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1.
Artif Intell Med ; 128: 102311, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of electronic health records has provided a large volume of unstructured biomedical information. Extracting patient characteristics from these data has become a major challenge, especially in languages other than English. METHODS: Inspired by the French Text Mining Challenge (DEFT 2021) [1] in which we participated, our study proposes a multilabel classification of clinical narratives, allowing us to automatically extract the main features of a patient report. Our system is an end-to-end pipeline from raw text to labels with two main steps: named entity recognition and multilabel classification. Both steps are based on a neural network architecture based on transformers. To train our final classifier, we extended the dataset with all English and French Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) vocabularies related to human diseases. We focus our study on the multilingualism of training resources and models, with experiments combining French and English in different ways (multilingual embeddings or translation). RESULTS: We obtained an overall average micro-F1 score of 0.811 for the multilingual version, 0.807 for the French-only version and 0.797 for the translated version. CONCLUSION: Our study proposes an original multilabel classification of French clinical notes for patient phenotyping. We show that a multilingual algorithm trained on annotated real clinical notes and UMLS vocabularies leads to the best results.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Idioma , Unified Medical Language System
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5436, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361890

RESUMO

Sentiment analysis (SA) is an important task because of its vital role in analyzing people's opinions. However, existing research is solely based on the English language with limited work on low-resource languages. This study introduced a new multi-class Urdu dataset based on user reviews for sentiment analysis. This dataset is gathered from various domains such as food and beverages, movies and plays, software and apps, politics, and sports. Our proposed dataset contains 9312 reviews manually annotated by human experts into three classes: positive, negative and neutral. The main goal of this research study is to create a manually annotated dataset for Urdu sentiment analysis and to set baseline results using rule-based, machine learning (SVM, NB, Adabbost, MLP, LR and RF) and deep learning (CNN-1D, LSTM, Bi-LSTM, GRU and Bi-GRU) techniques. Additionally, we fine-tuned Multilingual BERT(mBERT) for Urdu sentiment analysis. We used four text representations: word n-grams, char n-grams,pre-trained fastText and BERT word embeddings to train our classifiers. We trained these models on two different datasets for evaluation purposes. Finding shows that the proposed mBERT model with BERT pre-trained word embeddings outperformed deep learning, machine learning and rule-based classifiers and achieved an F1 score of 81.49%.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Linguagem Natural
3.
Augment Altern Commun ; 38(1): 67-76, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422195

RESUMO

Multilingual individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) often shift between language environments and speakers of different languages; thus, code-switching (or alternating between languages or dialects within or across contexts) becomes necessary for effective communication. Recently, AAC product developers have responded to this need by building multilingual AAC systems; however, research in multilingualism and AAC is lacking. In this paper, we discuss theoretical and practical implications for research related to code-switching using aided AAC. We use available literature investigating the sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and usage-based aspects of code-switching in spoken or signed modalities as a starting point for considering code-switching using aided AAC. We present examples illustrating the varied expression of codeswitching across aided AAC modalities and discuss directions for future research.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Comunicação para Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos da Comunicação , Multilinguismo , Comunicação , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6381, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430617

RESUMO

There is substantial evidence that learning and using multiple languages modulates selective attention in children. The current study investigated the mechanisms that drive this modification. Specifically, we asked whether the need for constant management of competing languages in bilinguals increases attentional capacity, or draws on the available resources such that they need to be economised to support optimal task performance. Monolingual and bilingual children aged 7-12 attended to a narrative presented in one ear, while ignoring different types of interference in the other ear. We used EEG to capture the neural encoding of attended and unattended speech envelopes, and assess how well they can be reconstructed from the responses of the neuronal populations that encode them. Despite equivalent behavioral performance, monolingual and bilingual children encoded attended speech differently, with the pattern of encoding across conditions in bilinguals suggesting a redistribution of the available attentional capacity, rather than its enhancement.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
5.
Phonetica ; 79(1): 1-43, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427446

RESUMO

The current study extends traditional perceptual high-variability phonetic training (HVPT) in a foreign language learning context by implementing a comprehensive training paradigm that combines perception (discrimination and identification) and production (immediate repetition) training tasks and by exploring two potentially enhancing training conditions: the use of non-lexical training stimuli and the presence of masking noise during production training. We assessed training effects on L1-Spanish/Catalan bilingual EFL learners' production of a difficult English vowel contrast (/æ/-/ʌ/). The participants (N = 62) were randomly assigned to either non-lexical (N = 24) or lexical (N = 24) training and were further subdivided into two groups, one trained in noise (N = 12) and one in silence (N = 12). An untrained control group (N = 14) was also tested. Training gains, measured through spectral distance scores (Euclidean distances) with respect to native speakers' productions of /æ/ and /ʌ/, were assessed through delayed word and sentence repetition tasks. The results showed an advantage of non-lexical training over lexical training, detrimental effects of noise for participants trained with nonwords, but not for those trained with words, and less accurate production of vowels elicited in isolated words than in words embedded in sentences, where training gains were only observable for participants trained with nonwords.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Idioma , Ruído , Fonética
6.
Cortex ; 151: 147-161, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413597

RESUMO

Converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggests parallel activation of native (L1) and second (L2) language codes in bilinguals, with the modulation of the N400 as the most likely neural correlate of such L1-L2 interplay at lexico-semantic level. However, this relatively late effect may reflect secondary controlled processes, in contrast to earlier modulations found in monolinguals (<200 msec) indicative of fast and automatic lexico-semantic L1 access, which has so far not been documented for bilingualism. To address this, we investigated early neurophysiological crosslinguistic activation during bilingual word access. EEG signals were recorded from a group of late bilinguals during a masked-priming crosslinguistic task in which L1 (Russian) words were presented as subliminal primes for 50 msec before L2 (English) target words. Prime-target pairs matched either phonologically only, semantically only, both phonologically and semantically, or did not match. Cluster-based random permutation analyses revealed a main effect of semantic similarity at 40-60 msec over centro-posterior scalp sites, reflecting a negative-going shift of ERP amplitudes for semantically similar prime-target pairs. Importantly, neural source reconstruction showed activations within a left-hemispheric network comprising the middle and superior temporal cortex and the angular gyrus as the most likely neural substrate of this early semantic effect. Furthermore, analyses also revealed significant differences over frontocentral sites for the main effect of semantic and phonological similarity, ranging from 312 to 356 and 380-444 msec respectively, thus confirming previously described N400 crosslinguistic effects. Our findings confirm the existence of an integrated brain network for the bilingual lexicon and reveal the earliest (∼50 msec) crosslinguistic effect reported so far, suggesting fast and automatic L1-L2 interplay, followed by later (possibly top-down controlled) processing stages.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 226: 103590, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439617

RESUMO

One of the challenges in second-language learning is learning unfamiliar word forms, especially when this involves novel phoneme contrasts. The present study examines how real-time processing of newly-learned words and phonemes in a second language is impacted by the structure of learning (discrimination training) and whether asking participants to complete the same task after a 16-21 h delay favours subsequent word recognition. Specifically, using a visual world eye tracking paradigm, we assessed how English listeners processed newly-learned words containing non-native French front-rounded [y] compared to native-sounding vowels, both immediately after training and the following day. Some learners were forced to discriminate between vowels that are perceptually similar for English listeners, [y]-[u], while others were not. We found significantly better word-level processing on a variety of indices after an overnight delay. We also found that training [y] words paired with [u] words (vs. [y]-Control pairs) led to a greater decrease in reaction times during the word recognition task over the two testing sessions. Discrimination training using perceptually similar sounds had facilitative effects on second language word learning with novel phonemic information, and real-time processing measures such as eyetracking provided valuable insights into how individuals learn words and phonemes in a second language.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Fonética , Resolução de Problemas
8.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 37: 15333175221091417, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470704

RESUMO

In the absence of effective pharmacological interventions for the prevention of dementia, attention has turned to lifestyle factors that contribute to cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve cannot prevent the occurrence of disease, the trajectory is different for high reserve and low reserve patients, giving more time for independent living to high reserve individuals. We argue that lifelong bilingual experience meets the criteria for an experience that confers cognitive reserve, although neural reserve, a related concept, is more difficult to validate. Bilingual patients show symptoms at a later stage of disease and decline more rapidly than comparable monolingual patients. These patterns are considered in terms of evidence from behavioural, imaging and epidemiological studies. Finally, the role of bilingualism in protecting against symptoms of some forms of dementia are discussed in the context of other protective factors and the limits of this reserve approach in dealing with the consequences of dementia.


Assuntos
Reserva Cognitiva , Demência , Multilinguismo , Demência/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
9.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 48(2): 284-303, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420873

RESUMO

Processing of emotional meaning is crucial in many areas of psychology, including language and music processing. This issue takes on particular significance in bilinguals because it has been suggested that bilinguals process affective words differently in their first (L1) and second, later acquired languages (L2). We undertook a series of five experiments examining affective priming between emotionally valenced language and emotionally valenced music. Adult English monolinguals and two groups of proficient adult late bilinguals (German-English and Italian-English) with recent L2 exposure were examined. Priming effects were investigated using music to prime word targets and words to prime music targets. For both groups of bilinguals, music showed equivalent affective priming of L1 and L2 words, suggesting no difference in deliberate processing of affective meaning. Conversely, when words primed music, L2 words lacked the affective priming strength of L1 words for both late bilingual groups. Among various language background factors, only greater length of residence in the L2 context was positively related to the affective priming strength of L2 words. These results show strong activation of emotional meaning in the L1 of late bilinguals but reduced activation in the L2, where level of activation depends on the duration of everyday exposure to the L2. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Adulto , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma
10.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 532-541, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271346

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the change in specific English microstructure features according to language ability in preschool Spanish-English dual language learners. METHOD: We collected English narratives from 22 Spanish-English dual language learners with typical language development (TD) and 22 Spanish-English dual language learners with developmental language disorder (DLD) at the beginning and end of their first year in Head Start. Children came from Spanish-speaking homes and were exposed to English and Spanish in their preschool classrooms. We analyzed children's use of English microstructure across time using the Narrative Assessment Protocol. RESULTS: Both groups showed improvement in overall English microstructure use, although children with TD made greater gains than children with DLD. Phrase structure (noun phrases, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositional phrases) increased in both groups, but more so in children with TD than with DLD. Sentence structure (compound, complex, negative, and interrogative sentences) increased in both groups. Verb use, noun use (Tier 2 nouns and nouns marked with plural and possessive endings), and modifiers (adverbs and adjectives) neither changed across time nor differed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish-English dual language learners who attend Head Start and come from Spanish-speaking homes, regardless of language ability, may not readily acquire verbs, nouns, and modifiers during their first year of formal English exposure, suggesting that they would benefit from explicit instruction in these areas. Preschool Spanish-English dual language learners with DLD may make less progress than their peers with TD in phrase structure use, indicating that explicit instruction in this microstructure feature may be beneficial for children with DLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
11.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 360-375, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our proof-of-concept study tested the feasibility of virtual testing using child assessments that were originally validated for in-person testing only. METHOD: Ten adult-child dyads were assigned to complete both in-person and virtual tests of language, cognition, and narratives. Child participants fell between the ages of 4 and 8 years; adult participants were speech-language clinicians or researchers with experience in administering child assessments. Half of child participants were Spanish-English bilinguals, and half were monolingual English speakers. RESULTS: Results showed similar performance across in-person and virtual modalities on all assessments. Recommendations for adapting, administering, and scoring virtual measures with linguistically diverse children are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Although additional research on virtual assessment is needed, our results open opportunities for appropriate remote assessment, particularly for bilingual children, who may not have in-person access to speech-language pathology services.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma
12.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1574-1591, 2022 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study examined the role of attention and language ability in nonverbal rule induction performance in a demographically diverse sample of school-age children. METHOD: The participants included 43 English-speaking monolingual and 65 Spanish-English bilingual children between the ages of 5 and 9 years. Core Language Index standard scores from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition indexed children's language skills. Rule induction was measured via a visual artificial grammar learning task. Two equally complex finite-state artificial grammars were used. Children learned one grammar in a low attention condition (where children were exposed to symbol sequences with no distractors) and another grammar in a high attention condition (where distractor symbols were presented around the perimeter of the target symbol sequences). RESULTS: Overall, performance in the high attention condition was significantly worse than performance in the low attention condition. Children with robust language skills performed significantly better in the high attention condition than children with weaker language skills. Despite group differences in socioeconomic status, English language skills, and nonverbal intelligence, monolingual and bilingual children performed similarly to each other in both conditions. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the ability to extract rules from visual input is attenuated by the presence of competing visual information and that language ability, but not bilingualism, may influence rule induction.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguística
13.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 598-625, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multilingual children are disproportionately represented on speech pathology caseloads, in part due to the limited ability of traditional language assessments to accurately capture multilingual children's language abilities. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for identification of language disorder in multilingual children using dynamic assessment and considers clinical applications of the evidence. METHOD: A systematic search of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Education Resources Information Centre, Education Source, Google Scholar, Linguistics, Medline, and PsycINFO databases produced 10 articles that met the inclusion criteria: between-groups comparison studies that used dynamic assessment to identify language disorder in children under 12 years old that spoke a different language at home to the majority society language. Articles were critically appraised using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) protocol. RESULTS: Nine of the 10 studies reported that their dynamic assessment identified language disorder in multilingual children. However, small sample sizes, limited language pairs, variability in the reference standard, and design deficiencies resulted in poor ratings for all studies on QUADAS-2. CONCLUSIONS: The studies in this review reflected an emergent area of research. Preliminary guidelines for clinical application indicate that dynamic assessment may be a suitable and time-efficient complementary method of diagnosis of language disorder in multilingual children. Further recommendations about age of use, language of instruction, and relevant scores are included.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Linguística
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1450-1464, 2022 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This article aims to describe how exemplar variability can manipulate the word learning environment to maximize within- and cross-language generalization in Spanish-English bilinguals. Furthermore, we examined sources of individual variability that predicted word learning. METHOD: Nineteen Spanish-English bilingual children participated in a word learning task presenting words in both languages. Children learned words either in a high variability condition (in which multiple exemplars are introduced with the target word) or in a no variability condition (in which the same referent is used with the target word). Word learning was tracked over the course of the training, and retention was examined once the training was discontinued. Children's generalization of referents within and across languages was also examined. RESULTS: The exemplar variability effect was observed in within-language generalization trials, whereas cross-language generalization was less robust. Nevertheless, cross-language associations emerged in examining the role of language proficiency, such that semantic skills in English predicted word retention across languages. Similarly, children's propensity to code-switch during language production was positively correlated with retention of words learned in the high variability condition. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that Spanish-English bilingual children may make use of exemplar variability to support word learning in different ways compared with monolinguals. The exemplar variability effect interacts with children's acquired language skills and word learning abilities at the start of the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence from which future research can develop word learning interventions that are responsive to the needs of multilinguals. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19241856.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Verbal
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4703, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304522

RESUMO

English and Mandarin Chinese differ in the voice onset times (VOTs) of /b/ and /p/. Hence the way bilinguals perceive these sounds may show 'tuning' to the language-specific acoustic structure of a bilingual's languages (a discrete model), or a shared representation across languages (a unitary model). We investigated whether an individual's early childhood exposure influences their model of phoneme perception across languages, in a large sample of early English-Mandarin bilingual adults in Singapore (N = 66). As preregistered, we mapped identification functions on a /b/-/p/ VOT continuum in each language. Bilingual balance was estimated using principal components analysis and entered into GLMMs of phoneme boundary and slope. VOT boundaries were earlier for English than Mandarin, and bilingual balance predicted the slope of the transition between categories across both languages: Those who heard more English from an earlier age showed steeper category boundaries than those who heard more Mandarin, suggesting early bilinguals may transfer their model for how phonemes differ from their earlier/stronger languages to later/weaker languages. We describe the transfer model of discrete phoneme representations and its implications for use of the phoneme identification task in diverse populations.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Voz , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Audição , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312725

RESUMO

Monolingualism has typically been understood as a homogeneous phenomenon. The linguistic experiences of monolinguals are usually overlooked when analysing the impact of foreign language experiences on language processing and cognitive functioning. In this study, we analyse the linguistic experiences of 962 English-speaking individuals from the United Kingdom (UK) who identified as monolinguals. Through an online survey, we found that more than 80% of these monolinguals had learned at least one foreign language, dialect, or type of jargon. More than half of this 80% of monolinguals also used languages they had learned at some point in their lives. Moreover, nearly 40% of all the studied monolinguals confirmed that they had been passively exposed to foreign languages or dialects in their environment; approximately a fourth of these monolinguals who declared exposure to at least one foreign language (or dialect) confirmed that they also used these languages. Furthermore, activities that involved passive use of languages (i.e., activities that require reading or listening but do not require speaking or writing; e.g., watching TV) were occasionally carried out in foreign languages: around 26% of these monolinguals confirmed the passive use of more than one language. Lastly, around 58% of monolinguals who had visited one or more non-English-speaking countries declared the active use of foreign languages during their stay(s). These results suggest that the linguistic experiences of monolinguals from the UK often include exposure to and use of foreign languages. Moreover, these results show the need to consider the specificity of the monolingual language experience when analysing the impact of foreign languages on cognitive functioning, as differences in the language experiences of bilinguals also have divergent impacts on cognition. Lastly, monolingual experiences are different from bilingual experiences; therefore, existing questionnaires that evaluate language experiences should be adapted to capture the particular linguistic experiences of monolinguals.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Humanos , Linguística , Leitura , Vocabulário
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 777: 136582, 2022 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314203

RESUMO

We investigated whether language familiarity has a modulatory effect on automatic sound encoding in the auditory brainstem by measuring frequency-following responses (FFRs) to repeating speech syllables that played in the background while monolingual English speakers and Spanish-English bilingual speakers watched cartoon videos in English and Spanish. For the English monolinguals, we found that the FFR signal quality was different between the two language conditions, with higher signal to noise ratios emerging for the Spanish compared to the English condition. For the Spanish-English bilinguals, the FFR signal quality was overall higher than the monolinguals, but there no effect of language condition on the FFR. Thus, both language familiarity of the environment and bilingual language experience, may modulate automatic sound encoding.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Idioma , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 169: 108191, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227709

RESUMO

Bilingualism has been associated with increases in compensatory mechanisms to age-related neurocognitive decline thus delaying dementia symptom onset and leading to a more favorable trajectory of neurocognitive aging. However, most research to date has examined bilingualism-induced effects on neurocognition within older age ranges or young adults - with middle-aged individuals typically not being a population of interest. Furthermore, bilingualism is often treated as a dichotomous variable, despite it being a heterogeneous experience on an individual level. In the present study, we employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine whether bilingualism, and the degree of engagement in bilingual experience, modulates the nature or rate of white matter decline associated with aging. DTI data and language history data were collected from a cohort of monolingual and bilingual individuals spanning a wide age range. Two separate analyses were run. First, generalized additive models were run on matched monolingual and bilingual samples, examining effects of age on the trajectory of white matter integrity and how bilingualism modulates this effect. This analysis revealed a significant effect of age within the monolingual group for fractional anisotropy values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. However, the age effect within the bilingual group was not significant, indicating a faster decline in white matter integrity within the monolingual cohort. Second, general linear models were run on the entire participant sample, examining an interaction between age and degree of bilingual engagement on white matter integrity. Results from this analysis indicate that increased engagement in bilingual language use across the lifespan correlates with a slower decline in white matter integrity with age. Together these results indicate bilingualism, and specifically degree of bilingual engagement, impacts the trajectory of age-related decline in white matter integrity across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Substância Branca , Anisotropia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos , Longevidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 51(2): 397-415, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258773

RESUMO

Lexical stress plays a critical role in multisyllabic word reading in English. However, assignment of English lexical stress, which is neither fixed nor marked in writing, can pose significant challenges for English learners and has not been well-understood. The present study aims to fill the research gap by studying sensitivity to lexical stress cues and its contribution to their word reading performance among young English-language learners whose first language is Korean. The fundamental differences in prosodic systems between Korean and English provide theoretical significance of studying how bilingual children having no lexical stress in their first language process English lexical stress. This study focuses on two major cues to English lexical stress: morphological and orthographic cues. Findings revealed that the participants are sensitive to the two stress cues, with better performance with orthographic cues to stress assignment. However, no statistically significant correlations were found among variables on stress cue sensitivity with those on reading.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Leitura , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Idioma , República da Coreia
20.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 51(2): 373-395, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286538

RESUMO

This study provides a preliminary validation of a Greek Sentence Repetition Task (SRT) with a sample of 110 monolingual and bilingual typically developing (TLD) children and examines the test's ability to distinguish between Greek monolingual children and age-matched Albanian-Greek bilinguals using a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. This is the first study to report on the psychometric evaluation of a Greek SRT and its discriminatory ability with typical populations. Since most language assessments are standardized with monolinguals and bilingual children tend to underperform on these compared to monolinguals, it is essential to establish the level of bilingual TLD children's ability on the same tests before moving on to diagnose language impairment in bilinguals. Results showed that the Greek SRT had very high validity and reliability scores, with Accuracy measures being more reliable than Grammaticality measures. The school-age monolingual and bilingual TLD children reached different cut-off scores on this task.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Grécia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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