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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132416, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600014

RESUMO

The healthcare community acknowledged that bio-medical wastes (BMWs) have reached a colossal level across the globe. The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has brought a deluge of contaminated waste which calls for an urgent need of treatment technology for its safe disposal. BMW generally undergoes a conservative treatment approach of incineration which in turn generates potentially toxic ash known as BMW ash. BMW ash, if directly dumped in landfill, leaches and further pollutes both land and groundwater. The present study deployed Brassica juncea [Indian Mustard (IM)], Chrysopogon zizanioides [Vetiver Grass (VG)], and Pistia stratiotes [Water Lettuce (WL)] to remediate toxicity of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) i.e., Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Mn, Co and Zn in BMW ash both in the presence and absence of chelate with an increased dosage of toxicity. The phyto-assessment results showed that IM extracted 202.2 ± 0.1-365.5 ± 0.02, 7.8 ± 0.03-12.5 ± 0.3, 132.1 ± 0.1-327.3 ± 0.1 and >100 mg kg-1 of Al, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively without the assistance of a chelating agent. The VG accumulated heavy metals in greater concentration up to 10.5 ± 0.1 and 290.1 ± 0.05 mg kg-1 of Cd and Zn, respectively, and similar trends were observed in the WL set-up. However, the application of an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) had also increased the efficiency on an average by 20-30% for IM, 35-45% for VG, and 25-35% for WL. The experimental set-up shows that the BCF for IM, VG and WL was found to be greater than 1 for most of the PTEs. The higher value of BCF resulted in a better ability to phytoextract the heavy metals from the soil. The results suggested that IM, VG and WL have the potential to phytoextract PTEs both in the absence and presence of chelating agents.


Assuntos
Araceae , COVID-19 , Vetiveria , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Quelantes , Humanos , Mostardeira , SARS-CoV-2 , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131901, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449323

RESUMO

Mustard waste briquettes are commercially used as a fuel for power production in boilers, whereas the thermal kinetics of the biomass plays a vital role in deciding the process parameters. The pyrolysis process converts biomass to value-added products such as biochar, bio-oil, and hydrocarbon gases based on the heating rates and temperature. To enhance the pyrolytic activity of mustard biomass, magnetically separable and reusable FeNi alloy catalyst is investigated. The thermo-conversion properties are studied under variable heating rates with 2 and 10% FeNi particles prepared through a facile chemical reduction technique. Thermal kinetics is computed using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FOW) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods. The activation energies calculated using FOW and KAS methods increase with FeNi addition in mustard while the calorific value decreases. The FeNi alloy particles with the spike-like morphology provide better metal-biomass binding resulting in higher activation energy and facilitates the easy decomposition of lignin. The 10% FeNi -mustard shows uniform conversion independent of heating rates, suitable for magnetically recoverable catalytic pyrolysis. Response surface methodology analysis predicts optimum conversion for 10% FeNi added mustard and less significance for the heating rates in concurrence with the experiments. Artificial neural network utilized to predict and validate mass loss for mustard biomass exhibits best fit for the three neural hidden layer and one output layered topology.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Níquel , Biomassa , Ferro , Cinética , Termogravimetria
3.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131398, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710679

RESUMO

The effects of yellow mustard (Brassica juncea) and its characteristic component allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the formation of 2-amino-y1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in roast beef patties and PhIP-producing model systems were investigated. The probable inhibitory pathways of AITC on PhIP formation were also investigated in the model systems. The results revealed that yellow mustard and AITC can reduce PhIP in roast beef patties up to 41.7% and 60.2%, respectively. The rate of inhibition of PhIP also reached 64.8% in the PhIP-producing model systems. Furthermore, AITC could react with creatinine and phenylalanine in the model system (reducing each by 15.0%%-23.7% and 31.4%-55.8%, respectively). AITC showed the great scavenging ability of free radical scavenging (up to 64.2%). AITC also reacted with the intermediate phenylacetaldehyde (16.9%-30.8%) and the final product PhIP (7.0%-24.6%). It is speculated that AITC can inhibit PhIP through competitive inhibition of precursors, blocking intermediate, free radical scavenging, and direct elimination of PhIP.


Assuntos
Imidazóis , Mostardeira , Animais , Bovinos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Isotiocianatos
4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3566-3572, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739808

RESUMO

Wide range of nanomaterial applications is helpful to promote sustainable agriculture to the point of nanolevel. With regard to this, biocompatible silica nanoparticles have been used as a nanopriming agent for enhancing seed germination in rabi crops like wheat, pea and mustard. The current study was carried out in a completely randomized block design with four replications. One part of nanosilica (8 g/L) and three parts of Gibberellic acid (GA3) loaded nano-silica (100 ppm, 125 ppm and 150 ppm) were used for the experimental purpose. The result showed positive significant effect of nanopriming with nano-silica and GA3 loaded nano-silica on seed germination percentage, shoot and root length, seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigour index-I and II at P ≤ 0.05. A comparative study on germination percentage for three of the cereal crops was done and calculated further. It was found to be higher as 91% in wheat, 91% in pea and 75% in mustard. This effect of nanopriming directly help in elevating the activity of α-amylase enzyme, resulting in higher concentration of soluble sugar content needed for supporting seed germination and growth of seedling. In this paper, the nanopriming-induced seed germination is proposed, including the creation of nanopores for enhanced water uptake, rebooting ROS/antioxidant systems in seeds, generation of hydroxyl radicals for cell wall loosening, and nano-catalyst to fasten starch hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Germinação , Plântula , Mostardeira , Ervilhas , Sementes , Dióxido de Silício , Triticum
5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3573-3579, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739809

RESUMO

High demand of food for rapidly increasing population requires novel but ecofriendly fertilizers. Green reducing and capping agents are being explored to minimize production cost and toxicity of chemicals in synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) which could be used to increase the production of crops and plants. In present research, Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced by employing an eco-friendly, simple and efficient green route using peel extract of Citrus reticulate. The optical properties of green synthesized ZnO NPs are explored by UV-Visible and Photoluminance spectroscopies where NPs presented 3.21 to 3.13 eV band gap. The morphology and purity of the ZnO NPs are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively. The spherical like ZnO NPs having 23-90 nm size exhibited hexagonal structure with 8.89 to 8.62 nm crystallite size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) explores the existence of specific functional groups which are responsible for stabilization, capping and reduction during synthesis of nanoparticles. The green synthesized ZnO NPs are tested for seed germination of Brassica nigra (black mustard) seeds at standard temperature and pressure. The activity shows that germination percentage of the Brassica nigra seeds is enhanced 100% and seedling vigor index 16.45 after treatment with ZnO NPs and can be controlled by the concentration of NPs. Therefore, it can be expected that ZnO NPs can serve as the cost effective and ecofriendly nano-fertilizers in agriculture.


Assuntos
Citrus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos , Germinação , Química Verde , Mostardeira , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13713-13723, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780155

RESUMO

The cultivation of Panax notoginseng is often seriously hindered by root rot disease caused by the accumulation of soil-borne pathogens. Here, the inhibitory activity of Brassica juncea volatiles on P. notoginseng root rot pathogens was assessed and compounds in volatiles were identified. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) were deciphered by integrated transcriptome and metabolome analyses. The volatiles of B. juncea showed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against root rot pathogens. AITC, identified as the main volatile compound, not only significantly inhibited pathogen growth in vitro but also suppressed root rot disease in the field. Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomics analysis revealed that AITC inhibited Fusarium solani by interfering with energy production and induced the accumulation of ROS by decreasing the content of glutathione (GSH). In summary, B. juncea releases AITC to inhibit soil-borne pathogens and could be used as a rotation crop or soil fumigant to alleviate root rot disease.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Fusarium , Isotiocianatos , Mostardeira , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
7.
Nat Plants ; 7(10): 1347-1353, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650263

RESUMO

Plants have evolved plastic defence strategies to deal with the uncertainty of when, by which species and in which order attack by herbivores will take place1-3. However, the responses to current herbivore attack may come with a cost of compromising resistance to other, later arriving herbivores. Due to antagonistic cross-talk between physiological regulation of plant resistance to phloem-feeding and leaf-chewing herbivores4-8, the feeding guild of the initial herbivore is considered to be the primary factor determining whether resistance to subsequent attack is compromised. We show that, by investigating 90 pairwise insect-herbivore interactions among ten different herbivore species, resistance of the annual plant Brassica nigra to a later arriving herbivore species is not explained by feeding guild of the initial attacker. Instead, the prevalence of herbivore species that arrive on induced plants as approximated by three years of season-long insect community assessments in the field explained cross-resistance. Plants maintained resistance to prevalent herbivores in common patterns of herbivore arrival and compromises in resistance especially occurred for rare patterns of herbivore attack. We conclude that plants tailor induced defence strategies to deal with common patterns of sequential herbivore attack and anticipate arrival of the most prevalent herbivores.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Herbivoria , Insetos/fisiologia , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Animais , Floema/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684752

RESUMO

Biogenic amines (BAs) and nitrites are both considered harmful compounds for customer health, and are closely correlated with the microorganisms in fermented mustard (FM). In this study, BAs and nitrite contents in fifteen FM samples from different brands were analyzed. The concentrations of cadaverine in one sample and of histamine in one sample were above the toxic level. Moreover, five FM samples contained a high level of nitrite, exceeding the maximum residue limit (20 mg/kg) suggested by the National Food Safety Standard. Then, this study investigated bacterial and fungal communities by high-throughput sequencing analysis. Firmicutes and Basidiomycota were identified as the major bacteria and fungi phylum, respectively. The correlations among microorganisms, BAs and nitrite were analyzed. Typtamine showed a positive correlation with Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. Cadaverine and nitrite is positively correlated with Leuconostoc. Furthermore, thirteen strains were selected from the samples to evaluate the accumulation and degradation properties of their BAs and nitrite. The results indicated that the Lactobacillus isolates, including L. plantarum GZ-2 and L. brevis SC-2, can significantly reduce BAs and nitrite in FM model experiments. This study not only assessed the contents of BAs and nitrite in FM samples, but also provided potential starter cultures for BAs and nitrite control in the FM products industry.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Nitritos/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/química , Reatores Biológicos , Cadaverina/toxicidade , China , Fermentação , Fungos/metabolismo , Histamina/toxicidade , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mostardeira/química , Nitritos/química
9.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1392-1402, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493868

RESUMO

Despite early domestication around 3000 BC, the evolutionary history of the ancient allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss remains uncertain. Here, we report a chromosome-scale de novo assembly of a yellow-seeded B. juncea genome by integrating long-read and short-read sequencing, optical mapping and Hi-C technologies. Nuclear and organelle phylogenies of 480 accessions worldwide supported that B. juncea is most likely a single origin in West Asia, 8,000-14,000 years ago, via natural interspecific hybridization. Subsequently, new crop types evolved through spontaneous gene mutations and introgressions along three independent routes of eastward expansion. Selective sweeps, genome-wide trait associations and tissue-specific RNA-sequencing analysis shed light on the domestication history of flowering time and seed weight, and on human selection for morphological diversification in this versatile species. Our data provide a comprehensive insight into the origin and domestication and a foundation for genomics-based breeding of B. juncea.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Mostardeira/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma de Planta/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555032

RESUMO

Abiotic stress, especially a lack of water, can significantly reduce crop yields. In this study, we evaluated the physiological and biochemical effects of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) fertilizer and varied irrigation regimes on the economically significant oilseed crop, Brassica juncea L, under open field conditions. Two cultivars (RH-725 and RH-749) of B. juncea were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with three replicates. Irrigation regimes consisted of a control (double irrigation: once at the 50% flowering and another at 50% fruiting stages), early irrigation (at 50% flowering only), late irrigation (at 50% fruiting only) and stress (no irrigation). The K2SO4 applications were: control (K0, no fertilization); K1, 10 kg ha-1; and K2, 20 kg ha-1. We measured growth via fresh and dry plant weight, plant height, root length, and leaf area. All the growth parameters were higher in RH-749. The physiological attributes, including the membrane stability index and relative water content, were higher at the 50% flowering stage in RH-749. The amount of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) was enhanced when both plants were fertilized during water stress. All of these enzymes had higher activity in RH-749. The total chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate were considerably higher in RH-749, which leaked fewer electrolytes and maintained a less destructive osmotic potential under limited water conditions. The results indicated that it is water-stress tolerant when given a high concentration of K2SO4, which alleviated the adverse effects of water stress on growth and physiology.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
11.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110622, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507766

RESUMO

Fermented vegetable flavors are closely associated with microbial metabolism. Here, shifts in flavor metabolites and their correlations to the structure and function of fermentative microbial communities were explored during the spontaneous fermentation process of potherb mustard (Brassica juncea var. multiceps), a traditionally fermented vegetable from China. Halophilic bacteria (HAB, i.e., Halomonas, Salinivibrio, and Vibrio) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB, i.e., Lactobacillus-related genera and Weissella) became highly abundant after potherb mustard fermentation. Further, HAB and LAB abundances exhibited significant, positive correlations with metabolites important in fermented potherb mustard flavoring (e.g., organic acids, amino acids, alcohols, aldehydes, and nitriles). Metagenomic analysis indicated that Halomonas, Salinivibrio, Weissella, and Lactobacillus-related genera were likely actively engaged in pyruvate metabolism (ko00620) and citrate cycle (TCA cycle, ko00020), leading to higher lactic and acetic acid concentrations, along with lower pH, which would affect levels of volatile isothiocyanates and nitriles that contribute to flavoring of fermented potherb mustard. Further, HAB and LAB were the primary populations inferred to be responsible for amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in addition to the biosynthesis of numerous volatile flavor compounds. This study highlights the predominance and importance of LAB and HAB during spontaneous fermentation of potherb mustard and provides new insights into their roles in this process.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Microbiota , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/genética , Metagenômica , Mostardeira/genética
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3810-3823, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342008

RESUMO

Roasting of mustard seeds prior to oil extraction is a well-documented unit operation essential to produce canolol and other lipophilic sinapates. This study investigated the effectiveness of air frying as a seed roasting treatment operation for enhancing the recovery of lipophilic sinapates from various mustard samples and fractions/products. Air frying of seeds, powder, cake, bran, and flour from different mustard varieties was carried out at temperature-time combinations of 160, 170, and 180°C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. Oil was extracted using the Soxtec method. Lipophilic sinapates were extracted from the oil using equal volumes of hexane to methanol 70% (v/v) and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the oils were also evaluated. The results showed a time-temperature dependency for the recovery of major oil-soluble sinapates in all mustard samples and fractions. The optimum air frying condition 180°C for 15 min produced the maximum yield of canolol as well as other unidentified oil-soluble sinapates (retention time (RT)-7.7, RT-11.50, RT-14.95, and RT-16.24 min). The oil from lower grade yellow mustard seeds (LGYMS) roasted at 180°C for 20 mins specifically had the highest TPC (3402.22 ± 58.79 mg GAE/g oil), while LGYMS oils generally showed better antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation) but were lower in metal ion chelating capacity. This information would be beneficial to the oil industry because air frying generated valuable canolol and other antioxidant lipophilic sinapates from mustard varieties and their fractions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A major limitation in the application of natural extracts in vegetable oils is the poor lipophilic nature of phenolic compounds. This study employed a new thermal treatment (air frying) in the recovery of canolol and other lipophilic antioxidants. Such treatments can enrich mustard-based ingredients with canolol and other lipophilic antioxidants for domestic and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Culinária , Ácidos Cumáricos , Mostardeira , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Mostardeira/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125722, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385127

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the pyrolysis of mustard straw (MS) in a thermogravimetric analyser and in a tubular reactor to recognize its bioenergy capability. The model free methods of Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Vyazovkin were employed for kinetic analysis and Coats-Redfern (CR) method for elucidating the reaction mechanism. Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design technique was employed to optimize the pyrolysis process parameters to gain maximum amount of bio-oil. The highest bio-oil yield (44.69%) was obtained at the heating rate of 25 °C/min and at 500 °C under inert condition (N2 gas flow rate = 100 ml/min). Further, FTIR and GCMS analysis of bio-oil revealed the presence of different functional groups and valuable chemicals, whereas physicochemical characterization revealed its fuel characteristic. The results confirmed the suitability of mustard straw as a feed-stock for obtaining a cleaner fuel and value added products.


Assuntos
Mostardeira , Pirólise , Cinética , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445145

RESUMO

The main goal of growing plants under various photoperiods is to optimize photosynthesis for using the effect of day length that often acts on plants in combination with biotic and/or abiotic stresses. In this study, Brassica juncea plants were grown under four different day-length regimes, namely., 8 h day/16 h night, 12 h day/12 h night, 16 h day/8 h night, and continuous light, and were infected with a necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The development of necroses on B. juncea leaves was strongly influenced by leaf position and day length. The largest necroses were formed on plants grown under a 16 h day/8 h night photoperiod at 72 h post-inoculation (hpi). The implemented day-length regimes had a great impact on leaf morphology in response to A. brassicicola infection. They also influenced the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and photosynthesis efficiency. Both the 1st (the oldest) and 3rd infected leaves showed significantly higher minimal fluorescence (F0) compared to the control leaves. Significantly lower values of other investigated chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, e.g., maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), were observed in both infected leaves compared to the control, especially at 72 hpi. The oldest infected leaf, of approximately 30% of the B. juncea plants, grown under long-day and continuous light conditions showed a 'green island' phenotype in the form of a green ring surrounding an area of necrosis at 48 hpi. This phenomenon was also reflected in changes in the chloroplast's ultrastructure and accelerated senescence (yellowing) in the form of expanding chlorosis. Further research should investigate the mechanism and physiological aspects of 'green islands' formation in this pathosystem.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/patologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Necrose/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 985-998, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265697

RESUMO

Effect of triacontanol on drought-induced stress was studied in Brassica juncea L. Foliage of sixteen-days-old plants was sprayed with concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 µM) of triacontanol (TRIA) for 7 days. Subsequently, plants were subjected to drought stress (10% polyethylene glycol, PEG6000) for 7 days. Drought stress increased oxidative stress (TBARS, O2●- and H2O2), however, their contents were reduced by TRIA. Total soluble sugars, reduced glutathione, and proline content in stressed plants were increased by TRIA. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner with TRIA. Potassium (K+) level declined, while magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+) contents increased. The elevated level of lignin under drought with TRIA was significantly associated with MYB46 and PAL gene expression patterns. Altogether, our results suggest that foliar spray of 20 µM TRIA was more operative in reducing the negative impact of drought stress in B. juncea by regulating the antioxidant system, calcium, and lignification.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Mostardeira , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Cálcio , Catalase/metabolismo , Secas , Álcoois Graxos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 339: 125631, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332178

RESUMO

Critical analysis of thermogravimetric data, characterization of the biomass, and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses are crucial in the design of efficient biomass pyrolysis systems. In this study, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic analysis was performed for pyrolysis of mustard oil residue (MOR). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with differential thermal analysis (DTA) was applied to study thermal decomposition behaviour of MOR at 10, 20, and 30 °C/min. FTIR and XRD analyses were used to characterize MOR. Average activation energy estimated from employed isoconversional methods was ≈155 kJ/mol. Variation in activation energy was found to be statistically insignificant as suggested by p-value of 0.992 by one-way ANOVA method. The pyrolytic temperature for MOR ranged from 234 to 417 °C. Reaction mechanism predicted as R3 (third order) and D3 (three dimensional). Thermodynamic parameters (ΔHα, ΔGα, and ΔSα) showed that endothermicity increased from 0.2 to 0.8 conversion and product had highest energy at 0.8 conversion.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Biomassa , Cinética , Mostardeira , Óleos Vegetais , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281271

RESUMO

The allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (mustard) is grown worldwide as oilseed and vegetable crops; the yellow seed-color trait is particularly important for oilseed crops. Here, to examine the factors affecting seed coat color, we performed a metabolic and transcriptomic analysis of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea seeds. In this study, we identified 236 compounds, including 31 phenolic acids, 47 flavonoids, 17 glucosinolates, 38 lipids, 69 other hydroxycinnamic acid compounds, and 34 novel unknown compounds. Of these, 36 compounds (especially epicatechin and its derivatives) accumulated significantly different levels during the development of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea. In addition, the transcript levels of BjuDFR, BjuANS,BjuBAN, BjuTT8, and BjuTT19 were closely associated with changes to epicatechin and its derivatives during seed development, implicating this pathway in the seed coat color determinant in B. juncea. Furthermore, we found numerous variations of sequences in the TT8A genes that may be associated with the stability of seed coat color in B. rapa, B. napus, and B. juncea, which might have undergone functional differentiation during polyploidization in the Brassica species. The results provide valuable information for understanding the accumulation of metabolites in the seed coat color of B. juncea and lay a foundation for exploring the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(10): 3167-3181, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269830

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Disomic alien chromosome addition Brassica carinata lines with super-high erucic acid content were developed through interspecific hybridization with B. juncea and characterized using molecular, cytological and biochemical techniques. Brassica carinata [A.] Braun (BBCC, 2n = 34) is a climate-resilient oilseed. Its seed oil is high in erucic acid (> 40%), rendering it well suited for the production of biofuel and other bio-based applications. To enhance the competitiveness of B. carinata with high erucic B. napus (HEAR), lines with super-high erucic acid content were developed through interspecific hybridization. To this end, a fad2B null allele from Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n = 36) was introgressed into B. carinata, resulting in a B. carinata fad2B mutant with erucic acid levels of over 50%. Subsequently, the FAE allele from B. rapa spp. yellow sarson (AA, 2n = 20) was transferred to the fad2B B. carinata line, yielding lines with erucic acid contents of up to 57.9%. Molecular analysis using the Brassica 90 K Illumina Infinium™ SNP genotyping array identified these lines as disomic alien chromosome addition lines, with two extra A08 chromosomes containing the BrFAE gene. The alien chromosomes from B. rapa were clearly distinguished by molecular cytogenetics in one of the addition lines. Analysis of microspore-derived offspring and hybrids from crosses with a CMS B. carinata line showed that the transfer rate of the A08 chromosome into male gametes was over 98%, resulting in almost completely stable transmission of an A08 chromosome copy into the progeny. The increase in erucic acid levels was accompanied by changes in the proportions of other fatty acids depending on the genetic changes that were introduced in the interspecific hybrids, providing valuable insights into erucic acid metabolism in Brassica.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Hibridização Genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Ácidos Erúcicos/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 163-180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270011

RESUMO

Brassica carinata, also known as Ethiopian or Abyssinian mustard, is a drought- and heat-tolerant oilseed with great potential as a dedicated industrial feedstock crop for use in biofuel and other bio-based applications. Doubled haploid technology, a system that allows for the rapid development of doubled haploid, completely homozygous plants through microspore embryogenesis, has been applied routinely in both B. carinata breeding and basic research. Here, we present a comprehensive isolated microspore culture protocol detailing the various steps involved in doubled haploid plant production for this species, from growing donor plants over harvesting flower buds and isolating, culturing and inducing microspores to regenerating doubled haploid embryos and plantlets.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mostardeira/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
20.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(3): 73-78, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219099

RESUMO

The main component of the Mustard and Horseradish extracts, which are used as natural food additives in Japan, is allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). The determination of AITC using GC-FID is the official method employed in the quality control assessments for these products. In this method, a commercially available AITC reagent is used as a calibrant. However, 1H-quantitative NMR (qNMR) analysis revealed that the AITC reagents contain impurity. Therefore, we examined the GC-FID and HPLC-refractive index detector (LC-RID) method based on relative molar sensitivities (RMSs) to high-purity single reference (SR). The RMSs of AITC/SR under the GC-FID and LC-RID conditions were accurately determined using qNMR. The AITC in two types of food additives was quantified using qNMR, SR GC-FID, and SR LC-RID methods. Both SR GC-FID and SR LC-RID showed good agreement within 2% with the AITC content determined by direct qNMR.


Assuntos
Armoracia , Mostardeira , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Isotiocianatos , Japão , Dente Molar/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise
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