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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 5911889, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081432

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the potential medical benefits of protective motivation intervention rehabilitation mode on pain perception and dysfunction in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Methods: 140 LDH patients hospitalized from January 2021 to September 2021 were totally selected. The control group received regular rehabilitation, and the research group received protective motivation intervention rehabilitation. The comparisons of scores of disease knowledge, visual analogue scale (VAS), pain belief and perception scale (PBPI), Japanese Orthopedic Association Score (JOA), Roland-Morris dysfunction (RMDQ), and quality of life scale (SF-36) were made across different groups. Results: The scores of disease knowledge in the two cohorts at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after intervention were greater than those before intervention, and the difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). The scores of VAS, PBPI, JOA, and RMDQ at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after intervention were downregulated. At 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after intervention, the experimental scores of VAS, PBPI, JOA, and RMDQ were markedly fewer than the control group, and the difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). The scores of SF-36 after intervention were statistically upregulated, and the difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). After intervention, the score of SF-36 in the research group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The application of protective motivation intervention in rehabilitation of LDH patients can more effectively improve their cognitive level, reduce their pain perception, improve their lumbar function, and enhance their well-being.


Assuntos
Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Motivação , Percepção da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(3): 321-334, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055726

RESUMO

While substance experimentation typically begins in adolescence, substance use disorders (SUDs) usually develop in late teens or early adulthood, often in individuals who are vulnerable because of biological and socioeconomic risk factors. Severe SUDs-synonymous with addiction-involve changes in limbic and prefrontal brain areas after chronic drug exposure. These changes involve learned associations between drug reward and cues that trigger the anticipation of that reward (known as incentive salience), as well as heightened dysphoria during withdrawal and weakened prefrontal circuits needed for inhibiting habitual responses.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo , Humanos , Motivação , Recompensa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 112, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A shift toward more plant-based foods in diets is required to improve health and to reduce environmental impact. Little is known about food choice motives and associated characteristics of those individuals who have actually reduced their consumption of animal-based foods. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify change-inducing motives related to meat and legume consumptions among non-vegetarians. The association between change-inducing motives and individual characteristics was also studied. METHODS: This study included 25,393 non-vegetarian participants in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (77.4% women, mean age 55.4 ± 13.9 y.). The motives related to the declared change in meat and legume consumptions (e.g., taste, environment, social pressure) were assessed by an online questionnaire in 2018. For each motive, respondents could be classified into three groups: no motive; motive, not change-inducing; change-inducing motive. Associations between change-inducing motives and individual characteristics were evaluated using multivariable polytomic logistic regressions. Characteristics of participants who rebalanced their meat and legume consumptions were also compared to those who reduced their meat but did not increase their legume consumption. RESULTS: Motives most strongly declared as having induced a change in meat or legume consumptions were health and nutrition (respectively 90.7 and 81.0% declared these motives as change-inducing for the meat reduction), physical environment (82.0% for meat reduction only) and taste preferences (77.7% for legume increase only). Other motives related to social influences, meat avoidance and meat dislike were reported by fewer individuals, but were declared as having induced changes in food consumption. Most motives that induced a meat reduction and a legume increase were more likely to be associated with specific individual characteristics, for example being a woman or highly educated for health motives. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the motives reported as important, some motives less frequently felt important were declared as having induced changes in meat or legume consumptions. Change-inducing motives were reported by specific subpopulations. Public campaigns on health and sustainability could usefully develop new tools to reach populations less willing to change. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03335644).


Assuntos
Dieta , Fabaceae , Carne , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação
4.
Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur ; 25(2): 138-140, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system and radioiodine therapy (RAIT) is still very often used, resulting in patients staying hospitalized for a few days alone and without visitors, augmenting their stress and discomfort. Our objective was to find simple ways of improving RAIT patients' feelings and perceived quality of the nuclear medicine (NM) department services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We designed a two-year study in order to enhance RAIT patients' perceived quality of the nuclear medicine (NM) department services and expectations' fulfillment. A questionnaire was used in order to capture patients' perceived quality and expectations from their RAIT. RESULTS: 549 replies were collected. Many intrinsic and extrinsic determinants were found to be positively or negatively related to the perceived quality and fulfillment of patients' expectations of receiving RAIT. A 1% increase could be achieved by spending 110 € per RAIT room. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we present some easily implemented changes in both personnel behavior and room amenities that could, at least in theory and based on our results, offer a 37.9% improvement in RAIT patients' perceived quality and expectations' fulfillment at a cost of 4169 €.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Motivação , Cintilografia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia
5.
Int J Esthet Dent ; 17(3): 254-265, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047884

RESUMO

Digital guides (also known as stents) have become commonly used in daily dental practice. CBCT, digital impressions, and stereolithographic models are considered extremely helpful to create guides for the planning and resolution of surgical cases. In recent years, in periodontal surgery and in particular for the treatment of altered passive eruption (APE), there has been an increasing use of digitally designed guides to improve esthetic outcomes and achieve more predictable results. Digital custom-made guides can be used to improve safety and precision in crown lengthening procedures in patients with APE who have high esthetic expectations. Although most approaches described in the literature show guides used for primary flap or gingivectomy design, the precision of bone recontouring and ostectomy plays a key role in soft tissue rebound and in the final esthetic outcome. The present article describes a new approach using two different guides for soft tissue design in patients with APE.


Assuntos
Aumento da Coroa Clínica , Hominidae , Animais , Aumento da Coroa Clínica/métodos , Estética Dentária , Gengivectomia/métodos , Humanos , Motivação
6.
Compr Psychiatry ; 118: 152343, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of aberrant salience is related to the onset of psychosis. Its study is important for early identification and possible intervention in processes activating later positive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: This study validated the Spanish Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI) for adult and clinical populations. METHODS: The sample consisted of 6178 participants, of whom 4523 were adolescents, 1292 were general population adults and 363 were patients with a psychopathology. RESULTS: The evidence provided validates the instrument's structure. Invariance of measurement suggests that both men and women, patients and nonclinical population (adults and adolescents) interpreted the items on the ASI similarly. The distribution of scores by age also suggests stabilization of the trend at about 19 years of age, showing a developmental change in motivational response. The hypothesis that patients, and in particular, those diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders would have the highest average scores in aberrant salience was met. CONCLUSIONS: This is a valuable instrument for evaluating a complex process related to abnormal motivation in the development of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 93, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: User involvement in research has rapidly increased and is often a precondition to obtain research funding. Benefits such as effectiveness and increased relevance of research are described in the literature, but the evidence to support this is weak. Little is known about ageing and health researchers' experiences and perspectives towards user involvement in research, and their attitudes towards user involvement compared to the attitudes of the users involved are largely unknown. To examine researchers' experiences and perspectives of user involvement in research on ageing and health, and to compare their attitudes towards user involvement to the attitudes of older adults in the general population. METHODS: A panel study survey was used to elicit responses from researchers in ageing and health as well as from older adults (aged 60 years and older). The researcher sample (N = 64) completed the survey online, while the older adult sample (N = 881) could choose among three different options to complete the survey (online, paper format, telephone). A professional survey company collected the data. Descriptive statistics, exploratory comparisons and descriptive qualitative content analysis were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: More than half (58%) of the researchers had previous experience of involving different categories of users in a wide range of research activities. The most frequent motivation for involving users was to ensure that the research produced is relevant to the target population. A majority (86%) reported benefits, and more than half (59%) described challenges. Differences in attitudes were found between researchers and older adults in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Ageing and health researchers involve users in their research to improve quality and ensure relevance, but there is no consensus among them whether users should be involved in publicly funded research. While several challenges were identified, training, institutional support and resources from funders could alleviate many of these. Findings reveal significant differences in attitudes between older adults in the general population and researchers. Further research with comparable larger samples is needed to confirm and understand the possible consequences such controversy might have and how to solve them. IRRID (International Registered Report Identifier): RR2-10.2196/17759.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pesquisadores , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 111, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding determinants of children's outdoor play is important for improving low physical activity levels, and schools are a key setting for both. Safety concerns shape children's opportunity to play actively outdoors, therefore, this qualitative evidence synthesis aimed to i) examine adult (e.g., parent, teacher, yard supervisor, principal) perspectives on safety and risk in children's active play during recess in elementary and/or middle schools, and ii) identify how safety and risk influence playground supervision and decision making in this setting. METHODS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched in March 2021, with an updated search in June 2022. Records were screened against eligibility criteria using Covidence software, and data extraction and synthesis were performed using predesigned coding forms in Microsoft Excel and NVivo. Framework synthesis methodology was employed, guided by a conceptual framework structured on the socio-ecological model (SEM) and affordance theory. RESULTS: From 10,370 records, 25 studies were included that represented 608 adults across 89 schools from nine countries. The synthesis identified 10 constraining and four affording factors that influenced whether school staff were risk-averse or risk tolerant during recess, and, in turn, the degree to which children's play was managed. Constraining factors stemmed from fears for children's physical safety, and fear of blame and liability in the event of playground injury, which shaped parent, school staff and institutional responses to risk. Interrelated factors across SEM levels combined to drive risk-averse decision making and constraining supervision. Emerging evidence suggests children's active play in schools can be promoted by fostering a risk tolerant and play friendly culture in schools through play facilitation training (e.g., risk-reframing, conflict resolution) and engaging stakeholders in the development of school policies and rules that balance benefits of play against potential risks. CONCLUSIONS: Findings show several socio-cultural factors limited the ability of school staff to genuinely promote active play. Future work should seek to foster risk tolerance in schools, challenge the cultural norms that shape parent attitudes and institutional responses to risk in children's play, and explore novel methods for overcoming policy barriers and fear of liability in schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration: CRD42021238719.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Audição , Humanos , Motivação , Pais
9.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 1549185, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051569

RESUMO

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 349 Malaysian patients (182 females and 167 males) aged 18-30 years. A questionnaire consisting of ten items developed by Sawyers and Newton was administered to the patients who visited the department of Orthodontics seeking orthodontic treatment. Outcome measures. Descriptive analysis of the responses and comparison of male and female expectations. Results: Most of the patients expected only a check-up/diagnosis/discussion at their initial appointment, anticipated a fixed type of orthodontic treatment, did not prefer extraction/removal of their teeth, thought the treatment to be painful, and can restrict what they could eat or drink. Positive expectations from the patient included better tooth alignment, enhanced smile, improved confidence, and advancement in professional career. At the same time, nearly half of the patients' assumed speech/mastication does not get affected during the treatment. Moreover, very few patients believed it would be easier to eat/speak/keep their teeth clean after the treatment. Compared to males, more females had significantly anticipated fixed types of orthodontic treatment, thinking the treatment to be painful and restrictive in terms of what they could eat or drink. Most of the females were unsure about the length of the orthodontic treatment and had significantly higher expectations concerning career improvement. Conclusions: To meet the varied expectations of each of the patients, effective communication between the orthodontist and the patient is essential.


Assuntos
Motivação , Ortodontia Corretiva , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(8): 1046-1052, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to develop and test a simple role-playing game (RPG) dedicated to the generic drug product research and development (R&D) process and evaluate the level of acceptance of this teaching method among pharmacy students. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students were divided into small groups and participated in the RPG adventures, which led to descriptive characteristics of the development process of the fictional drug product. The depiction of the process in the adventure considered the milestones and obligatory actions to achieve the R&D goal. FINDINGS: The voluntary survey was completed by 59% (n = 72) of participants. Over 90% of the respondents stated that the game helped them better understand generic drug development. The RPG application allowed a narrative description of the process with the possibility of students' involvement in drug development that mixed regulatory, analytical, and technological issues. SUMMARY: The application of the RPG allowed the creation of a narrative description of the process with the possibility of involving students in complicated problematics concerning drug development that mixed regulatory, analytical, and technological aspects of this process.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos , Motivação , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa , Desempenho de Papéis
11.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(3): 503-514, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055735

RESUMO

Rates of cannabis use have been rising in the US due to the increasing legalization/decriminalization of cannabis products for medical and recreational use. Individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at an increased risk of experiencing cannabis use problems due to deficits in self-regulation. This article explores motivations for cannabis use in ADHD populations. Research on the neural correlates and therapeutic potential of cannabis use are reviewed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Cannabis , Abuso de Maconha , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/complicações , Motivação
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 335, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are various reports on factors associated with physical activity in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. However, there are no studies on the relationship between physical activity and psychological or environmental factors. In this study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity and psychological and environmental factors using questionnaires for patients with pneumoconiosis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included patients with pneumoconiosis who underwent a pneumoconiosis health examination in 2019. A self-administered questionnaire was used to conduct the study. Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and subjective symptoms [dyspnea and quality of life (QOL)], environmental factors (environment around home and life space), psychological factors (depression, stage of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance, and outcome expectations), and others (e.g., experience with pulmonary rehabilitation) were investigated. RESULTS: The number of respondents in the study was 185 (men: 171, women: 14). Age, dyspnea, stage of change, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, QOL, depression, decisional balance, and life space were significantly correlated with physical activity. In the multivariate analysis, outcome expectations and dyspnea were extracted as independent factors. In the path analysis, outcome expectations and dyspnea had a direct influence on physical activity. Dyspnea directly impacted not only physical activity but also outcome expectations, stage of change, QOL, life space, and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Dyspnea and outcome expectations were associated with physical activity in patients with pneumoconiosis. To improve physical activity in pneumoconiosis patients, it was suggested that it may be necessary to improve dyspnea and promote an understanding of physical activity.


Assuntos
Pneumoconiose , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(9): e754-e762, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines have been available to all adults in the USA since April, 2021, but many adults remain unvaccinated. We aimed to assess the joint effect of a proof-of-vaccination requirement, incentive payments, and employer-based mandates on rates of adult vaccination in New York City (NYC). METHODS: We constructed a synthetic control group for NYC composed of other counties in the core of large, metropolitan areas in the USA. The vaccination outcomes for NYC were compared against those of the synthetic control group from July 26, 2021, to Nov 1, 2021, to determine the differential effects of the policies. Analyses were conducted on county-level vaccination data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The synthetic control group was constructed by matching on county-level preintervention vaccination outcomes, partisanship, economic attributes, demographics, and metropolitan area population. Statistical inference was conducted using placebo tests for non-treated counties. FINDINGS: The synthetic control group resembled NYC across attributes used in the matching process. The cumulative adult vaccination rate for NYC (in adults aged 18 years or older who received at least one dose of an authorised COVID-19 vaccine) increased from 72·5% to 89·4% (+16·9 percentage points [pp]) during the intervention period, compared with an increase from 72·5% to 83·2% (+10·7 pp) for the synthetic control group, a difference of 6·2 pp (95% CI 1·4-10·7), or 410 201 people (90 966-706 532). Daily vaccinations for NYC were consistently higher than those in the synthetic control group, a pattern that started shortly after the start of the intervention period. INTERPRETATION: The combination of a proof-of-vaccination requirement, incentive payments, and vaccine mandates increased vaccination rates among adults in NYC compared with jurisdictions that did not use the same measures. Whether the impact of these measures occurred by inducing more people to get vaccinated, or by accelerating vaccinations that would have occurred later, the increase in vaccination rates likely averted illness and death. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Motivação , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Vacinação
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1663120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060872

RESUMO

Teachers' management effectiveness can reflect the comprehensive ability and effective evaluation of the teaching management objectives of the school and can also reflect the effectiveness management of the school to a certain extent. In the environment of sustainable and innovative development, the rapid development of education has made improving the management efficiency and motivation of university teachers became the key direction of university management. In order to study the impact of teachers' management efficacy and motivation on college students' academic achievement and postemployment social responsibility cognition under sustainable innovation, this study compares the impact of teachers in different periods on students and analyzes the changes of teachers in different periods on students. Finally, it is concluded that teachers' management efficiency and motivation under sustainable innovation can promote students' employment achievement and social responsibility cognition, improve the teaching quality of colleges and universities, and provide high-quality talents for the country. The educational concept of sustainable innovation is conducive to improving teachers' independent innovation and realizing the educational function of cultivating students' personalized development in colleges and universities.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Motivação , Cognição , Emprego , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Estudantes
15.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 6727334, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060875

RESUMO

This paper probes into the construction of academic English learning environment in colleges and universities from the perspective of educational ecology. This paper aims to construct academic English learning environment from the perspective of educational ecology by constructing a teaching community, organizing learning activities, using tool mediation, and optimizing the social and material environment. Understand the construction effect through a questionnaire survey. The results show that among the 1000 surveyed students' average satisfaction with the five elements of the learning environment, the teaching community is 4.6355, the learning community is 4.8963, the learning activity is 4.6987, the tool intermediary is 4.9258, and the social material environment is 4.2536, indicating that the students' satisfaction is high. From the perspective of educational ecology, the construction of academic English learning environment in colleges and universities can effectively optimize teaching and learning community and help to enhance students' motivation, cultivate learning interest, and improve practical ability. The construction effect is worthy of recognition.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Escolaridade , Humanos , Motivação , Universidades
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 946888, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062102

RESUMO

Background: Public health emergencies have an immense effect on social stability, economic development, and human life. Volunteers played an indispensable role in health monitoring, assistance with daily life, and social network repairing. However, few policies analysis concentrated on the voluntary services involved in public health emergencies. Objectives: This study aims to analyze and summarize the advantages and flaws of the policy documents relating to voluntary services involved in public health emergencies, and put forward the enlightenment on policymaking and optimization. Methods: A three-dimensional analysis framework of "Policy instruments-Participants of voluntary services-Stages of voluntary services" was designed. Policy documents at the national level were retrieved from the official websites of the State Council of the People's Republic of China and its departments as well as the PKULAW Database. NVivo software was applied to analyze the contents of the included policy documents. Gephi software was adopted to conduct a visualized atlas analysis of the cooperative network among policymaking departments. Results: A total of 77 policy documents were included, and most were published in 2020 (n = 40). The Ministry of Civil Affairs (n = 19) and the National Health Commission (n = 18) issued more documents than the other departments. They cooperated more extensively with other departments. In policy documents, supply-side policy instruments were utilized the most (65.4%), followed by demand-side (23.9%). Voluntary organizations in the form of ambiguous sense were most mentioned as service participants (n = 73). In the stages of service delivery, service content mainly involved the prevention and control of public health emergencies (27, 18.9%) and psychological counseling (26, 18.2%). Conclusion: Time distribution of policy documents featured "incubation period-outbreak and continuous evolution period-elimination recovery period." Joint issuing became the dominant form. The internal structure of policy instruments was unbalanced with different priorities, and the overall structure is expected to be optimized to promote voluntary organization management, reinforce external resources, and close the gap between policymaking and policy implementation. Volunteers' competence and voluntary organizations' system needs to be improved, and the contents of voluntary services should be enriched for the preparedness for future public health emergency.


Assuntos
Emergências , Saúde Pública , China , Humanos , Motivação , Políticas
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1982): 20220978, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069015

RESUMO

Differences in attitudes on social issues such as abortion, immigration and sex are hugely divisive, and understanding their origins is among the most important tasks facing human behavioural sciences. Despite the clear psychological importance of parenthood and the motivation to provide care for children, researchers have only recently begun investigating their influence on social and political attitudes. Because socially conservative values ostensibly prioritize safety, stability and family values, we hypothesized that being more invested in parental care might make socially conservative policies more appealing. Studies 1 (preregistered; n = 376) and 2 (n = 1924) find novel evidence of conditional experimental effects of a parenthood prime, such that people who engaged strongly with a childcare manipulation showed an increase in social conservatism. Studies 3 (n = 2610, novel data from 10 countries) and 4 (n = 426 444, World Values Survey data) find evidence that both parenthood and parental care motivation are associated with increased social conservatism around the globe. Further, most of the positive association globally between age and social conservatism is accounted for by parenthood. These findings support the hypothesis that parenthood and parental care motivation increase social conservatism.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Motivação , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Política , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Google and Apple's Exposure Notifications System (ENS) was developed early in the COVID-19 pandemic to complement existing contact tracing efforts while protecting user privacy. An analysis by the Associated Press released in December 2020 estimated approximately 1 in 14 people had downloaded apps in states one was available. In this study, we assessed the motivation and experience of individuals who downloaded ENS apps from the Google Play and Apple App Stores. METHODS: We collected review text, star rating, and date of rating for all the reviews on ENS apps in the Google Play and Apple App stores. We extracted the relative frequency of single words and phrases from reviews and created an open vocabulary language, with themes categorized by the research team, to study the salient themes around reviews with high (3-5 stars), neutral (3 stars), and negative (1-2 stars) ratings using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 7622 reviews obtained from 26 states between 04/07/2020 to 03/31/2021, 6364 were from Google Play Store, and 1258 were from Apple App Store. We obtained reviews for a total of 38 apps, with 25 apps from the Google Play Store and 13 apps from the Apple Play Store. 78% of the reviews are either 1 star or 5 stars. Positive reviews were driven by ease of use, support for the state government in creating the app, and encouragement for others to download, as well as engage in other COVID-19 precautions. Negative and neutral reviews focused on issues with app functionality (i.e., installation and tracking errors). CONCLUSIONS: Uptake was the largest barrier to success for ENS apps, but states can use insight from app store reviews to better position themselves if they choose to develop further public health apps.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Motivação , Pandemias
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1740, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to physical activity is inadequate in adults with metabolic syndrome. Adherence to physical activity recommendations is crucial and can result in improved health outcomes and reduced medical burdens. A comprehensive behavior change intervention, including identifying determinants of adherence to physical activity recommendations, intervention options, intervention content and implementation options, was imperative for enhancing physical activity adherence. The aim of the study is to develop an intervention to increase physical activity adherence among individuals with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The study followed the eight steps of the Behavior Change Wheel guide, including defining the problem in behavioral terms (Step 1), selecting target behavior (Step 2), specifying target behavior (Step 3), identifying what needs to change (Step 4), identifying intervention functions (Step 5), identifying policy categories (Step 6), identifying behavior change techniques (Step 7), and determining model of delivery (Step 8). The semi-structured, in-depth interviews were employed to identify the determinants of adherence to physical activity among twenty-eight individuals with metabolic syndrome based on capability, opportunity, motivation and behavior model. Next, the intervention functions and policy categories were chosen to address these determinants. Finally, behavior change techniques were selected to assist in the delivery of the intervention functions and be translated into intervention content. RESULTS: Our study identified eighteen facilitators and fifteen barriers to physical activity adherence. It resulted in the selection of seven intervention functions and nineteen behavior change techniques for the intervention program. Then, the current study identified an app as the delivery mode. Finally, a behavioral change intervention was generated for individuals with metabolic syndrome to increase physical activity recommendation adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The Behavior Change Wheel provided a systematic approach to designing a behavior change intervention, which helped improve the health outcomes and reduce medical burdens and economic burdens among individuals with metabolic syndrome. The findings suggested that potential intervention should pay special attention to increasing knowledge in metabolic syndrome, imparting skills of physical activity, offering a supportive environment, and providing suggestions on regular physical activity using the appropriate behavior change techniques. A feasibility study will be undertaken to assess the acceptability and effectiveness of the intervention program in the future.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Motivação
20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e25979, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To develop a patient-centred financial incentive delivery strategy to improve antiretroviral treatment adherence in adolescents and young adults (AYA) living with HIV in Kisumu, Kenya, we conducted a mixed methods study exploring preferences. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) and focus group discussion (FGD) were conducted simultaneously to identify preferences for five incentive delivery strategy features: value, eligibility, recipient, format and disbursement frequency. We used consecutive sampling to recruit AYA (14-24 years) living with HIV attending three health facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. We calculated mean preferences, willingness to trade, latent class membership and predictors of latent class membership. The FGD explored preferred incentive features, and, after deductive and inductive coding, qualitative findings were triangulated with DCE results. RESULTS: Two hundred and seven AYA living with HIV (46% 14-17 years, 54% 18-24 years; 33% male sex, 89% viral load <50 copies/ml) were recruited to the study (28 October-16 November 2020). Two distinct preference phenotypes emerged from the DCE analysis (N = 199), 44.8% of the population fell into an "immediate reward" group, who wanted higher value cash or mobile money distributed at each clinic visit, and 55.2% fell into a "moderate spender" group, who were willing to accept lower value incentives in the form of cash or shopping vouchers, and accrued payments. The immediate reward group were willing to trade up to 200 Kenyan Shillings (KSH)-approximately 2 US dollars (USD)-of their 500 KSH (∼5 USD) incentive to get monthly as opposed to accrued yearly payments. The strongest predictor of latent class membership was age (RR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.08-1.95; p = 0.006). Qualitative data highlighted the unique needs of those attending boarding school and confirmed an overwhelming preference for cash incentives which appeared to provide the greatest versatility for use. CONCLUSIONS: Providing small financial incentives as cash was well-aligned with AYA preferences in this setting. AYA should additionally be offered a choice of other incentive delivery features (such as mobile money, recipient and disbursement frequency) to optimally align with the specific needs of their age group and life stage.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Motivação , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Recompensa
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