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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769704

RESUMO

Vibration foam rolling (VR) can improve flexibility and sports performance. However, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and senior fitness test (SFT) responses induced by an acute VR session in older women are currently unknown. Fifteen healthy women (72.90 ± 4.32 years) completed three separated randomly sequenced experimental visits. During each visit, they started with a warm-up protocol (general warm up (GW): walking + static stretching (SS), SS + VR with light pressure (VRL), or SS + VR with moderate pressure (VRM)), and completed BP, HR, SFT measurements. The systolic BP increased significantly after all three warm up protocols (p < 0.05). Both VRL and VRM protocols induced statistically significant improvements (effect size range: 0.3-1.04, p < 0.05) in the senior fitness test (back scratch, 30 s chair stand, 30 s arm curl, and 8 foot up and go), as compared to the GW. In addition, the VRM showed greater improvement for the 2 min step test when comparing with the VRL. Therefore, including VR in a warm-up protocol can result in superior SFT performance enhancement than the GW does in healthy older women.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Exercício de Aquecimento , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Vibração
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769906

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has affected life and left one of the strongest negative effects on sport. The aim of our study was to evaluate how a simple exercise performed with elastic resistance during the COVID-19 pandemic, when athletes cannot train, affects the basic shooting characteristics of ball hockey players. Extra-league ball hockey players (N = 30, age 19-37 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group, which performed elastic resistance exercises with Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) elements for eight weeks, and a control group, which did not perform any exercises. Before the start of the experiment and after it was completed, the speed and accuracy of shooting were measured. In experimental group, there was no decrease after 8 weeks in the shooting speed, and in the control group, there was a statistically significant decrease. There was a deterioration in the accuracy of shooting in both groups; however, in the experimental group, the deterioration was not significant. The results show that even three simple exercises with elastic resistance according to the PNF concept performed 10 times per day for eight weeks can maintain the level of basic skills of ball hockey players-the speed and accuracy of shooting-even when no other training is performed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hóquei , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682378

RESUMO

The different effects of intermittent and continuous stretching on the mechanical properties of the musculotendinous complex have been unclear. This study aimed to compare the effects of intermittent and continuous stretching for the same duration on the range of motion (ROM), passive resistive torque (PRT), and musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) of ankle plantar flexors. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. Intermittent (four sets × 30 s) and continuous stretching (one set × 120 s) were performed in random orders on two separate days. Both stretching protocols were conducted using a dynamometer with a constant torque applied. ROM and PRT were determined using a dynamometer, and MTS was calculated using the torque-angle relationship measured before and after stretching. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for all parameters. Both intermittent and continuous stretching significantly increased ROM and decreased PRT and MTS (p < 0.05). Intermittent stretching led to greater changes in ROM and PRT than continuous stretching. However, the reduction in MTS did not differ between the two conditions. These results suggest that intermittent stretching is more effective in increasing ROM and changing the mechanical properties of the musculotendinous complex.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Tendões , Torque
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550984

RESUMO

The current study aimed to verify whether or not passive static stretching affects balance control capacity. Thirty-eight participants (19 women and 19 men) underwent a passive static stretching session, involving the knee extensor/flexor and dorsi/plantarflexor muscles, and a control session (no stretching, CTRL). Before (PRE), immediately after (POST), after 15 (POST15) and 30 min (POST30) from stretching (or rest in CTRL), balance control was evaluated under static and dynamic conditions, with open/closed eyes, and with/without somatosensory perturbation (foam under the feet). During tests, centre of pressure (CoP) sway area and perimeter and antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway mean speed were computed. Surface electromyography root mean square (sEMG RMS) was calculated from the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior muscles during MVC and during the balance tests. Hip flexion/extension and dorsi/plantarflexion range of motion (ROM), maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and sEMG RMS during MVC were measured at the same time points. After stretching, ROM increased (≈6.5%; P<0.05), while MVC and sEMG RMS decreased (≈9% and ≈7.5%, respectively; P<0.05). Regardless of the testing condition, CoP sway area and the perimeter remained similar, while antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway mean speed decreased by ≈8% and ≈12%, respectively (P<0.05). sEMG RMS during the balance tests increased in all muscles in POST (≈7%, P<0.05). All variables recovered in POST30. No changes occurred in CTRL. Passive static stretching did not affect the overall balance control ability. However, greater muscle activation was required to maintain similar CoP sway, thus suggesting a decrease in muscle efficiency.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of changes in the range of motion and muscle-tendon unit stiffness of the hamstrings after two different intensities of static stretching. METHODS: Fourteen healthy men (20.9 ± 0.7 years, 169.1 ± 7.5cm, 61.6 ± 6.5kg) received static stretching for 60 seconds at two different intensities based on the point of discomfort (100%POD and 120%POD) of each participant, in random order. To evaluate the time course of changes in the flexibility of the hamstrings, the knee extension range of motion (ROM), passive torque at end ROM, and muscle-tendon unit stiffness were measured pre-stretching, post-stretching, and at both 10 and 20 minutes after static stretching. RESULTS: For both intensities, ROM and passive torque at pre-stretching were significantly smaller than those at post-stretching (p < 0.01 in both intensities), 10 minutes (p < 0.01 in both intensities), and 20 minutes (p < 0.01 in both intensities). The muscle-tendon unit stiffness at pre-stretching was significantly higher than that at post-stretching (p < 0.01), 10 minutes (p < 0.01), and 20 minutes (p < 0.01) only in the 120%POD, but it showed no change in the 100%POD. CONCLUSION: The results showed that ROM and passive torque increased in both intensities, and the effects continued for at least 20 minutes after stretching regardless of stretching intensity. However, the muscle-tendon unit stiffness of the hamstrings decreased only after static stretching at the intensity of 120%POD, and the effects continued for at least 20 minutes after stretching.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Músculos Isquiossurais , Humanos , Joelho , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Torque , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(9): 1975-1986, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effects of 24 wk of daily static stretching of the plantarflexors (unilateral 4 × 60-s stretching, whereas the contralateral leg served as a control; n = 26) on joint range of motion (ROM), muscle-tendon unit morphological and mechanical properties, neural activation, and contractile function. METHODS: Torque-angle/velocity was obtained in passive and active conditions using isokinetic dynamometry, whereas muscle-tendon morphology and mechanical properties were examined using ultrasonography. RESULTS: After the intervention, ROM increased (stretching, +11° ± 7°; control, 4° ± 8°), and passive torque (stretching, -10 ± 11 N·m; control, -7 ± 10 N·m) and normalized EMG amplitude (stretching, -3% ± 6%; control, -3% ± 4%) at a standardized dorsiflexion angle decreased. Increases were seen in passive tendon elongation at a standardized force (stretching, +1.3 ± 1.6 mm; control, +1.4 ± 2.1 mm) and in maximal passive muscle and tendon elongation. Angle of peak torque shifted toward dorsiflexion. No changes were seen in tendon stiffness, resting tendon length, or gastrocnemius medialis fascicle length. Conformable changes in ROM, passive dorsiflexion variables, tendon elongation, and angle of peak torque were observed in the nonstretched leg. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that habitual stretching increases ROM and decreases passive torque, altering muscle-tendon behavior with the potential to modify contractile function.


Assuntos
Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 200-206, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) is a new technique that has been known to be effective in reducing muscle tightness in athletics. However, little is known about its effect on the range of motion, muscle power, and torque compared to manual stretching among non-athletics. Thus, the study was aimed to compare the effectiveness between IASTM and manual stretching in improving hip flexion active range of motion (ROM), muscle torque and power on hamstring muscle complex (HMC) tightness in one session. METHOD: Twenty-three young male college students with unilateral hamstring tightness measured via straight leg raising (SLR) test (<65°) were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Twelve participants received the application of IASTM (group 1), and eleven received manual stretching (group 2). Hip flexion active ROM was measured via goniometer, the torque & power of the hamstring muscle were measured using Humac isokinetic dynamometer, before and after both interventions. (ISRCTN17693345). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the improvement of hip flexion active ROM (69.6 ± 6.6 vs 72.5 ± 7.9, p = .34), HMC torque (63.7 ± 14.5 vs 53.2 ± 16.3, p = .14), and HMC power (47.8 ± 11.8 vs 40.9 ± 16.3, p = .34) between group 1 and group 2 respectively. When a comparison was made within each group, significant improvements in hip active flexion ROM was found in both groups (p's < .001), and HMC power was significantly improved in group 1 (p = .04) but not in group 2. CONCLUSION: The current study findings demonstrate that IASTM was as effective as manual stretching in improving hip flexion active ROM, muscle torque and power among non-athletic people with HMC tightness.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Torque
8.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 440-446, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391269

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) in promoting muscle irradiation to the lower limbs and to relate these findings with muscle activation during the sit-to-stand task. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy women were recruited via convenience sampling and submitted to four PNF patterns: upper limb pattern with flexion-abduction-external rotation (UL), lower limb pattern with flexion-adduction-external rotation with knee flexion (lower limb pattern 1 [LL1]), lower limb pattern with flexion-abduction-internal rotation with knee flexion (lower limb pattern 2 [LL2]), and lifting to the right. Electromyography was recorded from the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and soleus during the PNF patterns and during the sit-to-stand task. RESULTS: The most recruited muscles during the sit-to-stand task were the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and soleus (p < 0.05). Lifting to the right induced the greatest activation of the gluteus maximus (p < 0.001). Lifting to the right and LL2 were better than UL at recruiting the gluteus medius (p < 0.05). Lifting to the right and LL1 were better than UL at recruiting the vastus medialis and lateralis (p < 0.05; p < 0.05). and Lower limb pattern 1 and 2 were better than UL at recruiting the soleus muscle (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PNF can be used to induce muscle irradiation to maintain or improve muscle activity to the muscles recruited during the sit-to-stand task. The best PNF pattern for inducing muscle irradiation to muscles recruited during the sit-to-stand task are lifting to the right, LL2, and LL1.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Nádegas , Estudos Transversais , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
9.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 512-521, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of respiratory muscles with that of inspiratory muscle training as a preventive measure on respiratory muscle strength, chest expansion, spirometry, and functional capacity in children with Down syndrome. METHODS: Forty-five Down syndrome participants with an age ranged from 10 to 13 years were enrolled. There were distributed into three groups. The study group A (n = 15) underwent proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of respiratory muscles while study group B (n = 15) underwent inspiratory muscle training. Third group C (n = 15) was a control group. The three groups received aerobic exercises using the bicycle ergometer for 20 min, 5 times/week for 12 successive weeks. The treatment program for both study groups was conducted for 20-30 min, 5 times/week for 12 successive weeks. Measurements of respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP), chest expansion, spirometry test (VC, FEV1, PEFR, MVV) and 6 min walk test were measured pre and post treatment. RESULTS: The post treatment mean values of all investigated variables were significantly increased in both study groups with higher effect to group underwent proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of respiratory muscles. CONCLUSION: Both proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of respiratory muscles and inspiratory muscle training are effective in children with Down syndrome on improving respiratory muscle strength, chest expansion, spirometry and functional capacity with superior effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Adolescente , Exercícios Respiratórios , Criança , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculos Respiratórios
10.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 591-596, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of 10-min static stretching on the triceps surae mechanical properties. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental one-group pre test-post test study compared the time points of before, after, and minute by minute of one session of triceps surae passive static stretching. METHODS: 15 participants performed a 10-min plantar flexor passive static stretching on the isokinetic dynamometer. We evaluated passive torque and myotendinous junction (MTJ) displacement before, minute by minute, and after the intervention. In contrast, we evaluated the range of motion (ROM), passive torque, MTJ displacement, and hysteresis before and after the intervention. Paired t-test compared pre and post-intervention time points. Passive torque and MTJ displacement in the minute-by-minute evaluations were compared by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: ROM increased (effect size d = 0.56) and passive torque and muscle-tendon unit stiffness decreased (effect size d = 0.65 and d = 0.73, respectively) post-stretching. There was a reduction only in passive torque in the minute-by-minute evaluation, mainly at minutes five and seven. CONCLUSIONS: passive torque decreased over a 10-min static stretching session of the ankle plantar flexors, followed by a ROM increase and muscle-tendon unit, a stiffness decrease.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Tendões , Articulação do Tornozelo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Torque
11.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 682-691, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Different approaches are used in physical therapy when treating patients with peripheral nerve paralysis and pain syndrome, such as neuro-mobilization techniques, manual therapy, muscle strengthening, active mobilization and relaxation techniques. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) seems to be a promising therapy for mobilizing the neurodynamic system. This case report illustrates the clinical reasoning and feasibility of applying PNF based neuromobilization to a patient not responsive to standard physical therapy. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old male was diagnosed with neurofibrosarcoma grade II, paravertebral L4-L5 left (L) side. After laminectomy of the transverse process L4 and L5 L side and stent in the lumbar region, the patient presented pain and peripheral nerve paralysis. The patient's complaints 13 years later were chronic lower back, buttock and leg pain and weakness in the L leg. PATIENT MANAGEMENT: Six treatment sessions with follow-up were provided during 3.5 months. The PNF-based-rehabilitation-approach applied the PNF philosophy, specific techniques, and facilitating principles and procedures using manual guidance in 3-dimensional PNF movement patterns in various positions, aiming to mobilize the neurodynamic system to decrease pain and achieve trunk and leg mobility. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The PNF-based-rehabilitation-approach led to improvement in pain, nerve mobility and balance beyond or close to clinical relevance. This approach had positive effects, by supplying oxygen to the nerves, increasing nerve mobility and decreasing pain, hence restoring altered movement patterns, which all improved the patient's activities-of-daily-living. In a situation, where standard strengthening and mobilization techniques are not effective, PNF seems a feasible alternative to decrease chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Idoso , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
12.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(11): 1841-1849, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the feasibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) as a new quantitative and objective method for evaluating the stiffness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during passive stretching in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: SWE of the GM muscle was performed in 28 patients with PD [13 female and 15 male; mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 63.0 ± 8.5 years] and 12 healthy controls (5 female and 7 male; mean age ± SD: 59.3 ± 6.4 years) during passive ankle rotation. A Young's modulus-ankle angle curve was constructed. The GM slack angle and baseline Young's modulus (E0) were compared between the markedly symptomatic and mildly symptomatic sides of patients with PD, and healthy controls. Additionally, the correlation between the GM slack angle and the severity of rigidity, and the observer reproducibility of SWE in determining the GM slack angle were evaluated. RESULTS: The GM slack angle was smaller on both the markedly and mildly symptomatic sides in patients with PD than in healthy controls (mean ± SD of -29.13° ± 3.79° and -25.65° ± 3.39°, respectively, vs. -21.22° ± 3.52°; p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, in patients with PD, the GM slack angle on the markedly symptomatic side was smaller than that on the mildly symptomatic side (p = 0.003). The E0 value was lower on both the markedly and mildly symptomatic sides in patients with PD than in healthy controls (mean ± SD of 10.11 ± 2.85 kPa and 10.08 ± 1.88 kPa, respectively, vs. 12.23 ± 1.02 kPa; p = 0.012 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, no significant difference was found between the markedly and mildly symptomatic sides in patients with PD (p = 0.634). A negative linear relationship was observed between the GM slack angle and lower limb rigidity score on the markedly symptomatic side in patients with PD (r = -0.719; p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficients for observer reproducibility of SWE ranged from 0.880 to 0.951. CONCLUSION: The slack angle determined by SWE may be a useful quantitative and reproducible method for evaluating muscle stiffness in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Doença de Parkinson , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440684

RESUMO

Peripheral myopathy consists of a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Exercise enhanced skeletal muscle angiogenesis, and thus, it can be further beneficial towards the HF-induced myopathy. However, there is limited evidence regarding the exercise type that elicits optimum angiogenic responses of skeletal muscle in HF patients. This study aimed to (a) compare the effects of a high-intensity-interval-training (HIIT) or combined HIIT with strength training (COM) exercise protocol on the expression of angiogenesis-related factors in skeletal muscle of HF patients, and (b) examine the potential associations between the expression of those genes and capillarization in the trained muscles. Thirteen male patients with chronic HF (age: 51 ± 13 y; BMI: 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a 3-month exercise program that consisted of either HIIT (N = 6) or COM training (N = 7). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed pre- and post-training. RT-PCR was used to quantify the fold changes in mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), angiopoietin receptor (Tie2), and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), and immunohistochemistry to assess capillarization in skeletal muscle post-training. There was an overall increase in the expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2, HIF-1α, Ang2, and MMP9 post-training, while these changes were not different among groups. Changes in capillary-to-fibre ratio were found to be strongly associated with Tie2 and HIF-1α expression. This was the first study demonstrating that both HIIT and combined HIIT with strength training enhanced similarly the expression profile of angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle of HF patients, possibly driving the angiogenic program in the trained muscles, although those gene expression increases were found to be only partially related with muscle capillarization.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Capilares/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444136

RESUMO

This randomized crossover counterbalanced study investigated, in recreational runners, the acute effects of pre-exercise stretching on physiological and metabolic responses, endurance performance, and perception of effort. Eight male endurance runners (age 36 ± 11 years) performed three running-until-exhaustion tests, preceded by three warm-ups, including the following different stretching protocols: static (SS), dynamic (DS), and no-stretching (NS). During the SS and DS sessions, the warm-up consisted of 10 min of running plus 5 min of SS or DS, respectively, while during the NS session, the warm-up consisted of 15 min of running. Physiological and metabolic responses, and endurance running performance parameters, were evaluated. The perception of effort was derived from the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Running economy significantly improved after SS (p < 0.05) and DS (p < 0.01), and RPE values were significantly lower in SS (p < 0.05) and DS (p < 0.01), compared to NS. No differences in physiological and metabolic responses among the sessions were found. This study showed that including SS and DS within the warm-up ameliorated running economy and decreased the perception of effort during a running-until-exhaustion test, highlighting the benefits of stretching on endurance performance. These results should encourage recreational runners to insert stretching during warm-up, to optimize the running energy costs, reducing the perception of effort and making the training sessions more enjoyable.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Percepção , Resistência Física , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Hum Mov Sci ; 79: 102852, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371472

RESUMO

Studies showed fast muscle fibers have a greater constant b value of Hill's equation than that of slow muscle fibers, and the changing ratio of b/Vmax indicates the altered characteristics of muscles under certain conditions such as static stretching. This study was to investigate the effect of acute passive static stretching on the curvature of force-velocity curve in people with different muscle fiber types. A two-step work was conducted in current study through using Hill's equation: 1) calculated b values for each subject at different conditions (non-stretched and stretched) to determine muscle groups, and 2) examined the effect of static stretching on different muscle groups. Sixty-five college students performed isokinetic leg extensions at 5 speeds to test peak torque, following either a non-stretching or two passive static quadriceps stretching exercises. The peak torque and corresponding velocity were used to calculate the b constant. Data reduction consisted of calculating a Z score for each non-stretched and stretched b values. Individuals, whose non-stretched b constant was above or below one standard deviation of the Z score, were designated as the less curved (fast) and more curved (slow) groups, respectively. A paired t-test was used to analyze the pre and post intervention effect on b values for each group (p < 0.05). This study found passive static stretching significantly altered the b constant of the fast group, but no effect on slow group. Therefore, we suggest static stretching should be avoided immediately before fast or explosive activities in individuals using predominantly fast muscle fibers.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Humanos , Contração Muscular , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético , Músculo Quadríceps , Torque
16.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 258-267, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211318

RESUMO

Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral nerves to stretching. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching protocols on responses of peripheral nerves were retrieved for investigation. The NHLBI tool was used for quality assessment. Outcomes included nerve stiffness, nerve displacement, pain pressure thresholds and resistive torque. A total of 10 studies were considered eligible and were included in this investigation. The quality assessment of the studies revealed an overall "fair to good" methodological quality across the included studies. All studies except for one involved healthy participants. High heterogeneity of stretching protocols was retrieved. As a consequence of stretching, nerve stiffness (-15.6%) and pain pressure thresholds (-1.9kg) increased. Nerve displacements on each movement plane for all the considered nerves and nerve deformation were also frequently observed. Peripheral nerve responses to muscle stretching include decreased nerve stiffness and increased pain pressure thresholds. Nerve displacement also frequently occurs. It is still unclear if reduced nerve displacement may lead to clinical outcomes. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding peripheral nerve adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
17.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 492-499, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267589

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether the first sensation of stretching (ROMFSS) may predict the maximum range of motion (ROMMAX) in male (N = 37) and female (N = 32) volunteer subjects, and to assess the reliability of the ROM perceived by subjects in relation to a pre-determined ROM (ROM50%). Subjects attempted three experimental sessions with 48 hours between sessions 1 and 2 and 28 days between sessions 1 and 3. Within each session, five trials were performed with isokinetic equipment to assess posterior thigh muscle flexibility. The results revealed a strong and significant correlation between ROMMAX and ROMFSS for both sexes, females (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.92) and males (r = 0.91, p < 0.001; R 2 = 0.82). The accuracy of the model verified by the standard error of estimate (SEE) was high in the equations proposed for both female (SEE = 4.53%) and male (SEE = 5.45%). Our results revealed that ROMFSS may predict the ROMMAX for both male and female subjects. The ROMFSS may contribute to the development of evaluation methods that do not subject the individuals to conditions that may include unnecessary risk of injury and is well suited to monitor the training process of stretching exercises with submaximal loads.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Percepção/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Coxa da Perna
18.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 535-545, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267594

RESUMO

Although it is well known that both stretching and foam rolling can acutely increase the range of motion (ROM) and affect performance, the effects of a combined treatment (foam rolling and stretching) are not yet clear. Hence, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the combined effect to that of stretching or foam rolling alone on both ROM and performance. We assessed the effect of a combined treatment on ROM and compared it to the effect of stretching, foam rolling, and a control condition by applying a random-effect meta-analysis. We also applied the same model to compare the effect of the combined treatment on performance. Moreover, by applying a mixed-effect model, we performed subgroup analyses with the stretching technique, type of foam rolling, tested muscles, type of task, and the order of the combined treatment. We found a significant overall effect on ROM change when comparing the combined treatment with the control condition (effect size (ES) = -0.332); however, no significant effect was found when comparing it to stretching (ES = 0.032) or foam rolling alone (ES = -0.225). The meta-analysis revealed no significant overall effect on performance when the combined treatment was compared to stretching alone (ES = -0.029). However, the subgroup analysis for performance revealed a superior effect for the combined treatment compared to stretching alone, but only if foam rolling was followed by stretching (ES = -0.17), and not vice versa. Athletes do not have to combine stretching with foam rolling since no additional effect was observed. However, to increase performance, the combination of foam rolling followed by stretching can lead to greater improvements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Equipamentos Esportivos , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 60: 102569, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298283

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify the effective stretching positions for neck extensor muscles. Fifteen healthy men were measured shear moduli of the right neck extensor muscles using ultrasound shear wave elastography in following positions: rest (Rest), flexion (Flex), contralateral bending (Bend), flexion + contralateral bending (Flex â†’ Bend), flexion + contralateral bending + contralateral rotation (Flex â†’ Bend â†’ ConRot), and flexion + contralateral bending + ipsilateral rotation (Flex â†’ Bend â†’ IpsRot). The increase in the shear modulus indicated a greater muscle elongation. Regarding the upper trapezius and splenius capitis, the shear moduli at Flex â†’ Bend, Flex â†’ Bend â†’ ConRot, and Flex â†’ Bend â†’ IpsRot were significantly higher than those at Rest. The shear moduli at stretching positions, including contralateral bending, were significantly higher than those at Rest and Flex in the levator scapulae. The results indicated that the stretching position with a combination of flexion and contralateral bending could be effective for elongation of the upper trapezius and splenius capitis. Furthermore, the stretching positions including contralateral bending could be effective for the levator scapulae.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos do Pescoço , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassom
20.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 46(2): 69-74, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Passive muscle stretching is a common physical therapy for critically ill patients in the intensive care units. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of unilateral passive stretching of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) before and after surgery on blood volume (BV) in the contralateral (non-stretched) GM in patients who are sedated after surgery. METHODS: We enrolled eight patients with esophageal cancer. The patients completed two sessions of passive cyclical stretching (20-s hold, 10-s release, 10 cycles) of the right GM: one before surgery (awake) and one after (under sedation). We used near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the BV in the stretched and contralateral GM. BV kinetics were compared between the ipsilateral and contralateral GM. RESULTS: In seven of the eight patients, BV in the stretched GM decreased during stretching and increased during the stretch-relaxation phase, both before and after surgery. Both before and after surgery, the change in the BV in the contralateral GM was inversely synchronized to the stretching cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral passive stretching of the GM influenced the microcirculation of the contralateral GM. The mechanism underlying the synchronous change in the BV in the contralateral GM remains to be clarified.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Volume Sanguíneo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
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