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1.
Behav Processes ; 201: 104716, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901938

RESUMO

Risk taking is imperative for the survival and fitness of animals since they are constantly facing innumerable threats from various sources. Indeed, the ability of the individual to balance the costs and benefits of various options and adopt a wise decision is critical for the animal well-being. We modified several traditionally used anxiety tests [The modified light-dark box (mLDB), the modified open field test (mOFT) and the modified defensive withdrawal apparatus (mDWA)] by adding a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone which granted us to assess the sex differences in risk-taking behavior in Smith's zokors (Eospalax smithii), a typical subterranean rodent species endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Concomitant with our working hypothesis, female zokors showed strong aversion and avoidance behavioral responses when tested in the mOFT and mDWA while there were no apparent sexually dimorphic behavioral changes when they were tested in the mLDB (Except for the percentage of food consumed and the latency till start feeding). Furthermore, comparison between the three behavioral paradigms revealed that both sexes showed different behavioral responses toward the different behavioral tests. Sex differences in repeatable behaviors were more profound in females than males. This might reflect different degrees of risk perception and emotionality that may differ considerably between the different models of anxiety. Our results highlighted the functional significance of a trade-off between risk and incentives in natural environment that both male and female zokors differ in the processing of risk assessment in the presence of a food reward.


Assuntos
Muridae , Recompensa , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Motivação , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Social
2.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(4): 467-475, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524150

RESUMO

Bisastrongylus multiovorum gen. nov., sp. nov. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae: Nippostrongylinae) is described from a murid, Melomys obiensis, from the Moluccas, Indonesia. The new genus differs from all other Nippostrongylinae genera in having a synlophe of 12 unequal ridges with a type A carene, the dorsal ridge 1 being larger than the ventral ridge 1'. Pentastomid larvae, an acanthocephalan, Plagiorhynchus sp., and the nematodes Rictularia sp., a spirurid and the nippostrongylin Soricstrongylus obreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. were collected from the murid Pseudohydromys murinus from Central Province, Papua New Guinea. The new genus is distinguished by a combination of characters including a synlophe of 11-13 ridges at mid body, left ventral ridges larger and a sub frontal axis of orientation. The assemblage of P. murinus is discussed and a re-evaluation of nippostrongylin Odilia sp., previously reported from P. murinus indicates that the specimens were likely a Parasabanema sp.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Parasitos , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Indonésia , Camundongos , Muridae/parasitologia , Papua Nova Guiné , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Acta Histochem ; 124(4): 151892, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421662

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle histopathological changes induced or caused by pathologies in animal models, can impair functionality, being the main focus of therapeutic studies. This study aimed to propose a histopathological index to assess, in a quantitative manner, skeletal muscle changes induced by experimental protocols for Rodentia's models. For the development, evaluation of fit and parsimony, replicability, and sensitivity index, Wistar rats from experiments with the same experimental design, but with different variation factors, were used to achieve different levels of damage. The anterior tibial muscle of these animals was collected, processed histologically, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The adjustment and parsimony of the index were availed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis, reproducibility for evaluation of three people trained through the Intra-Class Correlation, and the discrimination capacity through a one-way ANOVA Test. We pointed out the adjustment for the proposed index while the ICC showed high reproducibility (n = 56; k = 3; ICC = 0.9790) and differences in the extent of damage between groups, following the hierarchical association promoted by experimental model stresses. The results show that the proposed index has a good fit and parsimony (χ2 = 426.34; p < 0.0001), in addition to being easily replicable by other researchers who know the morphology of muscle tissue and its morphological changes. It is worth mentioning that the development of tools that facilitate histopathological analysis, and that can quantitatively express the findings, are of great importance for the studies of regenerative science, reinforcing the relevance of this study.


Assuntos
Muridae , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Hematoxilina , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0258078, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A type of rodent called a zokor causes great harm to agriculture and forestry production due to its large and sophisticated diet. As this rodent lives subterrane for most of its life, researchers know little about its dietary habits. Further understanding of its diet is important for developing green and sustainable control strategies for the zokor. METHODS: Chloroplast trnL gene and internal transcription spacer 1 primers were selected for high-throughput sequencing of stomach contents of captured zokor by DNA metabarcoding. RESULTS: A total of 25 zokors were selected, the food list of 32 families, 80 genera, and 154 species was obtained. At the family level, it was found that zokors mainly fed on Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Pinaceae, Brassicaceae, and Apiaceae. At the genus level, zokors mainly fed on Echinops, Littledalea, Artemisia, Picea, Cirsium, and Elymus. The diet alpha diversity of Eospalax cansus was slightly higher than that of Eospalax cansus (P>0.05). The zokor's diet is highly phconsistent with the resources of its habitat. Most food choices tend to be the same between the two zokors. They fed primarily on Calamagrostis, Cirsium, Echinops, Medicago, Sanguisorba, and Taraxacum. Zokors mainly fed on the roots of perennial herbs, which are important source of energy. CONCLUSION: High-throughput sequencing-based DNA metabarcoding technology has effectively revealed the diet of zokors and indicated that zokors are food generalists.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Dieta , Animais , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Muridae
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 129, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria of mammal can be influenced by many factors, environmental bacteria is an important factor. However, there are few studies on the interactions between environmental bacteria and intestinal bacteria in wild mammals. To explore the associations between the intestinal bacteriome and the related environmental bacteriome, the intestinal bacterial communities of Eospalax cansus at three different sites and the bacterial communities of the surrounding soil (outside and inside the cave) at each site were investigated by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: The composition and structure between zokor intestinal bacteria and related soil bacteria were distinct, and the soil of zokor habitat harbored significantly higher diversity than that of zokor intestinal bacteria. We have found that host factors may be more important than environmental factors in shaping intestinal bacteriome. In addition, it was found that the relative abundances of shared OTUs between zokors and related soil were significantly negatively related. These shared OTUs were present in the soil at relatively low abundance. However, these shared OTUs between zokors and soil were affiliated with diverse bacterial taxa, and they were related to the degradation of complex carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the zokor gut may mainly select for low-abundance but diverse soil bacteria, which may be a host- specific choice for zokor to meet the needs of its phytophagous dietary.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Solo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Muridae , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
Zootaxa ; 5091(3): 477-486, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391235

RESUMO

We describe and illustrate a new species of sucking louse, Hoplopleura tunneya new species, from the Australian pale field rat, Rattus tunneyi Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae). Currently, 22 species of the genus Hoplopleura Enderlein, 1904 (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) are known from Australian endemic rodents. Among the seven new endemic rodent species of the genus Rattus in Australia, R. tunneyi is one of five hosts to Hoplopleura lice. In addition, we give a list of all the species of Hoplopleura known from Australian endemic rodents. Including the introduced species Polyplax spinulosa, the total number of sucking louse species known from Australian endemic rodents is now 24.


Assuntos
Anoplura , Ftirápteros , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Muridae , Neópteros , Ratos , Roedores
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263045, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120158

RESUMO

Madagascar is a large island to the south-east of Africa and in many ways continental in size and ecological complexity. Here we aim to define how skull morphology of an endemic and monophyletic clade of rodents (sub-family Nesomyinae), that show considerable morphological variation, have evolved and how their disparity is characterized in context of the geographical and ecological complexity of the island. We performed a two-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis on 370 dorsal and 399 ventral skull images of 19 species (comprising all nine extant endemic genera) and tested the influence of three ecological parameters (climate, locomotor habitat and nychthemeral cycle) in a phylogenetic context on size and shape. The results indicate that skull shape appears to importantly reflect phylogeny, whereas skull size does not carry a significant phylogenetic signal. Skull shape is significantly influenced by climate while, skull size is not impacted by any of the ecological factors tested, which is controversial to expectations in an insular context. In conclusion, Nesomyinae must have evolved under unusual types of local constraints, preventing this radiation from demonstrating strong ecological release.


Assuntos
Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Migração Animal , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Clima , Ecologia , Geografia , Cabeça , Madagáscar , Muridae , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(6): 1536-1547, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529896

RESUMO

The nose is a structurally and functionally complex organ in the upper respiratory tract. It not only serves as the principal organ for the sense of smell, but also functions to efficiently filter, warm, and humidify inhaled air before the air enters the more delicate distal tracheobronchial airways and alveolar parenchyma of the lungs. Despite the volume of published studies on the biology of rodents, there is no information on the gross upper respiratory morphology of the African giant rat (AGR) in the available literature. Hence, this study aimed to examine the anatomy of the turbinates, their meatuses, and the morphometry of the nasal cavity. The following were found and reported in this study: (a) There were three nasal conchae in AGR: the nasoturbinate, which was the largest; the ethmoturbinate, which was composed of one well-developed ectoturbinate and three well-developed endoturbinates; and the maxilloturbinate, which was fusiform, short, and branched. (b) Three major meatuses were observed: the dorsal nasal meatus, which was the longest and widest; the middle nasal meatus, which was without limbs but had a deep oval caudal recess; and the ventral nasal meatus, which directly continued caudally into the nasopharyngeal meatus. (c) Four ethmoturbinates with four slit-like meatuses were observed, each with dorsal and ventral limbs; the first contacted the middle nasal meatus but not the nasopharyngeal meatus. (d) There were three paranasal sinuses: one sphenoid, two frontal, and two palatine sinuses. The data obtained are relevant to pathologists and eco-morphologists, considering the burrowing habitat and behaviors of AGR, and provide baseline data for more investigative studies.


Assuntos
Cavidade Nasal , Traqueia , Animais , Pulmão , Muridae , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Ratos , Olfato
9.
J Med Entomol ; 59(2): 667-674, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958102

RESUMO

Rickettsioses are among emerging infectious diseases around the world. In Madagascar, little information is available regarding Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) diversity and their potential impacts on public health. In fact, molecular screening of ectoparasites of mammals reported the presence of three species, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, and Rickettsia felis. The present study aims to investigate the diversity of Rickettsia in small mammals and associated ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) using a molecular approach. In September and December 2016, fieldworks were undertaken in two districts of Madagascar to capture small mammals using standard traps (Tomahawk and Sherman traps) and collect associated ectoparasites. In total, 12 taxa of ectoparasites (5 flea and 7 tick species) were collected from 89 individuals of four species of terrestrial small mammals. Rickettsia spp. were molecularly identified in one specimen of Rattus rattus (Rodentia: Muridae), one specimen of Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) as well as four specimens of Ixodes cf. colasbelcouri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). This study showed the presence of three phylogenetically distinct taxa of Rickettsia in small mammals and their ectoparasites. The current study broadens our knowledge on the diversity of Rickettsia in the Central Highlands of Madagascar and highlights for the first time the presence of Ri. felis in R. rattus and in tick, I. cf. colasbelcouri in Madagascar. Additional studies are needed to have exhaustive information on Rickettsia in small mammals and their ectoparasites, to determine their pathogenicity as well as their potential effects on public health in order to update the national policy for the control of emerging infectious diseases in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Doenças dos Roedores , Sifonápteros , Animais , Madagáscar , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Muridae , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242089, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285597

RESUMO

Abstract The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Resumo O estudo revela a prevalência de uma espécie potencial de helmintos zoonóticos transmitidos por roedores, Hymenolepis diminuta, em roedores comensais capturados em áreas irrigadas e alimentadas pela chuva de Swat, Paquistão. Trezentos e cinquenta roedores (269 ratos e 81 camundongos) presos durante os estágios vegetativo, floração/frutificação e maturidade/colheita das safras foram estudados de 2011-2013. Ovos de Hymenolepisdiminuta foram identificados com base em sua forma, tamanho, cor e marcações na superfície da casca do ovo e três pares de anzóis embrionários. A prevalência geral de H. diminuta foi de 3,14% (n = 11/350). A maior prevalência 3,49% (n = 5/143) de H. diminuta foi observada na fase de colheita das lavouras, enquanto a menor 2,59% (n = 2/77) durante a fase vegetativa. A infecção foi maior nos homens 3,25% (n = 7/215) do que nas mulheres 2,96% (n = 4/135). Roedores adultos foram altamente infectados, enquanto nenhum subadulto foi encontrado infectado. A infecção foi maior em camundongos 3,70% (3/81) do que em ratos 2,69% (8/269), embora sem significância (p = 1,0000: 0,1250 a 32,00 CI). Ratos e camundongos parecem mostrar os reservatórios mais adequados hospedando H. diminuta um helmintos zoonótico. A presença desses roedores em todos os habitats possíveis pode atuar como um canal principal de transferência de parasitas através de vários habitats e pode representar um perigo para os humanos na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Coelhos , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Hymenolepis diminuta , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Muridae
11.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 501(1): 177-181, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962602

RESUMO

A pygmy dormouse Typhlomys stegodontis sp. nov. is described on the base of the maxillary fragment and isolated teeth from the Middle Pleistocene Tham Hai cave locality in northern Vietnam (Lang Son Province). This first finding of the fossil Platacanthomyidae in Vietnam fills the Middle Pleistocene gap in the paleontological record of the family.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fósseis , Animais , Muridae , Paleontologia , Vietnã
12.
Parasite ; 28: 81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907896

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp., a parasitic eukaryote, widely colonizes the intestines of humans and a large number of animals, including rodents and lagomorphs. More than 30 million bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinensis) are farmed in China as a source of meat for human consumption. However, there have been no published articles on Blastocystis infection in Chinese bamboo rats prior to the present study. Herein, 480 fresh faecal samples were collected from R. sinensis on six farms located in four cities (Wugang, Chenzhou, Huaihua and Jishou) in Hunan Province, south-central China, and were examined for Blastocystis infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The total prevalence of Blastocystis in R. sinensis was 4.58% (22/480), and significant differences in prevalence were detected among four age groups (<6 months, 6-12 months, 12-24 months and >24 months), with the highest prevalence (7.81%) in rats aged 6-12 months but with no positive samples in rats over 24 months. All farms, except for one in Jishou, were positive for Blastocystis infection, with the prevalence ranging from 1.80% to 7.27%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed two potentially zoonotic subtypes (namely ST4 and ST5) in these rodents, with ST4 predominant in all except one farm in Huaihua. Seven and five sequence types were identified within ST4 and ST5, respectively. This is the first report of Blastocystis infection in Chinese bamboo rats and the findings suggest the potential of R. sinensis to transmit Blastocystis to humans.


TITLE: Caractérisation moléculaire de Blastocystis sp. chez le rat des bambous chinois (Rhizomys sinensis). ABSTRACT: Blastocystis sp., un parasite eucaryote, colonise largement les intestins de l'homme et d'un grand nombre d'animaux dont les rongeurs et les lagomorphes. Plus de 30 millions de rats des bambou (Rhizomys sinensis) sont élevés en Chine comme source de viande pour la consommation humaine. Cependant, il n'y a eu aucun article publié sur l'infection à Blastocystis chez les rats des bambou chinois avant la présente étude. Ici, 480 échantillons de matières fécales fraîches ont été prélevés sur R. sinensis dans six fermes situées dans quatre villes (Wugang, Chenzhou, Huaihua et Jishou) de la province du Hunan, dans le centre-sud de la Chine, et ont été examinés pour une infection à Blastocystis en utilisant la réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) ciblant le gène de l'ARN ribosomique de la petite sous-unité (ARNr SSU). La prévalence totale de Blastocystis chez R. sinensis était de 4,58 % (22/480), et des différences significatives de prévalence ont été détectées parmi quatre groupes d'âge (< 6 mois, 6­12 mois, 12­24 mois et > 24 mois), avec la prévalence la plus élevée (7,81 %) chez les rats âgés de 6 à 12 mois mais sans échantillon positif chez les rats de plus de 24 mois. Toutes les fermes, à l'exception d'une à Jishou, étaient positives pour l'infection à Blastocystis, avec une prévalence allant de 1,80 % à 7,27 %. Les analyses de séquences et phylogénétiques ont révélé deux sous-types potentiellement zoonotiques (à savoir ST4 et ST5) chez ces rongeurs, ST4 prédominant dans toutes les exploitations sauf une à Huaihua. Sept et cinq types de séquences ont été identifiés parmi ST4 et ST5, respectivement. Il s'agit du premier rapport d'infection à Blastocystis chez des rats des bambou chinois et les résultats suggèrent le potentiel de R. sinensis à transmettre Blastocystis à l'homme.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Fezes , Muridae , Filogenia , Prevalência
13.
Elife ; 102021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845984

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms in mammals are orchestrated by a central clock within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Our understanding of the electrophysiological basis of SCN activity comes overwhelmingly from a small number of nocturnal rodent species, and the extent to which these are retained in day-active animals remains unclear. Here, we recorded the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of single SCN neurons in the diurnal rodent Rhabdomys pumilio, and developed cutting-edge data assimilation and mathematical modeling approaches to uncover the underlying ionic mechanisms. As in nocturnal rodents, R. pumilio SCN neurons were more excited during daytime hours. By contrast, the evoked activity of R. pumilio neurons included a prominent suppressive response that is not present in the SCN of nocturnal rodents. Our modeling revealed and subsequent experiments confirmed transient subthreshold A-type potassium channels as the primary determinant of this response, and suggest a key role for this ionic mechanism in optimizing SCN function to accommodate R. pumilio's diurnal niche.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Muridae/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Animais
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581786

RESUMO

Comparison of the androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene regions of six Mus genomes provides insights into the evolutionary history of this large murid rodent gene family. We identified 206 unique Abp sequences and mapped their physical relationships. At least 48 are duplicated and thus present in more than two identical copies. All six taxa have substantially elevated LINE1 densities in Abp regions compared with flanking regions, similar to levels in mouse and rat genomes, although nonallelic homologous recombination seems to have only occurred in Mus musculus domesticus. Phylogenetic and structural relationships support the hypothesis that the extensive Abp expansion began in an ancestor of the genus Mus. We also found duplicated Abpa27's in two taxa, suggesting that previously reported selection on a27 alleles may have actually detected selection on haplotypes wherein different paralogs were lost in each. Other studies reported that a27 gene and species trees were incongruent, likely because of homoplasy. However, L1MC3 phylogenies, supposed to be homoplasy-free compared with coding regions, support our paralog hypothesis because the L1MC3 phylogeny was congruent with the a27 topology. This paralog hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for the origin of the a27 gene that is suggested to be fixed in the three different subspecies of Mus musculus and to mediate sexual selection and incipient reinforcement between at least two of them. Finally, we ask why there are so many Abp genes, especially given the high frequency of pseudogenes and suggest that relaxed selection operates over a large part of the gene clusters.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a Androgênios , Evolução Molecular , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína de Ligação a Androgênios/genética , Animais , Camundongos , Muridae/genética , Filogenia , Ratos
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378679

RESUMO

The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Hymenolepis diminuta , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Muridae , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 216, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbes in mammals play a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. As a subterranean rodent, zokor digs tunnels for foraging and mating. These digging activities of zokors increase the energy expenditure relative to their aboveground counterparts. However, relatively little is known regarding intestinal microbes of zokor and how they make full use of limited food resources underground for high energy requirements. RESULTS: Eospalax cansus and Eospalax rothschildi had distinct intestinal microbes. Although the composition of intestinal microbes is similar in two species, the proportion of bacterium are distinctly different between them. At phylum level, 11 phyla were shared between two species. Firmicutes and Bacteroidota were two dominant microbes in both of two species, while Eospalax cansus have a significantly high proportion of Firmicutes/Bacteroidota than that of Eospalax rothschildi. At genus level, norank_f_Muribaculaceae were dominant microbes in both of two zokor species. The relative abundance of 12 genera were significantly different between two species. Some bacterium including unclassified_f__Lachnospiraceae, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium_siraeum_group associated with cellulose degradation were significantly enriched in Eospalax cansus. Although alpha diversity was with no significant differences between Eospalax cansus and Eospalax rothschildi, the intestinal microbes between them are significant distinct in PCoA analysis. We have found that trapping location affected the alpha diversity values, while sex and body measurements had no effect on alpha diversity values. PICRUSt metagenome predictions revealed significant enrichment of microbial genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in Eospalax cansus rather than Eospalax rothschildi. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that Eospalax cansus harbor a stronger ability of fermentation for dietary plants than Eospalax rothschildi. The stronger ability of fermentation and degradation of cellulose of intestinal microbes of Eospalax cansus may be a long-time adaptation to limited food resources underground.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Muridae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , China , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(7): 842-848, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960695

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Several hosts have been recognized around the world; however, there is a lack of knowledge of the role of feral mammals in Chile in its transmission. Herein, we tested muscle samples from 555 individuals among American minks (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777. n = 100) and several myomorph rodent species (Muridae and Cricetidae. n = 455) from southern Chile by artificial digestion to detect Trichinella larvae and identified the larvae at the species level through molecular analyses. Rodents were captured in agricultural and wild protected areas of several administrative regions (hereafter: region), while minks were captured in agricultural areas of the Los Ríos region. Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in a synanthropic black rat (0.24%) of the Ñuble region and in seven minks (7%) trapped in agricultural areas of the Los Ríos region. The present results suggest that T. spiralis circulation is restricted to synanthropic rodents and minks living in agricultural areas where the parasite circulates among domesticated pigs. This study represents the first record of T. spiralis in a mustelid mammal in South America, increasing the number of feral species that could participate in the reservoir.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Trichinella , Triquinelose , Animais , Arvicolinae , Chile/epidemiologia , Vison , Muridae , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Suínos , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Triquinelose/veterinária
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 161: 107166, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798668

RESUMO

Climbing mice in the genus Dendromus (sensu lato) are widely distributed in Africa, south of the Saharan Desert. The 17 currently recognized species in the genus range from widespread taxa to single-mountain endemics, and there is considerable variation across species with respect to habitats occupied. These habitats range from arid grasslands and savannahs to sub-alpine and alpine vegetation. Using the most comprehensive geographic and genetic survey to date and after reviewing many type specimens, we assess the systematics and biogeography of Dendromus. Given the structure of our molecular phylogenetic hypotheses, in which we recover six major clades, we propose the recognition of three genera within the Dendromus group (sensu lato): in addition to Dendromus (26 lineages), we suggest the retention of Megadendromus (monotypic) and the resurrection of the genus Poemys (six lineages). From our model-based molecular phylogenetic results and morphological comparisons, we suggest that six formerly synonymized taxa should be resurrected, and we highlight 14 previously undescribed lineages. We also constructed time-calibrations on our phylogeny, and performed ancestral area reconstructions using BioGeoBEARS. Based on fossil evidence, Dendromus appears to have had a widespread African distribution dating back to the Late Miocene (8-10 Ma), and our basal ancestral area reconstruction (Ethiopians Highlands + Eastern African Mountains + Zambezian region) supports this. Divergence of the six major clades we recover (Poemys, Megadendromus and four within Dendromus) occurred prior to or at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary 5.3 Ma. Biogeographically, Megadendromus is restricted to the Ethiopian Highlands. The ancestral area for Poemys is reconstructed as the Zambezian region, with species distributions ranging from South Africa to Western Africa. The ancestral area for Dendromus is reconstructed as the Ethiopian Highlands, with the ancestral areas of the four major clades being reconstructed as Ethiopian Highlands, Albertine Rift, South Africa or Western Africa. None of the four Dendromus clades are reciprocally monophyletic with respect to distributional area.


Assuntos
Muridae/classificação , Muridae/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , África Ocidental , Animais , Ecossistema , Camundongos , África do Sul
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925980

RESUMO

We investigated the evolutionary history of the striped field mouse to identify factors that initiated its past demographic changes and to shed light on the causes of its current genetic structure and trans-Eurasian distribution. We sequenced mitochondrial cyt b from 184 individuals, obtained from 35 sites in central Europe and eastern Mongolia. We compared genetic analyses with previously published historical distribution models and data on environmental and climatic changes. The past demographic changes displayed similar population trends in the case of recently expanded clades C1 and C3, with the glacial (MIS 3-4) expansion and postglacial bottleneck preceding the recent expansion initiated in the late Holocene and were related to environmental changes during the upper Pleistocene and Holocene. The past demographic trends of the eastern Asian clade C3 were correlated with changes in sea level and the formation of new land bridges formed by the exposed sea shelf during the glaciations. These data were supported by reconstructed historical distribution models. The results of our genetic analyses, supported by the reconstruction of the historical spatial distributions of the distinct clades, confirm that over time the local populations mixed as a consequence of environmental and climatic changes resulting from cyclical glaciation and the interglacial period during the Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Evolução Molecular , Muridae/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biomassa , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fenômenos Geológicos , Muridae/classificação , Filogenia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009158, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735304

RESUMO

Lyme disease (LD) is one of the most important vector-borne diseases worldwide. However, there is limited information on the prevalence and risk analysis using correlated factors in the tropical areas. A total of 1583 serum samples, collected from five hospitals of Hainan Province, were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and western blot (WB) analyses using anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. Then, we mapped the distribution of positive rate (by IFA) and the spread of confirmed Lyme patients (by WB). Using ArcGIS, we compiled host-vector-human interactions and correlated data as risk factor layers to predict LD risk in Hainan Province. There are three LD hotspots, designated hotspot I, which is located in central Hainan, hotspot II, which contains Sanya district, and hotspot III, which lies in the Haikou-Qiongshan area. The positive rate (16.67% by IFA) of LD in Qiongzhong, located in hotspot I, was higher than that in four other areas. Of confirmed cases of LD, 80.77% of patients (42/52) whose results had been confirmed by WB were in hotspots I and III. Hotspot II, with unknowed prevalence of LD, need to be paid more attention considering human-vector interaction. Wuzhi and Limu mountains might be the most important areas for the prevalence of LD, as the severe host-vector and human-vector interactions lead to a potential origin site for LD. Qiongzhong is the riskiest area and is located to the east of Wuzhi Mountain. In the Sanya and Haikou-Qiongshan area, intervening in the human-vector interaction would help control the prevalence of LD.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Ixodidae , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Muridae , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial
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