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2.
Med Mycol ; 60(12)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477206

RESUMO

The gold standard for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections caused by filamentous fungi remains the visualization of fungal elements in fluids, and biopsy/tissue collected from a normally sterile body site. Parallel recovery of viable fungus from the sample subsequently permits antifungal susceptibility testing of the individual isolate. Central to both processes is the appropriate processing of tissue specimens to avoid damaging fungal elements and optimize viable organism recovery. Historically, mycologists have proposed that homogenization (grinding or bead-beating) of tissue should be avoided in cases of suspected fungal infection as it likely damages hyphae, instead preferring to chop tissue into small portions (dicing) for direct microscopic examination and culture. Here, we have compared the two processes directly on material from clinical patient cases of mucoromycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Representative portions of fresh biopsy samples were processed in parallel either by chopping (dicing) in the mycology reference laboratory or by bead-beating in the adjoining general microbiology laboratory. Aliquots of the samples were then cultured under identical conditions and subjected to direct microscopic examination. The results demonstrated that tissue homogenization significantly reduced (i) organism recovery rates in cases of both mucoromycosis and invasive aspergillosis and (ii) the number of fungal elements detectable upon direct microscopic examination. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly compare these alternative processing methods and despite only employing a limited number of samples the data presented here, provide support for the perceived mycological wisdom that homogenization of tissue samples should be avoided when filamentous fungal infections are suspected.


The gold standard for diagnosis of fungal infections remains the visualization of fungal elements in samples from usually sterile sites. Here we show that certain methods employed for processing biopsy samples significantly impact the ability to detect and grow fungi from genuine cases of infection.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Micologia , Animais , Microscopia/veterinária
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 822, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is seen during coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19), has been reported in different incidences, and is defined as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Detection of galactomannan antigen is an important diagnostic step in diagnosing IPA. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is the most frequently used method, and lateral flow assay (LFA) is increasingly used with high sensitivity and specificity for rapid diagnosis. The present study aimed to compare the sensitivity of LFA and ELISA in the diagnosis of CAPA in COVID-19 patients followed in our hospital's ICU for pandemic (ICU-P). METHODS: This study included patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and were followed up in ICU-P between August 2021 and February 2022 with acute respiratory failure. The diagnosis of CAPA was based on the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 2020 (ECMM/ ISHAM) guideline. Galactomannan levels were determined using LFA and ELISA in serum samples taken simultaneously from the patients. RESULTS: Out of the 174 patients followed in the ICU-P, 56 did not meet any criteria for CAPA and were excluded from the analysis. The rate of patients diagnosed with proven CAPA was 5.7% (10 patients). A statistically significant result was obtained with LFA for the cut-off value of 0.5 ODI in the diagnosis of CAPA (p < 0.001). The same significant statistical relationship was found for the cut-off value of 1.0 ODI for the ELISA (p < 0.01). The sensitivity of LFA was 80% (95% CI: 0.55-1.05, p < 0.05), specificity 94% (95% CI: 0.89-0.98, p < 0.05); PPV 53% (95% CI: 0.28-0.79, p > 0.05) and NPV was 98% (95% CI: 0.95-1.01, p < 0.05). The risk of death was 1.66 (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.02-2.86, p < 0.05) times higher in patients with an LFA result of ≥ 0.5 ODI than those with < 0.5 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It is reckoned that LFA can be used in future clinical practice, particularly given its effectiveness in patients with hematological malignancies and accuracy in diagnosing CAPA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Micologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5352, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097014

RESUMO

Prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, antibiotic resistance was listed as the major global health care priority. Some analyses, including the O'Neill report, have predicted that deaths due to drug-resistant bacterial infections may eclipse the total number of cancer deaths by 2050. Although fungal infections remain in the shadow of public awareness, total attributable annual deaths are similar to, or exceeds, global mortalities due to malaria, tuberculosis or HIV. The impact of fungal infections has been exacerbated by the steady rise of antifungal drug resistant strains and species which reflects the widespread use of antifungals for prophylaxis and therapy, and in the case of azole resistance in Aspergillus, has been linked to the widespread agricultural use of antifungals. This review, based on a workshop hosted by the Medical Research Council and the University of Exeter, illuminates the problem of antifungal resistance and suggests how this growing threat might be mitigated.


Assuntos
Micoses , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Micologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Med Mycol ; 60(9)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073757

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and medical mycology receive little attention in Ghana. However, the present evolution of biomarker assays for IFIs, offers an opportunity for an increased access to fungal laboratory testing in resource-limited settings, and probably make a case for availability of essential antifungal agents. Using surveys and personal communications, the state of medical mycology and IFI in Ghana were highlighted. Inadequate awareness and insufficient access to fungal diagnostics and therapeutics were identified as the key challenges, the establishment of the Ghana Medical Mycology Society was discussed, and recommendations were made to improve the status quo.


Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) receive little attention in Ghana, despite its growing relevance globally. Using surveys and personal communications, the main challenges were identified, and the formation of the Ghana Medical Mycology Society was discussed as a tool to improve the status quo.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Micologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Gana , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2579: 169-179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045206

RESUMO

The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a genetically tractable model organism for cell cycle and molecular genetics research. We describe methods to synchronize S. pombe cultures, and the benefits and limitations of each. Drug-induced synchrony is a convenient method to arrest the cell cycle. An example of the drug hydroxyurea is shown, which arrests cells in S-phase. Environmental modulation through media composition or growth conditions may also be used to synchronize cultures, most commonly with nitrogen depletion to arrest in G1-phase. Finally, examples of temperature-sensitive conditional alleles are shown which arrest the cell cycle at key transition points. Each of these methods must be assessed relative to the desired effect and the process being studied, providing the best synchrony with the fewest off-target effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe , Schizosaccharomyces , Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Micologia/métodos , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 891, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045217

RESUMO

As the nutrient quality changes, the fractions of ribosomal proteins in the proteome are usually positively correlated with the growth rates due to the auto-catalytic nature of ribosomes. While this growth law is observed across multiple organisms, the relation between the ribosome fraction and growth rate is often more complex than linear, beyond models assuming a constant translation speed. Here, we propose a general framework of protein synthesis considering heterogeneous translation speeds and protein degradations. We demonstrate that the growth law curves are generally environment-specific, e.g., depending on the correlation between the translation speeds and ribosome allocations among proteins. Our predictions of ribosome fractions agree quantitatively with data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, we find that the growth law curve of Escherichia coli nevertheless appears universal, which we prove must exhibit an upward bending in slow-growth conditions, in agreement with experiments. Our work provides insights on the connection between the heterogeneity among genes and the environment-specificity of cell behaviors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ribossômicas , Ribossomos , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Micologia/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
10.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 56(3): 493-505, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960240

RESUMO

The incidence of fungal infections particularly Candida species, is increasing gradually as a result of the increased life expectancy associated with the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and increased number of patients in the risk group over the years. In addition, the incidence of fungal infection types that are resistant to antifungal drugs has been increasing, and rare fungal species have been reported to be isolated more frequently. For this reason, it is indicated that identification to the species level will contribute to the early initiation of an accurate and effective treatment. In this study, it was aimed to define the Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens and to document the performance of antifungal sensitivity tests. The Candida isolates sent to the central mycology laboratory in 2019 for identification and antifungal susceptibility tests were included in the study. The definition of the fungi to the species level was carried out using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of fl ight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and conventional methods. In vitro antifungal drug susceptibilities were analyzed using the The Clinical and Laboratory Standarts Institute (CLSI, M27-A3) reference broth microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were interpreted in accordance with the species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs) cited in the CLSI-M60 guidelines, and according to the epidemiological cut-off value (ECV) when no CBP was mentioned. The distribution of the species of the total 813 Candida isolates included in the study were as follows: Candida albicans (n= 312 ), Candida parapsilosis (n= 202), Candida tropicalis (n= 92), Candida glabrata (n= 71), Candida dubliniensis (n=28), Candida lusitaniae (n= 26), Candida kefyr (n= 22), Candida utilis (n= 17), Candida krusei (n= 14), Candida orthopsilosis (n= 7), Candida inconspicua (n= 7), Candida guilliermondii (n= 5), Candida metapsilosis (n= 4), Candida norvegensis (n= 4), Candida lambica (n= 1) and Candida lipolytica (n= 1). The evaluation of the results of the antifungal susceptibility tests according to the CBPs revealed that one C.albicans isolate and 60 C.parapsilosis (29.7%) isolates were resistant, and seven C.parapsilosis (3.5%) isolates were dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole; 32 C.parapsilosis (15.8%) isolates were intermediately susceptible to voriconazole; one C.parapsilosis (0.5%) was resistant and one C.krusei (7.1%) was intermediately susceptible to anidulafungin; and one C.parapsilosis (0.5%) was resistant and one C.krusei (7.1%) isolate was intermediately susceptible to micafungin. In terms of ECVs, one C.lusitaniae isolate for fluconazole and one of each C.lusitaniae and C.kefyr isolates were evaluated as a non-wild type. In the present study, 61 of 813 isolates were found to be resistant to fluconazole and seven were dose dependently susceptible, 32 were intermediately susceptible to voriconazole, one was resistant to anidulafungin, one was intermediately susceptible, and one was resistant to micafungin and one was intermediately susceptible to micafungin. In conclusion, the increased number of non- albicans Candida species and increased levels of resistance to antifungal drugs further establish the importance of early diagnosis at a species level alongside antifungal susceptibility tests.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Fluconazol , Anidulafungina/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Micafungina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
11.
Pathology ; 54(7): 922-927, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931494

RESUMO

This study aimed to validate the performance of the custom formulated Sensititre YeastOne One (SYO) microdilution plate which includes isavuconazole (AUSNMRC1) to perform susceptibility testing on clinically relevant yeast and mould species across three Australian reference laboratories. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were compared with the IVD approved SYO YO10 microdilution plate and isavuconazole gradient strips. A total of 127 isolates were tested on both the YO10 and AUSNMRC1 plates. The overall essential agreement (EA) and categorical agreement (CA) for the eight common drugs was 99.9% and 98.8%, respectively. The EA was 96.9% for the isavuconazole MICs obtained using the AUSNMRC1 plate and gradient strip. The MIC results for all nine antifungals on the AUSNMRC1 panel were highly reproducible for all quality control and reference strains and the overall EA and CA for 45 clinical strains tested across all three participating laboratories were >93% and 94.1%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the SYO AUSNMRC1 plate provides a commercial means to determine isavuconazole MICs by broth microdilution testing.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Micologia , Laboratórios , Austrália , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
12.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 2(1)2022 03 31.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685835

RESUMO

Since the end of the 1990s, we have witnessed a slow evolution in France leading to the disappearance of disciplines related to tropical diseases. At the hospital level, this is reflected by the progressive inclusion of clinical services dedicated to the treatment of infectious and tropical diseases within an infectious diseases or internal medicine pole, and, in medical biology, by the replacement of parasitological biologists having acquired a specialization in mycology, by mycological biologists having acquired a specialization in parasitology. This orientation may seem normal, the reduction of skills in parasitological and clinical diagnosis being linked to the success of hygiene and food control measures, which have led to the virtual disappearance, in our country, of autochthonous parasitic diseases such as fasciolosis, taeniasis, or amoebiasis. Priority is therefore given to mycology, especially respiratory infections, which are predominant in protected and aging populations. However, should this be done at the expense of diagnostic and treatment skills for diseases affecting populations in countries with limited resources?


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias , Medicina Tropical , África , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Micologia
13.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(6): e464-e470, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659908

RESUMO

Africa, although not unique in this context, is a favourable environment for fungal infections, given the high burden of risk factors. An online survey was developed asking about laboratory infrastructure and antifungal drug availability. We received 40 responses (24·4% response rate) of 164 researchers contacted from 21 African countries. Only five institutions (12·5%) of 40 located in Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, and Uganda potentially fulfilled the minimum laboratory requirements for European Confederation of Medical Mycology Excellence Centre blue status. Difficulties included low access to susceptibility testing for both yeasts and moulds (available in only 30% of institutions) and Aspergillus spp antigen detection (available in only 47·5% of institutions as an in-house or outsourced test), as well as access to mould-active antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B deoxycholate (available for 52·5% of institutions), itraconazole (52·5%), voriconazole (35·0%), and posaconazole (5·0%). United and targeted efforts are crucial to face the growing challenges in clinical mycology.


Assuntos
Micologia , Micoses , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Nigéria
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 2505-2533, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677678

RESUMO

In today's time, nanotechnology is being utilized to develop efficient products in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The application of nanotechnology in transforming bioactive material into nanoscale products substantially improves their biocompatibility and enhances their effectiveness, even when used in lower quantities. There is a significant global market potential for these nanoparticles because of which research teams around the world are interested in the advancements in nanotechnology. These recent advances have shown that fungi can synthesize metallic nanoparticles via extra- and intracellular mechanisms. Moreover, the chemical and physical properties of novel metallic nanoparticles synthesised by fungi are improved by regulating the surface chemistry, size, and surface morphology of the nanoparticles. Compared to chemical synthesis, the green synthesis of nanoparticles offers a safe and sustainable approach for developing nanoparticles. Biosynthesised nanoparticles can potentially enhance the bioactivities of different cellular fractions, such as plant extracts, fungal extracts, and metabolites. The nanoparticles synthesised by fungi offer a wide range of applications. Recently, the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using fungi has become popular, and various ways are being explored to maximize nanoparticles synthesis. This manuscript reviews the characteristics and applications of the nanoparticles synthesised using the different taxa of fungi. The key focus is given to the applications of these nanoparticles in medicine and cosmetology.


Assuntos
Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Fungos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Micologia , Nanotecnologia
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(9): 1288.e1-1288.e7, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many factors influence the outcome of in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST), including endpoint definition, inoculum sizes, time and temperature of incubation, and growth medium used. This European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) Excellence center driven study investigated multiple colony testing (MCT) of five separate colonies to investigate the prevalence of polyresistance (PR), defined as heterogeneous MICs from a same-species Candida culture irrespective of the underlying resistance mechanism. METHODS: Candida spp. MCT for fluconazole and anidulafungin was performed by Etest prospectively comprising 405 clinical samples. MCT results were compared to the real-life routine MIC data and PR was assessed. Candida colonies displaying strong PR were selected for genotyping using multilocus sequence typing and random amplified polymorphic DNA assays for C. lusitaniae. RESULTS: Candida PR was observed in 33 of 405 samples (8.1%), with higher rates for non-albicans species (26/186, 14%) than for C. albicans (7/219, 3.2%), and for fluconazole than for anidulafungin. MCT detected acquired resistance more often than routine AFST (18/405, 4.5%) and 9 of the 161 investigated blood cultures showed PR (5.6%). Multilocus sequence typing and random amplified polymorphic DNA did not reveal a uniform genetic correlate in strains studied. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that Candida single MIC-values obtained in routine diagnostics may be incidental, as they fail to detect PR and resistant subpopulations reliably. The reasons for PR seem to be manifold and should be regarded as a phenotypical expression of genomic variability irrespective of the underlying resistance mechanism, which may help to interpret ambiguous and non-reproducible AFST results.


Assuntos
Candida , Fluconazol , Anidulafungina , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/genética , Candida albicans , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micologia
16.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(2): 689-707, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344203

RESUMO

Diagnosis by clinical mycology laboratory plays a critical role in patient care by providing definitive knowledge of the cause of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility data to physicians. Rapid diagnostic methods are likely to improve patient. Aggressive resuscitation bundles, adequate source control, and appropriate antibiotic therapy are cornerstones for success in the treatment of patients. Routine methods for identifying clinical specimen fungal pathogen are based on the cultivation on different media with the subsequent examination of its phenotypic characteristics comprising a combination of microscopic and colony morphologies. As some fungi cannot be readily identified using these methods, molecular diagnostic methods may be required. These methods are fast, but it can cost a lot. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs. It can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a microbiological laboratory. The reliability and accuracy of this method have been scrutinized in many surveys and have been compared with several methods including sequencing and molecular methods. According to these findings, the reliability and accuracy of this method are very high and can be trusted. With all the benefits of this technique, the libraries of MALDI-TOF MS need to be strengthened to enhance its performance. This review provides an overview of the most recent research literature that has investigated the applications and usage of MT-MS to the identification of microorganisms, mycotoxins, antifungal susceptibility examination, and mycobiome research.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Micologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321555

RESUMO

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Aspergillus , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , COVID-19/complicações , Estado Terminal , Galactose/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Mananas , Micologia , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(6): 1508-1524, 2022 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301533

RESUMO

Invasive fungal disease (IFD) remains a common and serious complication in children treated for leukaemia. Antifungal prescription in children with leukaemia presents unique challenges, particularly due to variation in IFD risk between and within leukaemia treatment protocols, drug toxicities and interactions between antifungals and chemotherapeutic agents. With recent advances in the understanding of IFD epidemiology and large clinical trials in adults assessing antifungals for IFD treatment and prophylaxis, together with paediatric clinical and pharmacokinetic studies, there is a growing body of data to inform optimal antifungal use in children. A panel of infectious diseases and haematology-oncology clinicians with expertise in IFD management compiled a list of 10 key clinical questions following development of the 2021 Australia and New Zealand Mycology Antifungal Consensus Guidelines. A focused literature review was conducted to explore available evidence and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research. With the changing epidemiology of IFD globally, the ongoing evolution of paediatric leukaemia treatment and the increasing availability of novel antifungal agents, advocacy for paediatric clinical studies will remain vital to optimize IFD prevention and treatment in children with leukaemia.


Assuntos
Hematologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Micologia
19.
Med Mycol J ; 63(1): 11-15, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228480

RESUMO

In clinical settings, the number of immune compromised patients have increased as a result of developments in medical technology (e.g., organ transplantation, anticancer drugs, steroids, TNF inhibitors, etc.). However, patients with fungal diseases are also increasing globally. In recent years, the distribution and pathogenicity of fungi worldwide have been changing, with reports that new fungi are emerging, and antifungal-resistant fungi are spreading globally. Global warming, globalization, human activities, and other factors have been suggested as contributing to the emergence of new fungi. Some of the antifungals against which resistant fungi have emerged are commonly used not only for human but also for animal health care and crop protection. Consequently, the occurrence of antifungal-resistant fungi has become a clinical issue. Solving these problems entails continuing the "One Health" approach, which in turn requires updating medical mycology information with regard to the emerging pathogenic fungi. In particular, this paper reviews the recent information on Cryptococcus gattii, Candia auris, and azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus , Azóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micologia
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