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1.
Pathologica ; 114(4): 339-341, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136903

RESUMO

The renal stone found in the natural mummy of an anonymous nobleman dating to 19th century was investigated using advanced imaging modalities and analytic investigations. By this multidisciplinary approach we were able to identify the chemical components and their distribution throughout the sample. These results allowed to understand the lifestyle habits of the subject, as well as the exact pathogenesis of his disease.


Assuntos
Múmias , Humanos , Itália , Múmias/história
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(9)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006373

RESUMO

The diversity of Central Asians has been shaped by multiple migrations and cultural diffusion. Although ancient DNA studies have revealed the demographic changes of the Central Asian since the Bronze Age, the contribution of the ancient populations to the modern Central Asian remains opaque. Herein, we performed high-coverage sequencing of 131 whole genomes of Indo-European-speaking Tajik and Turkic-speaking Kyrgyz populations to explore their genomic diversity and admixture history. By integrating the ancient DNA data, we revealed more details of the origins and admixture history of Central Asians. We found that the major ancestry of present-day Tajik populations can be traced back to the admixture of the Bronze Age Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex and Andronovo-related populations. Highland Tajik populations further received additional gene flow from the Tarim mummies, an isolated ancient North Eurasian-related population. The West Eurasian ancestry of Kyrgyz is mainly derived from Historical Era populations in Xinjiang of China. Furthermore, the recent admixture signals detected in both Tajik and Kyrgyz are ascribed to the expansions of Eastern Steppe nomadic pastoralists during the Historical Era.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Múmias , Asiáticos/genética , Etnicidade , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Humanos
3.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807349

RESUMO

Charles T. Currelly, first director of the Royal Ontario Museum, participated in excavations of the tomb of King Nebhepetre, now known as Mentuhotep II, (Dynasty XI) in Deir el-Bahri, Egypt in 1906. He brought to Canada many objects from the excavations, and objects that he purchased while in Egypt; these formed the initial collection of the museum. Among the objects were seven fragments of fine linen cloth with intricate pleat patterns. Recently, the cloths became the subject of a study to learn how they had retained their pleats for 4000 years. Samples were examined and analysed using polarised light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three of the cloths were likely fragments of clothing re-purposed as bandages and were found to be saturated in mummification balms composed of Pinaceae resin, Pistacia resin, and an essential oil characterised by a high abundance of cedrol, possibly originating from a juniper species. All seven of the cloths were found to have traces of polysaccharides from two probable sources: an arabinogalactan gum such as gum arabic or a fruit gum, and a polyglucoside, possibly starch.


Assuntos
Múmias , Egito , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Goma Arábica , Têxteis
4.
World Neurosurg ; 165: e664-e667, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe the consequences of a stroke in an adult mummy from ancient Egypt including the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge this is the oldest hemiparalysis to be published in the scientific literature. METHODS: The mummy, from the 25th Dynasty (c. 747-656 b.c.), was found during excavation of the tomb chapel of Hery (TT 12) and Baqi, of the early 18th Dynasty (c. 1550-1292 b.c.). Seventeen mummified bodies were found in a small corridor connecting the 2 tombs. The mummy labeled Individual 6833 was studied macroscopically and radiologically and was unique in its positioning, the presence of a crutch, and the use of sticks as supports. RESULTS: The body belonged to a woman, between 25 and 40 years of age. The type of mummification was of a high level, with excerebration and evisceration carefully performed. CONCLUSIONS: The woman suffered a stroke late in life, with left hemiparalysis after bone growth was completed, and she lived with the results for several years.


Assuntos
Múmias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Egito , Antigo Egito , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Int J Paleopathol ; 38: 64-75, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper critically reviews the history of research concerning ancient Egyptian interventive dental therapy between the Old Kingdom - Graeco-Roman Period (c. 2686 BCE-AD 323), concentrating on the published osteological evidence. MATERIALS: Eight osteological examples reportedly exhibiting markers of interventive dental therapy, including a mandible presenting purported evidence for a drilling procedure for the relief of an abscess; four dental bridges; a maxilla with multiple teeth extracted; and two carious lesion fillings. METHODS: Previous claims are critically reviewed using a qualitative research method involving collecting and critiquing published data, both primary evidence and relevant secondary literature. CONCLUSIONS: Without further scientific analysis, only four specimens can currently be plausibly attributed to ancient Egyptian interventive dental therapy including the Tura el-Asmant Bridge, the enucleation described for a Graeco-Roman child, and two carious lesion fillings identified in the mummified individuals known as the 'Redpath Mummy' (RM2718) and 'Sekhem' (AIG3343). SIGNIFICANCE: Several enduring historiographical and museological problems within the discourse are identified, revising our understanding of the nature and scope of ancient Egyptian interventive dental therapy based on currently known osteological evidence. LIMITATIONS: This review relies on the published documentation for each osteological example, namely images, which in several cases are poor quality. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: There is significant opportunity for further scientific analysis of the osteological evidence discussed. In each case, specific potential methods to improve our understanding and interpretation have been identified.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Múmias , Criança , Antigo Egito , Cabeça , Humanos
6.
Anthropol Anz ; 79(4): 451-465, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734848

RESUMO

The War of the Pacific (1879-1884) was a big scale war between Chile against the alliance of Peru and Bolivia. One of the most important battles, the "Batalla del Campo de la Alianza" was situated in the desert near Tacna, Peru. The conditions of this environment favored the conservation of the dead soldiers after many years. Decades ago, the Natural History Museum of Concepción in Chile, received a naturally mummified individual of a probably Chilean soldier as a donation; its uncertain context was never studied nor confirmed. Considering this, our investigation analyzed this body under exploratory methods, ballistic analysis, archaeological contrast, 14C radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, and isotopic analysis to reconstruct the biological profile of this mummy. The results indicated that the mummy belongs to an adult man between 33-39 years of age (> 1.50 m) and has a perimortem wound in the left flank of the abdomen. CT scan and X-rays revealed the presence of a bullet (Comblain II or Gras) hosted near the L2 vertebra. It is possible that the individual died of bleeding from a gunshot wound done by a long-distance firearm projectile from an inferior level, whose trajectory was from left to right, with slight inclination towards the top, and without a projectile exit. Other analyses confirmed the historical context and suggests the Chilean origin of the mummy. Despite the passage of time and other factors, it was possible to reconstruct the death of this individual thanks to technology and approaches from different disciplines.


Assuntos
Múmias , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adulto , Arqueologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Nature ; 604(7906): 414, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361943
8.
Pathologica ; 114(2): 152-158, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481566

RESUMO

A natural, well-preserved mummy belonging to a 45-55 year old female was found in the Church of Santa Maria della Consolazione in Scicli, south-eastern Sicily. The body was submitted to external examination, digital radiology, and computed tomography scanning. Paleopathological investigation allowed us to detect pulmonary pathology related to tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, and phleboliths. The presence of the latter, along with good dental condition with focal caries and obesity indicates a subject belonging to a high social class in good nutritional status. Along with other examples, this case allows to infer that tuberculosis was a common disease in that area, if not in the whole island, prior to the antibiotic era. Mummies need to be properly surveyed and protected, but also adequately studied by multidisciplinary teams of experts. The presence in such a team of at least one skilled anatomic/surgical pathologist, as long as well trained in the study of ancient human remains, represents an undeniable condition.


Assuntos
Múmias , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Múmias/patologia , Sicília , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268632

RESUMO

The study of animal mummification in ancient Egypt has recently received increasing attention from a number of modern scholars given the fact that this part of ancient Egyptian funerary and religious history is a practice yet to be fully understood. In this study, nine samples of embalming matter were extracted from six gazelle mummies from the archaeological site of Kom Mereh (modern village of Komir), dated to the Roman period of dominance in ancient Egypt. All samples were analyzed for the presence of inorganic and organic matter applying a multi-analytical approach based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, in order to identify more specific compounds such as bitumen and beeswax in studied balms, each sample was subjected to a solid phase extraction (SPE) and saponification separation process, respectively. The results of this study revealed that the majority of the analyzed embalming substances sampled from six gazelle mummies from Kom Mereh were complex mixtures of plant oils, animal fats, conifer resin, and beeswax. In this regard, this study was able to report a practice until now unmentioned in the scientific literature, namely, the use of cruciferous oil, derived from seeds of Brassicaceae plants, in animal mummification.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Brassicaceae , Múmias , Animais , Egito , Antigo Egito , Embalsamamento/métodos , História Antiga , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
J Parasitol ; 108(1): 70-78, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167699

RESUMO

Although Clonorchis sinensis is a parasite that still infects many people in East Asia, its genetics remain largely unknown. We conducted ancient DNA analysis of C. sinensis eggs obtained from a Joseon period mummy newly discovered in South Korea. Clonorchis sinensis DNA was amplified for internal transcribed spacer 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and 5 genes. The results of BLAST/NCBI showed that the consensus sequences were 98.24 to 100% identical to the modern and ancient C. sinensis sequences reported from Korea, China, Japan, and other Asian countries. Our report helps to fill in the genetic profile of ancient C. sinensis strains that infected East Asian people hundreds of years ago.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/história , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Múmias/parasitologia , Animais , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Clonorchis sinensis/classificação , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , História Antiga , Óvulo , Filogenia , República da Coreia
11.
Nature ; 601(7894): 664, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075304
12.
Int J Paleopathol ; 36: 30-35, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify computed tomography (CT) findings of purulent infections in ancient Egyptian child mummies. MATERIALS: Whole-body CT examination of 21 ancient Egyptian child mummies from German (n = 18), Italian (n = 1), and Swiss museums (n = 2). METHODS: CT examinations were evaluated for estimation of age at death and sex of the children. CT examinations were systematically assessed for any CT findings of purulent infection. RESULTS: The estimated age at death of the children ranged from about one year to the age of 12-14 years (mean 4.8 years). Twelve children were assessed as male, seven as female and in two sex was indeterminate. Three out of 21 child mummies (14.3%) had radiological evidence of purulent infections. In one mummy, a bandage-like structure at the right lower leg was detected that most likely represented a dressing of a skin lesion. CONCLUSIONS: This study appears to be the first to describe radiologically visualized structures consistent with dried pus in ancient Egyptian mummies. This study also appears to be the first to physically demonstrate an original ancient Egyptian dressing. SIGNIFICANCE: These cases may serve as models for further paleopathological investigation. The evidence of an original dressing contributes to our knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine. LIMITATIONS: CT was used as the only examination method as sampling of the wrapped mummies was not possible. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Radiological-pathological correlation in mummies in which physical sampling is available may reveal further insights into purulent infections in ancient Egypt.


Assuntos
Múmias , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Museus , Paleopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
Anim Cogn ; 25(1): 21-26, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312746

RESUMO

Longevity of odour memories, particularly those acquired during early development, has been documented in a wide range of taxa. Here, we report that kittens of the domestic cat retained a memory into adult life of their mother´s body odour experienced before weaning. Kittens from 15 litters were tested when permanently separated from their mother at weaning on postnatal week 8, and tested again when 4 and 6 months and over 1 year of age. When presented with a simultaneous three-way choice between body odour of their own mother, of an unknown female of similar reproductive condition and a blank stimulus, weaning-age kittens sniffed the cotton swab with the odour of an unknown female longer. This preference, however, changed when as adults the subjects sniffed the cotton swab with their own mother's odour longer. We conclude that kittens form a long-lasting memory of the body odour of their mother, and by implication, that mothers retain an individual odour signature sufficiently stable across age and changes in their reproductive state to be distinguishable by their adult offspring. What this means in functional or cognitive terms is not yet clear. Does such "recognition" have a specific biological function and a specific cognitive representation? Or is it rather part of a more general phenomenon well known in (human) olfaction of odours that are familiar generally being judged more pleasant, and that might then influence olfactory-guided behaviour in a variety of contexts?


Assuntos
Múmias , Olfato , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Odorantes
14.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(8): 1938-1946, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837472

RESUMO

In ancient Egypt, a unique technique for removing the brain was invented as part of the mummification practice and refined over the centuries. This usually involved piercing the anterior skull base through a nasal passage to remove the brain remnants through that perforation. From 2010 to 2018, an interdisciplinary team of the Universities of Basel and Zurich investigated tomb no. 40 (KV40) in the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt. Archaeological findings indicate a first burial phase during the mid-18th Dynasty (ca. 1400-1350 BCE) and a second in the 22nd to 25th Dynasty (approx. 900-700 BCE). Repeated looting since ancient times severely damaged and commingled the human remains of the two burial phases. The detailed examination of the skulls showed evidence of different transnasal craniotomy practices. This study aims to provide a systematic presentation of the evidence for different excerebration techniques found in the mummy heads, skulls, and skull fragments from KV40, reflecting the long period of occupancy of this tomb by individuals of different social classes.


Assuntos
Múmias , Arqueologia , Antigo Egito , Cabeça , História Antiga , Humanos , Múmias/história , Nasofaringe , Base do Crânio
15.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(1): 24-26, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819366

RESUMO

Even as women's roles have expanded substantially beyond traditional sex stereotypes, women are still commonly portrayed as uncomplaining caregivers, long-suffering intimate partners and in control of family matters, all while maintaining a sexualised femininity. Nowhere are these stereotypes and expectations more apparent than for mothers. However, some social media are exploiting mothers by inappropriately offering alcohol consumption as a solution to the challenges of parenting. This is a very timely topic, given the impacts of COVID-19 on family and home life, and potential for an increase in alcohol-related problems and health harms. We address these issues and offer alternatives to alcohol consumption as an easy solution to countering challenges of parenthood.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Múmias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing , Mães , Poder Familiar , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 56: 102604, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656830

RESUMO

The identity of the mummified Lady from the Barfüsser Church in Basel, Switzerland has been unsolved for decades, despite the prominent location of the burial place in front of the choir screen. A recent multidisciplinary research approach came up with a possible candidate, Anna Catharina Bischoff who died in Basel in 1787 with an age of 69 years (1719-1787). To verify the identity of the mummy, genealogists of the Citizen Science Basel discovered three living individuals of the maternal lineage of two different family branches, separated from Anna Catharina Bischoff by up to 22 generations. In this study we compare the ancient mitochondrial DNA of the mummy recovered from a premolar to the mitochondrial DNA of these three candidates. Initially the mitochondrial hypervariable regions I and II of the living individuals were screened using the Sanger sequencing method. This was followed by a mitochondrial capture approach and next generation sequencing to enrich for the whole mitochondrial genome of the mummy and one living person. A full mitochondrial genome has been recovered of both individuals sharing an identical haplotype. The sequence was assigned to the mitochondrial haplogroup U5a1+!16192 including two private mutations 10006G and 16293C. Only by using an interdisciplinary approach combining ancient DNA analysis and genealogy a maternal lineage of a non-noble family spanning 22 generations could be confirmed.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Múmias , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260707, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910736

RESUMO

Propagation Phase Contrast Synchrotron Microtomography (PPC-SRµCT) is the gold standard for non-invasive and non-destructive access to internal structures of archaeological remains. In this analysis, the virtual specimen needs to be segmented to separate different parts or materials, a process that normally requires considerable human effort. In the Automated SEgmentation of Microtomography Imaging (ASEMI) project, we developed a tool to automatically segment these volumetric images, using manually segmented samples to tune and train a machine learning model. For a set of four specimens of ancient Egyptian animal mummies we achieve an overall accuracy of 94-98% when compared with manually segmented slices, approaching the results of off-the-shelf commercial software using deep learning (97-99%) at much lower complexity. A qualitative analysis of the segmented output shows that our results are close in terms of usability to those from deep learning, justifying the use of these techniques.


Assuntos
Múmias/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Algoritmos , Automação , Egito , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831975

RESUMO

Information regarding school-based health-promoting interventions' potential effects in the home environment is scarce. Gaining more insight into this is vital to optimise interventions' potential. The Healthy Primary School of the Future (HPSF) is a Dutch initiative aiming to improve children's health and well-being by providing daily physical activity sessions and healthy school lunches. This qualitative study examines if and how HPSF influenced children's and parents' physical activity and dietary behaviours at home. In 2018-2019, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from two HPSFs. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data were coded and interpreted through thematic analysis. HPSF resulted in various behavioural changes at home, initiated by both children and parents. Parents reported improvements in healthy behaviours, as well as compensatory, unhealthy behaviours. Reasons for behavioural change included increased awareness, perceived support to adopt healthy behaviours, and children asking for the same healthy products at home. Barriers to change included no perceived necessity for change, lack of HPSF-related information provision, and time and financial constraints. Both child-to-adult intergenerational learning and parent-initiated changes play an important role in the transfer of health behaviours from school to home and are therefore key mechanisms to maximise school-based health-promoting interventions' impact.


Assuntos
Múmias , Adulto , Criança , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662361

RESUMO

This study documents a rare case of mummified human remains from Japan, dating to the late Heian period, 12th Century AD. The remains have only been scientifically investigated once in 1950 so far. The results of this investigation were translated, analyzed, and interpreted using methods of the 21st century. The remains have been traditionally identified as the four ruling generations of the Oshu Fujiwara clan, who built a cultural and economic center in Hiraizumi. Accordingly, this paper will first examine the historical and cultural significance of Hiraizumi and its ruling class before re-evaluating the findings of the 1950 investigation. This study is the first in the Western scientific literature to provide a comprehensive historical, cultural, and medical evaluation of these mummies.


Assuntos
Múmias/história , Restos Mortais , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Japão
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