied by an increase in oxidative damage. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased with exposure to low (50 and 100 mT) and moderate (150 and 200 mT) intensities, followed by a reduction at a high intensity (400 mT). Catalase activity (CAT) and ferritin content exhibited an increasing trend with increasing intensity. The Cd decontamination index of B. juncea increased with the increasing magnetic field intensity until it reached a peak at 150 mT, after which the values remained constant. Considering the phytoremediation effect and energy consumption, 150 mT was the optimal scheme for magnetic-field-assisted phytoremediation using B. juncea. This study suggests that a suitable magnetic field can be regarded as an ecologically friendly physical trigger to improve the phytoextraction effect of B. juncea.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Poluentes do Solo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Ferritinas/farmacologia , Campos Magnéticos , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(9): 4066-4080, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593952

RESUMO

The present study explores the potential of Brassica juncea as a low-cost substrate for biodiesel production through the growth of oleaginous yeast. Firstly, the selected lignocellulosic biomass, i.e., Brassica juncea, was thermochemically pretreated using dilute sodium hydroxide. Optimization of thermochemical pretreatment resulted in significant removal of lignin and hemicellulose with 8.4% increase in cellulose content. Further, the sugar hydrolysate of pretreated biomass was used as a substrate for the growth of selected oleaginous yeast (Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455). Lipid and biomass production was optimized using central composite design (CCD) based on response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum biomass and lipid content of 32.50 g/L and 11.05 g/L, respectively, was obtained at 30 °C temperature, pH 6.0, and after 5 days of incubation. The oleaginous yeast lipid was further transesterified using immobilized lipase. The highest fatty acid methyl ester 15% FAME yield was obtained after 10 h of enzymatic reaction. Next, the results of specific gravity, viscosity, flash points, and cloud point of obtained biodiesels were conformed to the ASTM D975 standard. Overall, the present study put forth the cost-effective approach for lignocellulosic biomass-based oleaginous lipid production toward the green synthesis of biodiesel.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Mostardeira , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos , Leveduras
20.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(9): 2841-2855, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611630

RESUMO

Plants developing into the flowering stage undergo major physiological changes. Because flowers are reproductive tissues and resource sinks, strategies to defend them may differ from those for leaves. Thus, this study investigates the defences of flowering plants by assessing processes that sustain resistance (constitutive and induced) and tolerance to attack. We exposed the annual plant Brassica nigra to three distinct floral attackers (caterpillar, aphid and bacterial pathogen) and measured whole-plant responses at 4, 8 and 12 days after the attack. We simultaneously analysed profiles of primary and secondary metabolites in leaves and inflorescences and measured dry biomass of roots, leaves and inflorescences as proxies of resource allocation and regrowth. Regardless of treatments, inflorescences contained 1.2 to 4 times higher concentrations of primary metabolites than leaves, and up to 7 times higher concentrations of glucosinolates, which highlights the plant's high investment of resources into inflorescences. No induction of glucosinolates was detected in inflorescences, but the attack transiently affected the total concentration of soluble sugars in both leaves and inflorescences. We conclude that B. nigra evolved high constitutive rather than inducible resistance to protect their flowers; plants additionally compensated for damage by attackers via the regrowth of reproductive parts. This strategy may be typical of annual plants.


Assuntos
Flores , Glucosinolatos , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Inflorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
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